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Detail Arrangement: Artist Nationality - Single Artist - Auction - All
George Morland
Pigs in a Fodder Yard, 1763–1804
W. [Woldemar] Hottenroth
Donkeys and Dogs—The Interesting Family, 1802–94
W. J. [William Jacob] Hays
Rocky Mountain Hares, 1830–75
Eugène Verboeckhoven
Sheep leaving a Shed, 1798–1881
Eugène Verboeckhoven
Sheep with Lambs, 1798–1881
Z. Weisser
The Young Bull, dates unknown
W. [Woldemar] Hottenroth
View of Tivoli, 1804–88
J. L. E. [Johann Ludwig Ernst] Morgenstern
Interior of a Church, 1738–1819
Sir Edwin Landseer
A Landscape—Sunset , 1802–73
William Mulready
A Picturesque Cottage on the Bank of a River, 1786–1863
Henry Inman
View of Dundrennan Abbey near Kirkcudbright, 1801–46
Frederic E. [Edwin] Church
Cotopaxi , 1826–1900
Thomas Clark
View of Kirkcudbright, 1820–76
Major George Colomb
The Mill House, near Kirkcudbright, 1787–1874
S. F. B. [Samuel Finley Breese] Morse
Portrait of La Fayette, 1791–1872
Ferdinand De Braekeleer the Elder
La Chûte imprévue (The Unexpected Fall), 1792–1883
Major George Colomb
View of Plympton [or Plymouth] Castle, 1787–1874
Peter [Patrick] Nasmyth
A Woody Landscape, with Mountains in the Distance, 1787–1831
John Constable
A Rustic Landscape, with a Rainbow, 1776–1837
John Constable
Cottage on a River—“The Valley Farm”, 1776–1837
G. [Giambattista] Bassi
Falls of Terni, 1784–1852
Thomas Gainsborough
A Romantic Woody Landscape, with a Peasant and Two Horses Crossing a Pool of Water, and Sheep on a Rising Ground, 1727–88
Major George Colomb
The Mill House, near Kirkcudbright, 1787–1874
Asher Brown Durand
Ruloff Jansen’s Kill, 1796–1886
Albert Bierstadt
Valley of the Yo Semite, California, 1830–1902
John Frederick Kensett
Coast Scene  , 1816–72
J. B. Tom
Landscape—The Cow Drinking, dates unknown
[François] Aug. [Auguste] Ortmans
A Storm in a Wood—With Deer by E. Verboeckhoven, 1827–84; 1798–1881
Joseph Mallord William Turner
A Scene on the French Coast, with an English Ship-of-War Stranded, 1775–1851
Thomas Cole
Expulsion from Paradise, 1801–48
P. [Peter] Paton
View of Dalskairth, near Dumfries (1830), fl. ca. 1840–50
Henry Inman
Dismissal of a Village School on an October Afternoon, 1801–46
Engraved by J. [James] T. Willmore
The Old Téméraire, (1800–63)
F. R. [Frederick Richard] Lee
Mill on the River Teign, near Crediton, Devonshire, 1798–1879
Jacob Ruysdael [van Ruisdael]
Landscape, 1628–82
Sir David Wilkie
Five Works, 1785–1841
Thomas Clark
View of Port Mary, near Kirkcudbright, Where Queen Mary Embarked for England, 1820–76
A. [Adriaen Hendriksz] Verboom
Landscape, 1627/28–73
Unknown
Portrait of John Bunyan, dates unknown
Solomon [Salomon van] Ruysdael
Landscape, 1600/03?–70
Ferdinand De Braekeleer the Elder
“Le Comte de Mi-Carême.” Mid-Lent in a School , 1792–1883
John Trumbull
Portrait of a Gentleman [Robert Lenox], 1756–1843
G. [Godfried] Schalcken
A Girl Holding a Candle, 1643–1706
[Paolo] Vallati
A Boar Hunt on the Campagna, dates unknown
Constant Wauters
La Marguerite (The Daisy), 1826–53
M. [Martin] Verstappen
Grotto of Neptune, Tivoli, 1773–1853
H. [possibly Hubert] Salentin
The Reception of a Young Prince, 1822–1910
Copley Wilson
View near Bonmont, Switzerland. Part of the Jura Mountains in the Distance, dates unknown
Paul Delaroche
The Field of Battle , 1797–1856
Unknown artist
Tobit and the Angel, dates unknown
Carl [Wilhelm] Hübner
The First Grandchild, 1814–79
Rembrandt Peale
Portrait of George Washington, 1778–1860
John Jackson
Portrait of Edmund Burke, 1778–1831
Rembrandt Peale
Portrait of George Washington, 1778–1860
Constant Wauters
L’Espagnol (The Spaniard), 1826–53
A. E. [Alfred Edward] Chalon
Head of a Lady , 1780–1860
Gilbert Stuart
Portrait of George Washington, 1755–1828
Gilbert Stuart
Portrait of Mr. [John] Campbell, of Jamaica, 1816, 1755–1828
Gilbert Stuart
Portrait of a Lady [Isabella Henderson Lenox], 1755–1828
Sir Edwin Landseer
Study of a White Horse, 1802–73
Charles R. [Robert] Leslie
Portrait of Washington Irving, 1794–1859
Charles R. [Robert] Leslie
Portrait of a Lady, 1794–1859
Henry Inman
Portrait of Dr. Thos. Chalmers, 1801–1846
John Wesley Jarvis
Portrait of a Gentleman [Robert Lenox], 1780–1840
John Singleton Copley
Portrait of Lady Frances Deering Wentworth, 1738–1815
Daniel Huntington
Alexander Hamilton, 1816–1906
Gilbert Stuart Newton
The Greek Girl, 1795–1835
David Roberts
Part of the Church of St. Jacques—Dieppe, 1796–1864
J. R. [John Rogers] Herbert
Francesca—From Danté , 1810–90
Daniel Huntington
Christopher Columbus, 1816–1906
Unknown
Portrait of Oliver Cromwell, dates unknown
J. B. [Jean-Baptiste] Madou
La Vivandière au Corps de Garde (A Female Provisioner at the Guardhouse), 1796–1877
Michael [Mihály] Munkácsy
Blind Milton Dictating Paradise Lost to His Daughters, 1844–1900
Unknown
Portrait of Ram Dololl Day, of Calcutta,
Unknown
Portrait of John Milton, dates unknown
Gilbert Stuart Newton
The Dull Lecture, 1795–1835
Sir David Wilkie
The Crown of Scotland—On a Cushion, 1785–1841
Pierre [Petrus] van Schendel
Le Marché aux poissons, au clair de lune (The Fish Market, by Moonlight), 1806–70
Ferdinand De Braekeleer the Elder
La Balançoire (The See-Saw), 1792–1883
Sir David Wilkie
Original sketch of part of the Blind-Man’s Buff, 1785–1841
John Vanderlyn
The Mother of the Demoniac Boy. From the Transfiguration, 1775–1852
Robert Edge Pine
Portrait of David Garrick , 1730–88
Unknown
Portrait of John Calvin, dates unknown
John Singleton Copley
Portrait of Mrs. Robert Hooper (“King Hooper”), of Marblehead, Mass. [Hannah White Cowell], 1738–1815
Jesse Talbot
View on the North River, near Newburgh, 1806–79
Unknown
Chinese Painting (Pair), dates unknown
[Émile Jean-] Horace Vernet
The Siege of Saragossa, 1789–1863
G. F. Hamilton
A Storm off the Island of Capri, in the Mediterranean, dates unknown
C. Lavalé
View of Tivoli, the Villa of Mæcenas and the Campagna, dates unknown
Sir Joshua Reynolds
A Boy in a Red Velvet Dress Leaning Forwards on a Green Cushion, Holding Pen and Paper in His Hand , 1723–92
Sir Joshua Reynolds
Mrs. Billington as Saint Cecilia , 1723–92
Sir Henry Raeburn
Portrait of Lady Belhaven, 1756–1823
Sir Joshua Reynolds
Portrait of Miss Kitty Fisher—With Doves, 1723–92
Sir Francis Grant
Portrait of a Gentleman [James Lenox], 1803–1878
Unknown
Market Scene in Holland, dates unknown
[Ignacio de] Leon y Escosura
The Parrot Dealer, at the Château of Blois, in the Time of Louis XIII , 1834–1901
Unknown
Portrait of a Gentleman [David Sproat], dates unknown
William S. [Sidney] Mount
The Turn of the Leaf , 1807–68
Pierre [Petrus] van Schendel
Le Marché aux légumes au clair de lune (The Vegetable Market by Moonlight) , 1806–70
Pedro de Vega [Pedro Vega y Muñoz]
Picador in a Spanish Wine Shop, 1840–68
Daniel Huntington
Female Head—Melancholy, 1816–1906
Charles R. [Robert] Leslie
The Mother's Return to her Child , 1794–1859
Charles R. [Robert] Leslie
The Pharisee and the Publican , 1794–1859
Rembrandt Peale
Copy of the Madonna della Seggiola (Madonna of the Chair), 1778–1860
Charles R. [Robert] Leslie
Our Savior Teaching His Disciples a Lesson of Humility , 1794–1859
Thomas Webster
The Race, 1800–86
Thomas Webster
The Return from the Fair, 1800–86
David Blas [Probably David Bles, a painter from The Hague]
Lesson in Anatomy, 1821–99
Henry Inman
Heads of Children. Altered from Reynolds, 1801–46
Charles R. [Robert] Leslie
The Reading Lesson. From an Etching by Raffaelle [Raphael], 1794–1859
Charles R. [Robert] Leslie
Martha and Mary, 1794–1859
Le Brun
The Age of Innocence. Copy after Reynolds, dates unknown
Ferdinand De Braekeleer the Elder
La Souris Echappée (The Escaped Mouse), 1792–1883
Edouard Zamacois [Eduardo Zamacois y Zabala]
The Court Fool. Portrait of the Painter , 1841–71
Unknown
Abraham and Hagar, dates unknown
John G. [Gatsby] Chapman
The First Italian Milestone, 1808–89
Ferdinand De Braekeleer the Elder
Le Politique (Politics), 1792–1883
José Jimenez [Jiménez] y Aranda
A Spanish Café, 1837–1903
Unknown
Chinese Painting (Pair), dates unknown
Sir David Wilkie
Landscape and Group of Ladies, 1785–1841
Sir David Wilkie
Landscape with Water and Ducks, 1785–1841
Sir David Wilkie
Landscape with Goats, 1785–1841
Sir David Wilkie
Landscape with Group of Gipsies [sic], 1785–1841
Gilbert Stuart
Portrait of a Lady [Elizabeth Sproat Lenox], 1755–1828
W. J. [William Jacob] Hays
The Prairie-Dog Village, 1830–75
Eugène Verboeckhoven
The Approaching Storm. Belgian Shepherd and Sheep, 1798–1881
Sir A. W. [Augustus Wall] Callcott
A Classical View in Italy, with Buildings, 1779–1844
Joseph Mallord William Turner
Staffa, Fingal’s Cave, 1775–1851
George Morland
Marine View Back of the Isle of Wight. Revenue Cutter in Chase of a Smuggler, 1763–1804
R. [Roberto] Roberti
View of Venice, 1786–1837
Frederic E. [Edwin] Church
View of Niagara, 1826–1900
John Wesley Jarvis
Portrait of a Lady [Alethea Carmer Lenox, posthumous], 1781–1840
Charles R. [Robert] Leslie
Portrait of a Gentleman, 1794–1859
Benno Friedrich Tormer
The Music Lesson, 1804–59
John G. [Gatsby] Chapman
I Pifferari (The Musicians), 1808–89
J. H. [Jan Hendrik] Koelman
Head of the Young Bull, 1820–87
Sir Edwin Landseer
A Dog in a Stable, 1802–73
Eugène Verboeckhoven
Two Dogs, 1798–1881
William Collins
View in Devonshire, on the Webber, 1788–1847
George L. [Loring] Brown
The Falls of Tivoli, 1814–89
Copley Wilson
Temple of the Sibyl, Tivoli, dates unknown
Unknown artist
Head of an Old Man, dates unknown
Gilbert Stuart
Head of Mrs. Robert Morris, 1755–1828
James Peale
Portrait of George Washington, 1749–1831
Rembrandt Peale
Portrait of George Washington, 1778–1860
John Trumbull
Portrait of a Lady [Rachel Carmer Lenox], 1756–1843
G. P. A. [George Peter Alexander] Healy
Portrait of a Gentleman [James Lenox], 1813–94
Image Source
Artist: (, )
Title:
Alternate Title:
Date:
Medium:
Size:
Current Owner:
Information as it appeared in the Lenox Library Guide (LLG):
LLG Number:

Text:
Text Author:
Bibliography:

Help information
Help

Instructions for Viewing the Lenox Library Picture Gallery

On a desktop, use the following mouse gestures and keyboard commands to navigate the gallery and view its content:

  • Click+Drag to pivot your point of view in any direction.
  • Scroll up on mouse or trackpad to zoom in; scroll down to zoom out.
  • Double-click on anything that isn’t a painting/picture frame and you will be moved forward to that spot.
  • Click on a painting to view its details.
  • Press the up arrow key to move forward.
  • Press the down arrow key to move backward.
  • Press the right and left arrow keys to track your point of view on your screen to the right or left, respectively.

On a mobile device, you can:

  • Press and drag the gallery with a finger to move around your camera view.
  • Double-tap on anything that isn’t a painting/picture frame and you will be moved forward to that spot.
  • Tap on a painting to view its details.

Functions

  • Angles
    Angles: If you would like to quickly reorient yourself within the gallery, simply select a position from the angles menu.
  • Arrangements
    Arrangements: The arrangements sub-menu allows you to choose groupings of paintings based on several different criteria. This tool attempts to interrogate and explore James Lenox’s curatorial strategy by giving you the ability to isolate specific sub-groups of paintings – e.g. paintings by an artist’s nationality, by a single artist, or by various genres. Paintings not included in a particular arrangement are darkened considerably when in an arrangement view.

    To use the Arrangements sub-menu, follow these simple instructions: 

    • Click on the Arrangements menu icon
    • Select a specific criteria to arrange by, e.g. Single Artist
    • In the corresponding dropdown, choose the filter value, e.g. 'Stuart'
    • The gallery will now filter those paintings that appear in the arrangement you have chosen. 
      • If you would like to see where these paintings are positioned on the wall in the gallery, press the 'In Gallery' button
      • Rather, if you'd like to see the paintings in a grid – especially helpful  for instances where paintings are on different walls – press the Detail Grid button . This will bring the paintings  up in a grid structure, superimposed over the gallery view.
    • While in either the 'In Gallery' or 'Detail Grid' view, you can click on individual paintings in this group to see specific details (Note that the Arrangements filter will still be active as you navigate within a particular arrangement).
    • To exit the arrangement and return to the full gallery, open the Arrangements menu and click the Reset button , or simply click on a painting outside of the selected arrangement. 
    • Arrangement views:Many arrangements or groups of paintings are quite distant from each other in the gallery space. Therefore users can be presented with two unique views of an arrangement:
      • In Gallery
        In Gallery: This view shows where an arrangement of paintings is located within the gallery. In some instances, this view appears as a “bird’s eye view,” since the paintings within the arrangement are scattered throughout the gallery.
      • Detail Grid
        Detail Grid: This view shows an arrangement of paintings as a grid. Individual paintings in the grid can be selected for individual study. By clicking on the ‘locate icon’ on each image thumbnail, a user will be brought to where this individual artwork is hung within the gallery.
    • To exit an arrangement view, click on a greyed out painting (i.e. a work not in the arrangement), open the Arrangements menu and press Reset , or simply press ESC on the keyboard.
  • Artists
    Artists: The artists switch enables/disables artists names, appearing under each painting in the gallery.
  • Help
    Help: The help button brings up the user guide.
  • Info
    Info: The info button brings up general information about system requirements, authorship, and image sourcing.
  • Fullscreen:
    Fullscreen
    The fullscreen button toggles the model between partial and fullscreen. The partial view allows a user to simultaneously interact with the model and accompanying scholarly texts. The fullscreen view conversely removes the accompanying text in favor of a more immersive gallery experience.
  • Additional Navigation Locate in Gallery: pressing this button on a given painting in detail view or detail grid view with reorient the model to where this painting appears within the gallery.

General information
Info

Welcome!
The Lenox Library Picture Gallery Digital Recreation is designed to be an elegant, intuitive, and rich user experience, combining current research, known reproductions, and cutting-edge digital content. Upon loading the Lenox Library Gallery website, you will be placed directly in front of the doorway, facing the opposite wall, where a nineteenth-century viewer would have stood upon entering the real-world gallery.

Notes on Authorship
Authorship for a given text description is denoted after each by the author’s initials:
SW = Sally Webster; CJ = Cara Jordan; and BW = Bruce Weber.

Notes on Reproductions
Reproductions of approximately a third of the paintings were found. The remaining reproductions, in black and white, came primarily from two sources: auction catalogues and original, archival photographs of the gallery. Some of the latter are grainy or damaged due to their age. These archival images were retained if there was external information, such as the title or a description, that aided in visually confirming the image. Additionally, there are blank canvases with a grey color marked with the phrase "Image not found,” as in the below example:

System Requirements
The Lenox Library Picture Gallery Digital Recreation is designed to be a cross platform web application, requiring nothing more from the user than a typical computer terminal with a web browser. That said, performance of the model will be optimal on a machine running an updated operating system (Windows 10+ or Mac OSX v10+), an updated browser (Mozilla Firefox, Google Chrome, Apple Safari, or Opera), and a decent video card.

To check whether your video card and browser can properly handle the 3D texture rendering required by the Lenox Library Picture Gallery Digital Recreation, please click here. You will be presented with a few different examples of browser-based 3D texture standards. This “texture tester” is designed to allow a user to test which 3D texture standard(s) their computer/browser is capable of rendering.

[{"title":"Pigs in a Fodder Yard","nid":"578","field_image":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_3d\/public\/paintings\/2018-10\/image_not_found.jpg?itok=cfFzVcU0","field_image_hd":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_hd\/public\/paintings\/2018-10\/image_not_found.jpg?itok=LJEZkml4","field_image_credit":"\u201cA rural pleasing picture, showing the great imitative powers of this artist, who could clothe with importance, subjects of the most trifling description, by the magical touch of his pencil\u201d (A Critical and Descriptive Catalogue 1843, 36).","field_position_code":"a_1_3","field_artist":"George Morland","field_original_artist":"","field_artist_date":"1763\u20131804","field_current_owner":"Unknown","field_llg_info":"\u003Cp\u003E\u201cBought at Christie\u2019s, London, June 21, 1850, from the Collection of Charles Meigh, Esq.\u201d\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_medium":"Oil on canvas","field_location":"west wall, north side","field_id":"3","field_description":"\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cspan\u003E\u003Cspan\u003E\u003Cspan\u003EKnown as a painter of animals and rustic genre scenes, George Morland was apprenticed to his father, Henry Robert Morland, who also specialized in genre painting. The younger Morland, who led a colorful if not dissolute life, attained renown with his anecdotal pastoral works. As noted by an early twentieth-century biographer: \u201cWe had landscape painters and animal painters before his day, but it is generally acknowledged that he was the first to demonstrate the homely beauties of rural life in England\u201d (Gilbey and Cuming 1907, v).\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cspan\u003E\u003Cspan\u003E\u003Cspan\u003EThe rustic subject matter of \u003Cem\u003EPigs in a Fodder Yard\u003C\/em\u003E is characteristic of Morland\u2019s works of the 1790s, the decade of his greatest success. A catalogue of Meigh\u2019s collection was published in 1843, and Morland\u2019s painting was described as: \u201cA rural pleasing picture, showing the great imitative powers of this artist, who could clothe with importance, subjects of the most trifling description, by the magical touch of his pencil\u201d (\u003Cem\u003EA Critical and Descriptive Catalogue\u003C\/em\u003E 1843, 36).\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cspan\u003E\u003Cspan\u003E\u003Cspan\u003EThe subject, rural farm animals, is found in several nearby paintings, making it a theme favored by Lenox. Two years earlier, at an auction in 1848, Lenox had bought a marine painting by \u003Ca class=\u0022in_gallery\u0022 href=\u0022#\u0022 target=\u002243\u0022\u003EMorland (\u003Cem\u003ELLG\u003C\/em\u003E 9, no. 40)\u003C\/a\u003E.\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/span\u003E\u003Cbr \/\u003E\n\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_nationality":"British","field_date":"1792","field_dimensions":"20 x 26 in. (50.8 x 66 cm.)","field_bibliography":"\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cspan\u003E\u003Cspan\u003E\u003Cspan\u003E\u003Cspan\u003E\u003Cem\u003EA Critical and Descriptive Catalogue of a Collection of Pictures at Grove House, Shelton\u003C\/em\u003E. Hanley, UK: Thomas Allbut, 1843. Collection catalogue.\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cspan\u003E\u003Cspan\u003E\u003Cspan\u003E\u003Cspan\u003EGilbey, Sir Walter and E. D. Cuming. George Morland: His Life and Works. London: Adam and Charles Black, 1907.\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cspan\u003E\u003Cspan\u003E\u003Cspan\u003E\u003Cspan\u003EParke-Bernet Galleries, New York. \u003Cem\u003EEnglish and Continental Furniture, Paintings, Georgian Silver, Laces, Porcelains, Rugs.\u003C\/em\u003E New York: Parke-Bernet Galleries, 1943. Auction catalogue.\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/span\u003E\u003Cbr \/\u003E\n\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_desc_author":"SW","field_llg_number":"3, no. 3","field_alt_title":"Pigs or Sleeping Pigs"},{"title":"Donkeys and Dogs\u2014The Interesting Family","nid":"579","field_image":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_3d\/public\/paintings\/2018-10\/image_not_found_0.jpg?itok=KE4MNy0v","field_image_hd":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_hd\/public\/paintings\/2018-10\/image_not_found_0.jpg?itok=LNdslYD0","field_image_credit":"","field_position_code":"a_2_1","field_artist":"W. [Woldemar] Hottenroth","field_original_artist":"","field_artist_date":"1802\u201394","field_current_owner":"Unknown","field_llg_info":"\u003Cp\u003E\u00a0\u201cBought from the artist, Rome, March 1850.\u201d\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_medium":"Unknown","field_location":"west wall, north side","field_id":"4","field_description":"\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cspan\u003E\u003Cspan\u003E\u003Cspan\u003EWoldemar Hottenroth studied at the Dresden Academy in the early 1820s and later, along with his brother Edmond (1804\u201389), travelled to Paris, where Woldemar came under the sway of the French academic artists Ary Scheffer and \u003Ca class=\u0022in_gallery\u0022 href=\u0022#\u0022 target=\u0022115\u0022\u003EHorace Vernet (\u003Cem\u003ELLG \u003C\/em\u003E10, no. 55)\u003C\/a\u003E. From Paris, the brothers journeyed to Rome, where they joined the circle of the German Nazarenes. In the early 1840s, Woldemar returned to Germany and was back in Italy by the early 1850s, during which time he met Lenox. It is difficult to describe the painting\u2019s composition given the poor quality of the reproduction.\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cspan\u003E\u003Cspan\u003E\u003Cspan\u003ETo judge from the title, this sentimental subject was in keeping with other paintings of domestic and farm animals placed in this section of the gallery. Lenox owned one other Hottenroth painting, \u003Ca class=\u0022in_gallery\u0022 href=\u0022#\u0022 target=\u00229\u0022\u003E\u003Cem\u003EView of Tivoli \u003C\/em\u003E(\u003Cem\u003ELLG \u003C\/em\u003E4, no. 9)\u003C\/a\u003E, which is to the right of this painting.\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/span\u003E\u003Cbr \/\u003E\n\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_nationality":"German","field_date":"Unknown","field_dimensions":"Unknown","field_bibliography":"\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cspan\u003E\u003Cspan\u003E\u003Cspan\u003E\u201cWoldemar Hottenroth.\u201d Benezit Dictionary of Artists. Oxford Art Online. Published 2011. Accessed September 6, 2018. \u003Ca href=\u0022http:\/\/www.oxfordartonline.com\/benezit\/view\/10.1093\/benz\/9780199773787.001.0001\/acref-9780199773787-e-00089791\u0022 target=\u0022new\u0022\u003Ehttp:\/\/www.oxfordartonline.com\/benezit\/view\/10.1093\/benz\/9780199773787.001.0001\/acref-9780199773787-e-00089791\u003C\/a\u003E.\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_desc_author":"SW","field_llg_number":"3, no. 4","field_alt_title":""},{"title":"Rocky Mountain Hares","nid":"580","field_image":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_3d\/public\/paintings\/2018-06\/a-2-2.jpg?itok=cqYIwPfy","field_image_hd":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_hd\/public\/paintings\/2018-06\/a-2-2.jpg?itok=HmXsXhK9","field_image_credit":"Artwork in the public domain; photograph courtesy New York Public Library.","field_position_code":"a_2_2","field_artist":"W. J. [William Jacob] Hays","field_original_artist":"","field_artist_date":"1830\u201375","field_current_owner":"Unknown","field_llg_info":"\u003Cp\u003E\u201cBought from the artist, in 1863.\u201d\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_medium":"Oil on canvas","field_location":"west wall, north side","field_id":"5","field_description":"\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cspan\u003E\u003Cspan\u003E\u003Cspan\u003EWilliam Jacob Hays studied art in New York with the English-born John Rubens Smith. Hays is best known for his animal studies, particularly those he observed in the Midwest and West during trips he made to the Missouri River area.\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cspan\u003E\u003Cspan\u003E\u003Cspan\u003ELenox\u2019s ownership of this painting was noted by Henry T. Tuckerman in his \u003Cem\u003EBook of the Artists \u003C\/em\u003E(Tuckerman 1967, 624). Tuckerman included a discussion of Hays and described in detail several of the Hays paintings owned by Lenox and other collectors in the United States. Speaking in general about Hays\u2019s art, Tuckerman noted, \u201chis claim to rare truth, accuracy, and spirit in the delineation of animals; his setters, prairie-dogs, partridges, and quails are often distinguished by elaborate accuracy and vital expression\u201d (Tuckerman 1967, 495).\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cspan\u003E\u003Cspan\u003E\u003Cspan\u003ELenox owned one other painting by Hays, \u003Ca class=\u0022in_gallery\u0022 href=\u0022#\u0022 target=\u002218\u0022\u003E\u003Cem\u003EThe Prairie-Dog Village\u003C\/em\u003E (\u003Cem\u003ELLG\u003C\/em\u003E 5, no. 18)\u003C\/a\u003E.\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/span\u003E\u003Cbr \/\u003E\n\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_nationality":"US","field_date":"1858","field_dimensions":"Unknown","field_bibliography":"\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cspan\u003E\u003Cspan\u003E\u003Cspan\u003ETuckerman, Henry T. \u003Cem\u003EBook of the Artists\u003C\/em\u003E. New York: G. P. Putnam, 1867; second ed. 1870; reprint ed. New York: James F. Carr, 1967.\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/p\u003E","field_desc_author":"SW","field_llg_number":"3, no. 5","field_alt_title":""},{"title":"Sheep leaving a Shed","nid":"581","field_image":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_3d\/public\/paintings\/2018-06\/a-2-3.jpg?itok=vGiXZPXj","field_image_hd":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_hd\/public\/paintings\/2018-06\/a-2-3.jpg?itok=DwE1IzZX","field_image_credit":"Artwork in the public domain; photograph courtesy New York Public Library. ","field_position_code":"a_2_3","field_artist":"Eug\u00e8ne Verboeckhoven","field_original_artist":"","field_artist_date":"1798\u20131881","field_current_owner":"Unknown","field_llg_info":"\u003Cp\u003E\u201cPurchased from the artist, by Mr. De Braekeleer [the Elder], in 1853.\u201d\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_medium":"Oil on canvas","field_location":"west wall, north side","field_id":"6","field_description":"\u003Cp\u003EThe Belgian painter Eug\u00e8ne Verboeckhoven was a popular painter of farm animals\u2014sheep, goats, cows\u2014which were bought by an international array of collectors. This included Lenox, who bought five of his works, all of which date from the 1850s, when, after a great deal of success, the artist began to repeat himself. It is fair to say that Lenox\u2019s paintings are generic and challenging to identify amid the artist\u2019s multiple renditions of rural scenes with various domestic animals.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EIt is assumed that the animals in this painting, like some of the other Verboeckhoven paintings owned by Lenox, have, according to his biographers, \u201ca human quality about them. . . . Few painters have penetrated a seemingly anodyne universe with more sensitivity or talent\u201d (Berko and Berko 1981, 256).\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EThe two Verboeckhoven paintings owned by Lenox are listed in the artist\u2019s biography: \u003Ca class=\u0022in_gallery\u0022 data-view=\u0022grid\u0022 href=\u0022#\u0022 id=\u0022singleArtist\u0022 target=\u0022Verboeckhoven\u0022\u003E\u003Cem\u003ETwo Dogs\u003C\/em\u003E (LLG 5, no. 17) and \u003Cem\u003ESheep with Lambs\u003C\/em\u003E (LLG 4, no. 7; Berko and Berko 1981, 274)\u003C\/a\u003E.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EVerboeckhoven was one of four contemporary Belgian artists\u2014with Ferdinand De Braekeleer the Elder, J. B. Madou, and Constant Wauters\u2014whose work Lenox collected. All of their paintings were bought between 1850 and 1856 and most of them were bought on Lenox\u2019s behalf by De Braekeleer the Elder. There was enough interest in contemporary Belgian painting that during this same time period De Braekeleer\u2019s son, Ferdinand De Braekeleer the Younger, opened a gallery in New York, where he exhibited paintings by modern Belgian artists, and an exhibition of Belgian and Rhenish paintings was held at the National Academy of Design in 1853.\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_nationality":"Belgian","field_date":"Signed and dated 1852","field_dimensions":"11.5 x 14.25 in. (29.2 x 36.2 cm.)","field_bibliography":"\u003Cp\u003EBerko, Patrick and Viviane Berko. \u003Cem\u003EEug\u00e8ne Verboeckhoven\u003C\/em\u003E. Brussels: Editions Laconti, 1981.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cem\u003ECatalogue of a Collection of Oil Paintings by the Modern Belgian Masters in Possession of De Braekeleer\u003C\/em\u003E. New York, 1852. Exhibition catalogue.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EParke-Bernet Galleries, New York. \u003Cem\u003EEnglish and Continental Furniture, Paintings, Georgian Silver, Laces, Porcelains, Rugs\u003C\/em\u003E. New York: Parke-Bernet Galleries, 1943. Auction catalogue.\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_desc_author":"SW","field_llg_number":"4, no. 6","field_alt_title":"Going to Pasture"},{"title":"Sheep with Lambs","nid":"582","field_image":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_3d\/public\/paintings\/2018-10\/image_not_found_1.jpg?itok=NlcEu2zw","field_image_hd":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_hd\/public\/paintings\/2018-10\/image_not_found_1.jpg?itok=l6o7maMK","field_image_credit":"\u201cA recumbent sheep and two lambs in a flowering meadow beside a fence, a view of a cottage in the distance at left\u201d (Parke-Bernet Galleries 1943, 22).","field_position_code":"a_2_4","field_artist":"Eug\u00e8ne Verboeckhoven","field_original_artist":"","field_artist_date":"1798\u20131881","field_current_owner":"Unknown","field_llg_info":"\u003Cp\u003E\u201cBought from the artist, Brussels, June 1856.\u201d\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_medium":"Oil on panel","field_location":"west wall, north side","field_id":"7","field_description":"\u003Cp\u003EThe Belgian painter Eug\u00e8ne Verboeckhoven was a popular painter of farm animals\u2014sheep, goats, cows\u2014which were bought by an international array of collectors. This included Lenox, who bought five of his works, all of which date from the 1850s, when, after a great deal of success, the artist began to repeat himself. It is fair to say that Lenox\u2019s paintings are generic and challenging to identify amid the artist\u2019s multiple renditions of rural scenes with various domestic animals.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EThe animals in this painting, like other Verboeckhoven paintings owned by Lenox, have \u201ca human quality about them. . . . Few painters have penetrated a seemingly anodyne universe with more sensitivity or talent\u201d (Berko and Berko 1981, 256). This painting may be the one listed in the artist\u2019s biography, \u003Ca class=\u0022in_gallery\u0022 href=\u0022#\u0022 target=\u00227\u0022\u003ESheep with Lambs\u003C\/a\u003E (LLG 4, no. 7; Berko and Berko 1981, 274).\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_nationality":"Belgian","field_date":"Signed and dated 1856","field_dimensions":"8.5 x 11.5 in. (21.6 x 29.2 cm.)","field_bibliography":"\u003Cp\u003EBerko, Patrick and Viviane Berko. \u003Cem\u003EEug\u00e8ne Verboeckhoven\u003C\/em\u003E. Brussels: Editions Laconti, 1981.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EParke-Bernet Galleries, New York. \u003Cem\u003EEnglish and Continental Furniture, Paintings, Georgian Silver, Laces, Porcelains, Rugs\u003C\/em\u003E. New York: Parke-Bernet Galleries, 1943. Auction catalogue.\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_desc_author":"SW","field_llg_number":"4, no. 7","field_alt_title":"Sheep and Lambs"},{"title":"The Young Bull","nid":"583","field_image":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_3d\/public\/paintings\/2018-10\/image_not_found_2.jpg?itok=u23sS0zA","field_image_hd":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_hd\/public\/paintings\/2018-10\/image_not_found_2.jpg?itok=yHd3W02e","field_image_credit":"","field_position_code":"a_2_5","field_artist":"Z. Weisser","field_original_artist":"Paul Potter (Dutch, 1625\u201354)","field_artist_date":"dates unknown","field_current_owner":"Unknown","field_llg_info":"\u003Cp\u003E\u201cCopy from the picture by Paul Potter, at The Hague. Purchased there in June, 1856. Cabinet size.\u201d\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_medium":"Unknown","field_location":"west wall, north side","field_id":"8","field_description":"\u003Cp\u003ENo reference to an artist named Z. Weisser can be found. He may be the German artist Ludwig (or Karl Ludwig) Weisser (1823\u201379), who worked as a draftsman, lithographer, and engraver in Stuttgart, where he was appointed the head of the Department of Prints at the city\u2019s Staatsgalerie in 1858. This is the second copy of Paulus Potter\u2019s \u003Cem\u003EThe Young Bull\u003C\/em\u003E in Lenox\u2019s collection. The other version, by Jan Koelman (\u003Cem\u003ELLG\u003C\/em\u003E 3, no. 1), is of the head only. This small image is of the entire painting.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EPotter\u2019s rural subject matter was much admired by artists working in The Hague, and Lenox\u2019s desire to have a Potter painting, even a copy, was no doubt influenced by the resurgence of interest in Potter during the first half of the nineteenth century. Writing at this time, John Smith, who published an extensive catalogue of northern painters, noted that Potter through \u201cthe skillful introduction of cows and other cattle, which give interest and value to his pieces, has deservedly placed him at the head of his profession in such representations\u201d (Smith 1827\u201342, 5:116).\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003ELenox acquired a number of animal paintings, most of which were by nineteenth-century artists and can be found nearby, including a copy of the head of the bull from Potter\u2019s painting.\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_nationality":"nationality unknown","field_date":"Unknown","field_dimensions":"Unknown","field_bibliography":"\u003Cp\u003E\u201cPaulus Potter, \u003Cem\u003EThe Bull\u003C\/em\u003E, 1647.\u201d Mauritshuis. Accessed September 10, 2018. \u003Ca href=\u0022https:\/\/www.mauritshuis.nl\/en\/explore\/the-collection\/artworks\/the-bull-136\/\u0022\u003Ehttps:\/\/www.mauritshuis.nl\/en\/explore\/the-collection\/artworks\/the-bull-136\/\u003C\/a\u003E.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003ESmith, John. \u003Cem\u003EA Catalogue Raisonn\u00e9 of the Works of the Most Eminent Dutch, Flemish and French Painters\u003C\/em\u003E. London: Smith \u0026amp; Son, 1827\u201342.\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_desc_author":"SW","field_llg_number":"4, no. 8","field_alt_title":""},{"title":"View of Tivoli","nid":"584","field_image":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_3d\/public\/paintings\/2018-06\/a-3-1.jpg?itok=BhYvnLQy","field_image_hd":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_hd\/public\/paintings\/2018-06\/a-3-1.jpg?itok=hbvlIb1Z","field_image_credit":"Artwork in the public domain; photograph courtesy New York Public Library.","field_position_code":"a_3_1","field_artist":"W. [Woldemar] Hottenroth","field_original_artist":"","field_artist_date":"1804\u201388","field_current_owner":"Unknown","field_llg_info":"\u003Cp\u003E\u201cBought from the artist, Rome, March, 1850.\u201d\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_medium":"Unknown","field_location":"west wall, north side","field_id":"9","field_description":"\u003Cp\u003EWoldemar Hottenroth studied at the Dresden Academy in the early 1820s and later, along with his brother Edmond (1804\u201389), travelled to Paris, where Woldemar came under the sway of the French academic artists Ary Scheffer and Horace Vernet. From Paris, the brothers journeyed to Rome, where they joined the circle of the German Nazarenes. In the early 1840s, Woldemar returned to Germany and was back in Italy by the early 1850s, during which time he met Lenox. It is difficult to describe the painting\u2019s composition given the poor quality of the reproduction.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EThis is the second of two paintings by Hottenroth; the other is \u003Ca class=\u0022in_gallery\u0022 href=\u0022#\u0022 target=\u00224\u0022\u003E\u003Cem\u003EDonkeys and Dogs\u2014The Interesting Family\u003C\/em\u003E(n.d.; LLG 3, no. 4)\u003C\/a\u003E.\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_nationality":"German","field_date":"Unknown","field_dimensions":"Unknown","field_bibliography":"\u003Cp\u003E\u201cWoldemar Hottenroth.\u201d Benezit Dictionary of Artists. Oxford Art Online. Published 2011. Accessed September 6, 2018. \u003Ca href=\u0022http:\/\/www.oxfordartonline.com\/benezit\/view\/10.1093\/benz\/9780199773787.001.0001\/acref-9780199773787-e-00089791\u0022\u003Ehttp:\/\/www.oxfordartonline.com\/benezit\/view\/10.1093\/benz\/9780199773787.001.0001\/acref-9780199773787-e-00089791\u003C\/a\u003E.\u003C\/p\u003E","field_desc_author":"SW","field_llg_number":"4, no. 9","field_alt_title":""},{"title":"Interior of a Church","nid":"585","field_image":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_3d\/public\/paintings\/2018-06\/a-3-2.jpg?itok=8yLZk8U1","field_image_hd":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_hd\/public\/paintings\/2018-06\/a-3-2.jpg?itok=yJrNVK6Y","field_image_credit":"Artwork in the public domain; photograph courtesy New York Public Library. ","field_position_code":"a_3_2","field_artist":"J. L. E. [Johann Ludwig Ernst] Morgenstern","field_original_artist":"","field_artist_date":"1738\u20131819","field_current_owner":"Unknown","field_llg_info":"\u003Cp\u003E\u201cBought at the sale of J. Beaumont, New York, April, 1850.\u201d\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_medium":"Oil on panel","field_location":"west wall, north side","field_id":"10","field_description":"\u003Cp\u003EMorgenstern was a member of a five-generation family of German painters, engravers, and restorers. He studied first with his father and later in Darmstadt, and in the late eighteenth century he settled in Frankfurt am Main. It was here that he was introduced to the paintings of the Swiss artist Johann V\u00f6gelin, who was known for his precise rendering of architecture. Morgenstern enthusiastically adopted this subject matter, specializing in interiors of churches. These interiors by Morgenstern, done before the French Revolution and the resultant destruction of many historical buildings, are of important historical value.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EThere is a note in the Lenox Library archives attached to a bill of sale from Henry H. Leeds, dated April 3, 1850, which, it is assumed, was excerpted from the Beaumont catalogue as follows: \u201cFrom the cabinet of an eminent professor on the Rhine. The artist was the most celebrated in Europe in this department of art, and this picture deserves to be studied\u201d (Lenox Library Board of Trustees).\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003ELenox\u2019s painting was typical of Morgenstern\u2019s subject matter.\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_nationality":"German","field_date":"Signed at lower right with the initials EM and dated 1812","field_dimensions":"14.25 x 11.25 in. (36.2 x 28.9 cm.)","field_bibliography":"\u003Cp\u003EParke-Bernet Galleries, New York. \u003Cem\u003EEnglish and Continental Furniture, Paintings\u003C\/em\u003E . . . New York: Parke-Bernet Galleries, 1943. Auction catalogue.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003ELenox Library Board of Trustees. Box 5, folder \u201cArt Collections, Misc.\u201d R. G. 2. New York Public Library Archives, New York.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003E\u201cMorgenstern, Johann Ludwig Ernst.\u201d Benezit Dictionary of Artists. Published 2011. Accessed September 6, 2018. \u003Ca href=\u0022http:\/\/\/\/www.oxfordartonline.com\/benezit\/view\/10.1093\/benz\/9780199773787.001.0001\/acref-9780199773787-e-00125873\u0022 target=\u0022new\u0022\u003Ehttp:\/\/\/\/www.oxfordartonline.com\/benezit\/view\/10.1093\/benz\/9780199773787.001.0001\/acref-9780199773787-e-00125873\u003C\/a\u003E.\u003Cbr \/\u003E\n\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_desc_author":"SW","field_llg_number":"4, no. 10","field_alt_title":"Church Interior"},{"title":"A Landscape\u2014Sunset\u00a0","nid":"586","field_image":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_3d\/public\/paintings\/2018-06\/a-3-3.jpg?itok=xUWnSwQi","field_image_hd":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_hd\/public\/paintings\/2018-06\/a-3-3.jpg?itok=S-VXqXr6","field_image_credit":"Artwork in the public domain; photography courtesy New York Public Library.","field_position_code":"a_3_3","field_artist":"Sir Edwin Landseer","field_original_artist":"","field_artist_date":"1802\u201373","field_current_owner":"Unknown","field_llg_info":"\u003Cp\u003E\u201cThis picture is accompanied by the following autograph note from the artist: \u2018November 19, 1838. Sir: The sketch of the Sunset sent for my inspection was unquestionably painted by me \u003Ci\u003Emany years ago\u003C\/i\u003E. As I do not remember the exact time, I cannot write the date on the picture. I am, Sir, your obedient Servant, E. Landseer.\u2019 \u2018To Mr. Tiffen.\u2019 \u2018Bought at Christie\u2019s, London, June 21, 1850 from the collection of Charles Meigh, Esq.\u2019\u201d\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_medium":"Oil on panel","field_location":"west wall, north side","field_id":"11","field_description":"\u003Cp\u003EThis small, almost square landscape painting is atypical of Landseer\u2019s work. He was best known as a painter of farm animals\u2014horses and dogs\u2014and animals of the wild, such as stags of Scotland and the lions he sculptured for Trafalgar Square in London.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003E\u003Ca class=\u0022in_gallery\u0022 data-view=\u0022grid\u0022 href=\u0022#\u0022 id=\u0022singleArtist\u0022 target=\u0022Landseer\u0022\u003ELenox owned two other Landseer paintings\u2014both small in scale. In addition to \u003Cem\u003EA Landscape\u2014Sunset\u003C\/em\u003E, Lenox also owned \u003Cem\u003EA Dog in a Stable\u003C\/em\u003E (\u003Cem\u003ELLG\u003C\/em\u003E 3, no. 2), which was also bought at the Meigh sale, and\u003Cem\u003E Study of a White Horse \u003C\/em\u003E(\u003Cem\u003ELLG \u003C\/em\u003E12, no. 73).\u003C\/a\u003E Lenox\u2019s interest in the artist is underscored by the great number of Landseer engravings he purchased (see Appendix 3).\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EA catalogue of Meigh\u2019s collection was published earlier in 1843, and in it Landseer\u2019s painting was described as \u201can effect of sunset, painted with a broad and masterly touch, and brilliant colouring. See Landseer\u2019s note authenticating the picture on the back of it\u201d (\u003Cem\u003EA Critical and Descriptive Catalogue\u003C\/em\u003E 1843, 31).\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_nationality":"British","field_date":"Unknown","field_dimensions":"10.25 x 10.75 in. (26 x 27.3 cm.)","field_bibliography":"\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cem\u003EA Critical and Descriptive Catalogue of a Collection of Pictures at Grove House\u003C\/em\u003E, Shelton. Hanley, UK: Thomas Allbut, 1843. Collection catalogue.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EParke-Bernet Galleries, New York.\u003Cem\u003E English and Continental Furniture, Paintings, Georgian Silver, Laces, Porcelains, Rugs\u003C\/em\u003E. New York: Parke-Bernet Galleries, 1943. Auction catalogue.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EUpstone, Robert. \u201cLandseer family.\u201d Grove Art Online. Published 2003. Accessed September 6, 2018. \u003Ca href=\u0022http:\/\/\/\/www.oxfordartonline.com\/groveart\/view\/10.1093\/gao\/9781884446054.001.0001\/oao-9781884446054-e-7000049073\u0022 target=\u0022new\u0022\u003Ehttp:\/\/\/\/www.oxfordartonline.com\/groveart\/view\/10.1093\/gao\/9781884446054.001.0001\/oao-9781884446054-e-7000049073\u003C\/a\u003E.\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_desc_author":"SW","field_llg_number":"4, no. 11","field_alt_title":"Sunset"},{"title":"A Picturesque Cottage on the Bank of a River","nid":"587","field_image":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_3d\/public\/paintings\/2018-06\/a-3-4.jpg?itok=pgQ65wCL","field_image_hd":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_hd\/public\/paintings\/2018-06\/a-3-4.jpg?itok=GtAe2YO1","field_image_credit":"Artwork in the public domain; photograph courtesy New York Public Library. ","field_position_code":"a_3_4","field_artist":"William Mulready","field_original_artist":"","field_artist_date":"1786\u20131863","field_current_owner":"Unknown","field_llg_info":"\u003Cp\u003E\u201cBought at Christie\u2019s, London, June 21, 1850, from the collection of Charles Meigh, Esq.\u201d\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_medium":"Unknown","field_location":"west wall, north side","field_id":"12","field_description":"\u003Cp\u003EJudging from its title, the painting is similar to\u003Cem\u003E An Old Cottage, St. Albans\u003C\/em\u003E (1805\u20136; Victoria and Albert Museum, London) and would thus date from early in Mulready\u2019s career and reflect his interest at the time in Dutch-inspired village scenes. Mulready\u2019s better-known later work is figurative and more strongly delineated and shares affinities with the art of the Pre-Raphaelites.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EThe artist and this painting were described in the 1843 catalogue of Charles Meigh\u2019s collection as follows: \u201cIt is impossible to prize too highly the works of Mulready. This picture is amazingly true to nature, the Cottage is painted with great freedom, and the whole is a beautiful example of color\u201d (\u003Cem\u003EA Critical and Descriptive Catalogue\u003C\/em\u003E 1843, 25).\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_nationality":"Irish","field_date":"Unknown","field_dimensions":"Unknown","field_bibliography":"\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cem\u003EA Critical and Descriptive Catalogue of a Collection of Pictures at Grove House\u003C\/em\u003E, Shelton. Hanley, UK: Thomas Allbut, 1843. Collection catalogue.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EPointon, Marcia and\u00a0Philip McEvansoneya. \u201cMulready Family.\u201d Grove Art Online. Published 2003. Accessed September 6, 2018.\u003Cbr \/\u003E\u003Ca href=\u0022http:\/\/\/\/www.oxfordartonline.com\/groveart\/view\/10.1093\/gao\/9781884446054.001.0001\/oao-9781884446054-e-7000060252\u0022 target=\u0022new\u0022\u003Ehttp:\/\/\/\/www.oxfordartonline.com\/groveart\/view\/10.1093\/gao\/9781884446054.001.0001\/oao-9781884446054-e-7000060252\u003C\/a\u003E.\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_desc_author":"SW","field_llg_number":"4, no. 12","field_alt_title":"A Cottage with Landscape"},{"title":"View of Dundrennan Abbey near Kirkcudbright","nid":"588","field_image":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_3d\/public\/paintings\/2018-06\/a-4-1.jpg?itok=8Nt_k9sm","field_image_hd":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_hd\/public\/paintings\/2018-06\/a-4-1.jpg?itok=TYzLDQ8x","field_image_credit":"Artwork in the public domain; photograph courtesy New York Public Library. ","field_position_code":"a_4_1","field_artist":"Henry Inman","field_original_artist":"","field_artist_date":"1801\u201346","field_current_owner":"Unknown","field_llg_info":"\u003Cp\u003E\u201cPainted to order, 1845.\u201d\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_medium":"Unknown","field_location":"west wall, north side","field_id":"13","field_description":"\u003Cp\u003EHenry Inman was the leading portrait painter in New York from about 1830 until his death in 1846. A native of Utica, New York, he moved with his family to New York City around 1812. He served a seven-year apprenticeship with John Wesley Jarvis and in 1820 started to paint professionally. In the late 1830s, he began to receive important portrait commissions for City Hall, including likenesses of four of the city\u2019s mayors. His portraits are distinguished by their vigorous paint handling, dramatic chiaroscuro effects, and his ability to convey a beaming sense of self-assuredness and well-being in his sitters.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003ELenox and his family had a long-standing association with Inman, who also did miniatures of the Lenox children and a half-length portrait of Robert in the 1820s. In the early 1840s, Henry Inman, one of New York\u2019s foremost portrait and genre painters, was down on his luck. Lenox came to the artist\u2019s aid and helped sponsor his trip to Europe. The abbey was a landmark from the area of Scotland near Lenox\u2019s ancestral home. On the same trip, Inman also painted a portrait of the great Scottish pastor, social reformer, educator, author, and scientist, \u003Ca class=\u0022in_gallery\u0022 href=\u0022#\u0022 target=\u002287\u0022\u003EDr. Thomas Chalmers (\u003Cem\u003ELLG\u003C\/em\u003E 13, no. 76)\u003C\/a\u003E.\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_nationality":"US","field_date":"1845","field_dimensions":"Unknown","field_bibliography":"\u003Cp\u003EGerdts, William H. and Carrie Rebora. \u003Cem\u003EThe Art of Henry Inman\u003C\/em\u003E. Washington, DC: National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution, 1987. Exhibition catalogue.\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_desc_author":"SW and BW","field_llg_number":"5, no. 13","field_alt_title":""},{"title":"Cotopaxi\u00a0","nid":"589","field_image":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_3d\/public\/paintings\/2018-08\/a.4.2_.jpg?itok=_vFHPJW_","field_image_hd":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_hd\/public\/paintings\/2018-08\/a.4.2_.jpg?itok=0vn8QKvh","field_image_credit":"Photo \u00a92016, Detroit Institute of Arts.","field_position_code":"a_4_2","field_artist":"Frederic E. [Edwin] Church","field_original_artist":"","field_artist_date":"1826\u20131900","field_current_owner":"Detroit Institute of Arts, Detroit, MI","field_llg_info":"\u003Cp\u003E\u201cPainted to order in 1862, from studies made in the summer of 1857.\u201d\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_medium":"Oil on canvas","field_location":"west wall, north side","field_id":"14","field_description":"\u003Cp\u003EFrederic Edwin Church\u00a0was one of the greatest landscape painters in the United States in the nineteenth century. A student of Thomas Cole, he went on to achieve fame for his paintings of such varied subjects as Niagara Falls, the rocky coast of Mount Desert in Maine, the Andes of Ecuador, the icebergs of Labrador, and scenes in Jamaica, Central America, and the Near East. His view of the natural world was strongly impacted by the theories of Alexander von Humboldt, the Prussian naturalist and author of\u00a0Kosmos, a two-volume study of geology and natural history published in Germany in 1845 and 1847. In later life, Church acquired property in Upstate New York across the Hudson River from Thomas Cole\u2019s former home in Catskill and, with the assistance of Calvert Vaux and Frederick Law Olmsted, designed Olana, his family home, studio, and estate, a magnificently integrated environment, embracing architecture, art, and landscape art.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EThis painting and related works formed an entire exhibition organized in 1985 by the National Museum of American Art (now the Smithsonian American Art Museum). Its curator, Katherine Manthorne, scrupulously documented the importance of this Ecuadorian volcano for the artist by enumerating the drawings and other versions of this subject. The Lenox version was the most celebrated of Church\u2019s Cotopaxi canvases when it was publicly exhibited at Goupil, New York, in March 1863 (Manthorne 1985, 7).\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003ECotopaxi is distinguished as the highest volcano in the world and had earlier drawn the attention of Humboldt, whose writings on the flora and fauna of the Andes garnered worldwide attention. It was on Church\u2019s first trip to the area in 1853 that he drew the volcano\u2019s profile; he returned again when he next visited South America in 1857. As noted by Manthorne, at the time of the 1863 exhibition, Church was dubbed \u201cthe artistic Humboldt of the New World\u201d (Manthorne 1985, 7), an observation confirmed by Tuckerman, who noted in the 1860s that Church did \u201cfor South America in art what the savant [Humboldt] had done in science\u201d (Tuckerman 1967, 370). Furthermore, the scenery of South America held both scientific and religious interest for Church and his contemporaries. As Manthorne states, \u201cChurch\u2014like his fellow travelers\u2014found in the ever-present volcano craters and cones the most obvious results of recent geological activity and sized up them for the insights they offered into the workings of the Creator\u201d (Manthorne 1985, 12).\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EIn the Lenox version, the volcano and its turbulent eruption dominate the horizon. Crimson smoke darkens the sky and veils the setting sun. The foreground, which occupies half the painting, is a luridly lit panorama of lake, waterfalls, and boldly hacked stone cliffs, all of which evoke Hades or the beginning of creation.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EImportantly, Manthorne notes Church\u2019s indebtedness to Lenox\u2019s Turners (Manthorne 1985, 26), which is notable particularly in the rendering of the belching smoke from the Ecuadorian volcano when compared to the turbulent emissions from the smokestacks of the steamboat in Turner\u2019s \u003Ca class=\u0022in_gallery\u0022 href=\u0022#\u0022 target=\u002237\u0022\u003E\u003Cem\u003EStaffa Fingal\u2019s Cave\u003C\/em\u003E (\u003Cem\u003ELLG\u003C\/em\u003E 8, no. 34)\u003C\/a\u003E. While Church achieved a phantasmagoric atmosphere similar to Turner\u2019s, he parted company with the British painter in his attention, particularly in the broad foreground, to geological detail and accuracy.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003ELenox\u2019s friend Robert Stuart commissioned Church\u2019s Cayambe (1858; New-York Historical Society, New York), which was later donated, along with his books and other art works, to the Lenox Library in the 1890s. Stuart also collected geological specimens and was the first president of the American Museum of Natural History.\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_nationality":"US","field_date":"1862","field_dimensions":"48 x 85 in. (121.9 x 215.9 cm.)","field_bibliography":"\u003Cp\u003EManthorne, Katherine. \u003Cem\u003ECreation and Renewal, Views of Cotopaxi by Frederic Edwin Church\u003C\/em\u003E. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1985.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003ETuckerman, Henry T. \u003Cem\u003EBook of the Artists\u003C\/em\u003E. New York: G. P. Putnam, 1867; second ed. 1870; reprint ed. New York: James F. Carr, 1967.\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_desc_author":"BW and SW","field_llg_number":"5, no. 16","field_alt_title":""},{"title":"View of Kirkcudbright","nid":"590","field_image":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_3d\/public\/paintings\/2018-06\/a-5-1.jpg?itok=dGchfDqY","field_image_hd":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_hd\/public\/paintings\/2018-06\/a-5-1.jpg?itok=4mixYrPz","field_image_credit":"Artwork in the public domain; photograph courtesy New York Public Library. ","field_position_code":"a_5_1","field_artist":"Thomas Clark","field_original_artist":"","field_artist_date":"1820\u201376","field_current_owner":"Unknown","field_llg_info":"\u003Cp\u003E\u201cPainted to order, about 1857.\u201d\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_medium":"Unknown","field_location":"west wall, north side","field_id":"15","field_description":"\u003Cp\u003EAccording to the \u003Cem\u003EDictionary of Scottish Painters\u003C\/em\u003E, Thomas Clark was a landscape painter from Edinburgh who painted primarily Scottish scenes. It is not known if Lenox met Clark or if Lenox or an agent commissioned this painting of Lenox\u2019s ancestral city. There is no mention in his passport that Lenox visited Scotland during his trip to Europe in 1857.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EThroughout his life as a collector, Lenox commissioned other landscape settings near his ancestral home, Dalskairth in Kirkcudbright, Scotland. \u003Ca class=\u0022in_gallery\u0022 data-view=\u0022grid\u0022 href=\u0022#\u0022 id=\u0022genre\u0022 target=\u0022Views of Kirkcudbright\u0022\u003EThese include a second painting by Thomas Clark, \u003Cem\u003EView of Port Mary, near Kirkcudbright, Where Queen Mary Embarked for England \u003C\/em\u003E(\u003Cem\u003ELLG\u003C\/em\u003E 5, no. 15); two by Major George Colomb with the same title, \u003Cem\u003EThe Mill House, near Kirkcudbright \u003C\/em\u003E(\u003Cem\u003ELLG\u003C\/em\u003E 15, no. 5 and 6, no. 26); and Henry Inman\u2019s \u003Cem\u003EView of Dundrennan Abbey near Kirkcudbright \u003C\/em\u003E(\u003Cem\u003ELLG\u003C\/em\u003E 5, no. 13).\u003C\/a\u003E\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_nationality":"Scottish","field_date":"ca. 1857","field_dimensions":"Unknown","field_bibliography":"","field_desc_author":"SW","field_llg_number":"5, no. 14","field_alt_title":""},{"title":"The Mill House, near Kirkcudbright","nid":"591","field_image":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_3d\/public\/paintings\/2018-06\/a-6-1.jpg?itok=bLAystqj","field_image_hd":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_hd\/public\/paintings\/2018-06\/a-6-1.jpg?itok=GlpJnQ0W","field_image_credit":"Artwork in the public domain; photograph courtesy New York Public Library. ","field_position_code":"a_6_1","field_artist":"Major George Colomb","field_original_artist":"","field_artist_date":"1787\u20131874","field_current_owner":"Unknown","field_llg_info":"\u003Cp\u003E\u201c(see No. 26) Painted to order for James Lenox, Esq., of Dalscairth, in 1838.\u201d\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_medium":"Unknown","field_location":"west wall, north side","field_id":"16","field_description":"\u003Cp\u003EGeorge Colomb was a British naval officer who was stationed for two years in the United States just prior to the War of 1812. When he retired from the navy in 1841, he settled in Dublin and began painting landscapes and marines, submitting them for exhibition at the Royal Hibernian Academy, where he continued to exhibit until 1868. He had some local success but never achieved an international reputation.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EGiven the notation in the \u003Ci\u003ELLG\u003C\/i\u003E that this work was \u201cpainted for James Lennox, Esq. of Dalscairth,\u201d this Scottish landscape, as well as \u003Ca class=\u0022in_gallery\u0022 href=\u0022#\u0022 target=\u002216\u0022\u003Eanother painting by Colomb with the same title (\u003Ci\u003ELLG \u003C\/i\u003E6, no. 26)\u003C\/a\u003E, was owned by Lenox\u2019s uncle who lived in Scotland from 1817 to 1839. The ancestral home was called Dalskairth in Kirkcudbright. James Lenox\u2019s great uncle David Sproat owned the Kirkcudbright property, which he entailed \u201cin favor of his nephews, and upon his death it passed to David Lenox of Philadelphia, then to Robert Lenox of New York, and at his death to his son James, his brother James having died before him\u201d (Banks 1938, 102). After the deaths of his father and uncles, James inherited the Kirkcudbright property around 1840. It is further assumed that the mill referenced in the title was near the Lenoxes\u2019 ancestral home.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EThroughout his life as a collector, Lenox commissioned other landscape settings near his ancestral home. These include two paintings by Thomas Clark, \u003Ca class=\u0022in_gallery\u0022 data-view=\u0022grid\u0022 href=\u0022#\u0022 id=\u0022genre\u0022 target=\u0022Views of Kirkcudbright\u0022\u003E\u003Ci\u003EView of Kirkcudbright \u003C\/i\u003Eand \u003Ci\u003EView of Port Mary\u003C\/i\u003E,\u003Ci\u003E near Kirkcudbright\u003C\/i\u003E,\u003Ci\u003E Where Queen Mary Embarked for England \u003C\/i\u003E(1876; \u003Ci\u003ELLG \u003C\/i\u003E10, no. 48); a second work by Colomb with the same title, \u003Ci\u003EThe Mill House\u003C\/i\u003E,\u003Ci\u003E near Kirkcudbright\u003C\/i\u003E (n.d.; \u003Ci\u003ELLG\u003C\/i\u003E 6, no. 26); Peter Paton\u2019s \u003Ci\u003EView of Dalskairth\u003C\/i\u003E,\u003Ci\u003E near Dumfries \u003C\/i\u003E(1830; \u003Ci\u003ELLG\u003C\/i\u003E 8, no. 35); and Henry Inman\u2019s \u003Ci\u003EView of Dundrennan Abbey near Kirkcudbright \u003C\/i\u003E(1845; \u003Ci\u003ELLG \u003C\/i\u003E5, no. 13).\u003C\/a\u003E\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_nationality":"Irish","field_date":"1838","field_dimensions":"Unknown","field_bibliography":"\u003Cp\u003EBanks, James Lenox. \u003Cem\u003EGenealogical Notes Concerning the Banks and Allied Families\u003C\/em\u003E. New York: privately printed, 1938.\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_desc_author":"SW","field_llg_number":"5, no. 15","field_alt_title":""},{"title":"Portrait of La Fayette","nid":"594","field_image":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_3d\/public\/paintings\/2018-08\/e.5.1_Morse.jpg?itok=dR5kT-6s","field_image_hd":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_hd\/public\/paintings\/2018-08\/e.5.1_Morse.jpg?itok=_rYS1liU","field_image_credit":"Crystal Bridges Museum of American Art, Bentonville, Arkansas, 2005.26, Photography by Dwight Primiano.","field_position_code":"e_5_1","field_artist":"S. F. B. [Samuel Finley Breese] Morse","field_original_artist":"","field_artist_date":"1791\u20131872","field_current_owner":"Crystal Bridges Museum of American Art, Bentonville, AK","field_llg_info":"\u003Cp\u003E\u201c\u2018Painted in Washington, from sittings from LaFayette, in the month of February, 1825.\u2014S. F. B. M.\u2019 Presented by William H. Osborn, November, 1876.\u201d\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_medium":"Oil on canvas","field_location":"east wall, middle","field_id":"85","field_description":"\u003Cp\u003ESamuel Finley Breese Morse worked at various times in his career as a painter, inventor, photographer, and politician. Born in Charlestown, Massachusetts, he was the son of a Congregational minister and geographer and attended Yale University (then Yale College), where he pursued science, art, and other subjects. While supporting himself with portrait painting, he attracted the interest of the painter Washington Allston, whom he joined in travel to London in 1811. Morse studied at the Royal Academy of Arts for four years under the watchful eye of Benjamin West. Upon returning to the United States, he worked primarily as an itinerant portrait painter. In 1822, he completed his ambitious multifigure historical painting \u003Cem\u003EThe House of Representatives\u003C\/em\u003E (National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC), for which he compiled nearly one hundred portraits of congressmen, delegates, and other figures. In 1825, Morse helped to found the National Academy of Design, serving as its first and long-term president. In the early 1830s, he following up \u003Cem\u003EThe House of Representatives\u003C\/em\u003E with his equally ambitious \u003Cem\u003EGallery of the Louvre\u003C\/em\u003E (1833; Terra Foundation of American Art, Chicago). In the late 1830s, Morse abandoned his career as a painter to focus on developing the single-wire telegraph.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EThe high point of Morse\u2019s artistic career was his commission by the City of New York in 1824 to paint a full-length portrait of the Marquis de Lafayette (1825\u201326; City of New York, New York), who was then in the midst of a triumphal tour of the United States. The following February, the artist travelled to Washington, DC, where he painted a bust-length study of the Revolutionary War hero who had fought at the side of George Washington.\u003Cem\u003E Portrait of Lafayette\u003C\/em\u003E was acquired shortly after its execution by New York Mayor Philip Hone. The painting was sold at public auction in 1852 along with other property from Hone\u2019s estate and was purchased by the industrialist William Henry Osborn, whose art collection included, among others, paintings by Thomas Cole, Asher B. Durand, Daniel Huntington, Gilbert Stuart, Henry Peters Gray, William Holbrook Beard, and Frederic Edwin Church.\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EOsborn\u2019s decision to donate the portrait to the New York Public Library in 1876 may have been spurred by the hundredth anniversary that year of US independence. It might also have been inspired by the installation that year of Frederic Auguste Bartholdi\u2019s Lafayette Memorial in Union Square Park, New York. Bartholdi\u2019s bronze sculpture was given by the government of France as a token of appreciation for the help New York City provided France during the Franco-Prussian War (1870\u201371).\u00a0\u003Cbr \/\u003E\n\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_nationality":"US","field_date":"1825","field_dimensions":"30 x 25 in. (76.2 x 63.5 cm.)","field_bibliography":"\u003Cp style=\u0022margin:0in 0in 0.0001pt\u0022\u003EStaiti, Paul J. \u003Cem\u003ESamuel F. B. Morse\u003C\/em\u003E. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1989.\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_desc_author":"BW","field_llg_number":"15, no. 99","field_alt_title":""},{"title":"La Ch\u00fbte impr\u00e9vue (The Unexpected Fall)","nid":"595","field_image":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_3d\/public\/paintings\/2018-06\/g-3-3.jpg?itok=CX7Eap8_","field_image_hd":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_hd\/public\/paintings\/2018-06\/g-3-3.jpg?itok=OYpqGQEl","field_image_credit":"Artwork in the public domain; photograph courtesy New York Public Library. ","field_position_code":"g_3_3","field_artist":"Ferdinand De Braekeleer the Elder","field_original_artist":"","field_artist_date":"1792\u20131883","field_current_owner":"Unknown","field_llg_info":"\u003Cp\u003E\u201cPainted to order, 21 October, 1850.\u201d\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_medium":"Unknown","field_location":"south wall, west side","field_id":"109","field_description":"\u003Cp\u003EFerdinand De Braekeleer the Elder, orphaned at a young age, was admitted to the art school for orphans of Mathieu Ignace van Br\u00e9e in Antwerp. In his mid-teens, he became a student at the Royal Academy of Antwerp. By his early twenties, his success was such that his work \u003Cem\u003EAeneas Saving Anchises from the Fire of Troy\u003C\/em\u003E (present location unknown) was accepted at the Paris Salon of 1813. After travels throughout Europe and an extended stay in Rome, De Braekeleer returned to Antwerp, where he taught a number of Belgian painters including his two sons, Ferdinand the Younger (1828\u201357) and Henri De Braekeleer (1840\u201388).\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EFerdinand the Elder, who aspired as a history painter, is best known for his humorous genre scenes of contemporary Belgian life. This painting, one of five that Lenox brought in the early 1850s, is typical of the comic, everyday scenes that characterized the painter\u2019s most popular work.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EDe Braekeleer was one of four contemporary Belgian artists\u2014J. B. Madou, Eug\u00e8ne Verboeckhoven, and Constant Wauters\u2014whose work Lenox collected. All of their paintings were bought between 1850 and 1856. Most of them were bought on Lenox\u2019s behalf by De Braekeleer the Elder, whose son Ferdinand De Braekeleer the Younger maintained a gallery of Belgian artists in New York in the early 1850s. With the exception of the \u003Cem\u003ECatalogue of a Collection of Oil Paintings by the Modern Belgian Masters in Possession of De Braekeleer\u003C\/em\u003E (1852), evidence of the gallery is scarce. However, an exhibition of Belgian and Rhenish paintings held in 1853 at the National Academy of Design confirms New Yorkers\u2019 interest in Belgian art.\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_nationality":"Flemish","field_date":"1850","field_dimensions":"19.25 x 15 in. (48.9 x 38.1 cm.)","field_bibliography":"\u003Cp\u003EFerdinand De Braekeleer Correspondence. James Lenox Papers. Box 2, Manuscripts and Archives Division. New York Public Library, New York.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EParke-Bernet Galleries, New York. \u003Cem\u003EEnglish and Continental Furniture, Paintings, Georgian Silver, Laces, Porcelains, Rugs\u003C\/em\u003E. New York: Parke-Bernet Galleries, 1943. Auction catalogue.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EVautier, D. \u201cDe Braekeleer Family.\u201d Grove Art Online. Published 2003. Accessed September 8, 2018. \u003Ca href=\u0022http:\/\/\/\/www.oxfordartonline.com\/groveart\/view\/10.1093\/gao\/9781884446054.001.0001\/oao-9781884446054-e-7000021696\u0022\u003Ehttp:\/\/\/\/www.oxfordartonline.com\/groveart\/view\/10.1093\/gao\/9781884446054.001.0001\/oao-9781884446054-e-7000021696\u003C\/a\u003E.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EParke-Bernet Galleries. English and Continental Furniture, Paintings, Georgian Silver, Laces, Porcelains, Rugs. New York: Parke-Bernet Galleries, 1943. Auction catalogue.\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_desc_author":"SW","field_llg_number":"18, no. 113","field_alt_title":""},{"title":"View of Plympton [or Plymouth] Castle","nid":"596","field_image":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_3d\/public\/paintings\/2018-10\/image_not_found_5.jpg?itok=IppkMsR0","field_image_hd":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_hd\/public\/paintings\/2018-10\/image_not_found_5.jpg?itok=RVE7_efa","field_image_credit":"","field_position_code":"b_1_2","field_artist":"Major George Colomb","field_original_artist":"","field_artist_date":"1787\u20131874","field_current_owner":"Unknown","field_llg_info":"\u003Cp\u003ENone\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_medium":"Unknown","field_location":"north wall, west side","field_id":"23","field_description":"\u003Cp\u003EGeorge Colomb retired to Dublin after his naval career and in the 1850s began to paint landscapes and marines, submitting them for exhibition at the Royal Hibernian Academy, where he continued to exhibit for the next ten years.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EPlymouth Castle was an early fifteenth-century fortification built to defend the coast of Devon, England. Over time, it no longer served a military function and fell into disrepair. This is one of several paintings of the countryside near Devon in the southwest part of England. Lenox\u2019s interest in this particular site or in Devon generally is not known.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EThere is another painting by Colomb in Lenox\u2019s collection titled \u003Ca class=\u0022in_gallery\u0022 href=\u0022#\u0022 target=\u002216\u0022\u003E\u003Cem\u003EThe Mill House, near Kirkcudbright\u003C\/em\u003E\u003C\/a\u003E (\u003Cem\u003ELLG\u003C\/em\u003E 5, no. 15).\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_nationality":"British","field_date":"Unknown","field_dimensions":"Unknown","field_bibliography":"","field_desc_author":"SW","field_llg_number":"5, no. 20","field_alt_title":""},{"title":"A Woody Landscape, with Mountains in the Distance","nid":"597","field_image":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_3d\/public\/paintings\/2018-10\/image_not_found_6.jpg?itok=FXeR63JX","field_image_hd":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_hd\/public\/paintings\/2018-10\/image_not_found_6.jpg?itok=08ZxvMig","field_image_credit":"","field_position_code":"b_1_3","field_artist":"Peter [Patrick] Nasmyth","field_original_artist":"","field_artist_date":"1787\u20131831","field_current_owner":"Unknown","field_llg_info":"\u003Cp\u003E\u201cBought at Christie\u2019s, in London, June 21, 1850, from the collection of Charles Meigh, Esq.\u201d\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_medium":"Unknown","field_location":"north wall, west side","field_id":"24","field_description":"\u003Cp\u003EPatrick Nasmyth trained with his farther, Alexander Nasmyth, who was known as the father of Scottish landscape painting. In 1808, Peter settled in London, where he associated with the Scottish artists David Roberts and David Wilkie, both of whom are also represented in Lenox\u2019s collection.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003ENasmyth was dubbed the English Hobbema (after the Dutch landscape painter Meindert Hobbema) for his romantic, evocative landscapes often based on his memories of Scotland. Done on a small scale, his paintings were popular with international collectors. It may be that Lenox was drawn to this Nasmyth\u2019s painting because of its Scottish associations.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EIn the early 1840s, when Lenox\u2019s painting was still owned by Charles Meigh, it was described as \u201ca well painted view of mountain scenery. The penciling of the foliage is solid and free, and the picture is good specimen of the master\u201d (\u003Cem\u003EA Critical and Descriptive Catalogue\u003C\/em\u003E 1843, 44).\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_nationality":"Scottish","field_date":"Unknown","field_dimensions":"24 x 18 in. (61 x 46 cm.)","field_bibliography":"\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cem\u003EA Critical and Descriptive Catalogue of a Collection of Pictures at Grove House\u003C\/em\u003E, Shelton. Hanley, UK: Thomas Allbut, 1843. Collection catalogue.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003ECooksey, Janet. \u201cNasmyth Family.\u201d Grove Art Online. Published 2003. Accessed September 7, 2018.\u003Cbr \/\u003E\u003Ca href=\u0022http:\/\/\/\/www.oxfordartonline.com\/groveart\/view\/10.1093\/gao\/9781884446054.001.0001\/oao-9781884446054-e-7000061077\u0022 target=\u0022new\u0022\u003Ehttp:\/\/\/\/www.oxfordartonline.com\/groveart\/view\/10.1093\/gao\/9781884446054.001.0001\/oao-9781884446054-e-7000061077\u003C\/a\u003E.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003E\u201cNasmyth, Patrick.\u201d Wikipedia. Accessed September 7, 2018. \u003Ca href=\u0022http:\/\/en.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/Patrick_Nasmyth\u0022 target=\u0022new\u0022\u003Ehttp:\/\/en.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/Patrick_Nasmyth\u003C\/a\u003E.\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_desc_author":"SW","field_llg_number":"6, no. 22","field_alt_title":""},{"title":"A Rustic Landscape, with a Rainbow","nid":"598","field_image":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_3d\/public\/paintings\/2018-10\/image_not_found_7.jpg?itok=9BpEvMqH","field_image_hd":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_hd\/public\/paintings\/2018-10\/image_not_found_7.jpg?itok=ZQHD7Dox","field_image_credit":"","field_position_code":"b_1_4","field_artist":"John Constable","field_original_artist":"","field_artist_date":"1776\u20131837","field_current_owner":"Unknown","field_llg_info":"\u003Cp\u003E\u201cProbably a copy. Bought at Christie\u2019s, London 21, 1850, from the collection of Charles Meigh, Esq.\u201d\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_medium":"Oil on canvas","field_location":"north wall, west side","field_id":"25","field_description":"\u003Cp\u003EJohn Constable, along with J. M. W. Turner, was the leading British landscape painter of his era.\u00a0Unlike Turner, who sought out the wild and dramatic effects of nature, Constable preferred the bucolic landscape near his home in the Stour Valley in East Anglia, where this work may have been painted.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EAs stated in the \u003Cem\u003ELLG\u003C\/em\u003E, this painting may be a copy. The edition of the LLG used for this project was published after Lenox\u2019s death, and it may have been his librarians who determined that it was a copy. When it was still in Charles Meigh\u2019s collection, it was described as \u201ca lively pleasing view, painted with freedom, and coloured with great clearness\u201d (\u003Cem\u003EA Critical and Descriptive Catalogue\u003C\/em\u003E 1843, 31). Two years after purchasing this painting at Christie\u2019s in 1850, \u00a0Lenox purchased his first authentic Constable painting, \u003Ca class=\u0022in_gallery\u0022 href=\u0022#\u0022 target=\u002226\u0022\u003E\u003Cem\u003ECottage on a River\u2014\u201cThe Valley Farm\u201d (Valley Farm, Flatford [Willy Lott\u2019s House]\u003C\/em\u003E\u003C\/a\u003E; \u003Cem\u003ELLG\u003C\/em\u003E 6, no. 23).\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003ELenox may have been encouraged to buy this and other Constable paintings by his advisor, Charles Robert Leslie, who knew Constable personally and published his \u003Cem\u003EMemoirs of John Constable\u003C\/em\u003E in 1845.\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_nationality":"British","field_date":"Original, ca. 1808\u201316","field_dimensions":"13 x 17 in. (33 x 43 cm.)","field_bibliography":"\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cem\u003EA Critical and Descriptive Catalogue of a Collection of Pictures at Grove House,\u003C\/em\u003E Shelton. Hanley, UK: Thomas Allbut, 1843.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EHerrmanns, Luke. \u003Cem\u003ENineteenth-Century British Painting\u003C\/em\u003E. London: Giles de la Mare, 2000.\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_desc_author":"SW","field_llg_number":"5, no. 21","field_alt_title":""},{"title":"Cottage on a River\u2014\u201cThe Valley Farm\u201d","nid":"599","field_image":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/index.php\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_3d\/public\/paintings\/2018-08\/b.1.5%20Color%20from%20Tate_.jpg?itok=yOBjL7fB","field_image_hd":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_hd\/public\/paintings\/2018-08\/b.1.5%20Color%20from%20Tate_.jpg?itok=f6RHx6Ba","field_image_credit":"Artwork in the public domain; Digital image \u00a9 Tate, London 2014.","field_position_code":"b_1_5","field_artist":"John Constable","field_original_artist":"","field_artist_date":"1776\u20131837","field_current_owner":"Unknown","field_llg_info":"\u003Cp\u003E\u201cA variation from the picture in the Vernon Gallery. See Leslie\u2019s \u003Cem\u003EMemoirs of Constable\u003C\/em\u003E. Bought at Christie\u2019s, London, 11 March, 1848. \u2018The Constable is genuine, and I think a very good specimen. It is a view of \u2018Willy Lott\u2019s House,\u2019 at Flatford. He afterwards painted a larger picture of it, which is in Mr. Vernon\u2019s collection, and there is much said of this in the \u2018Memoirs.\u2019 It was exhibited with the title of \u201cThe Valley Farm.\u201d\u2019\u2014C. R. Leslie to Mr. Lenox, March 10, 1848.\u201d\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_medium":"Oil on canvas","field_location":"north wall, west side","field_id":"26","field_description":"\u003Cp\u003EConstable, along with J. M. W. Turner, was the leading British landscape painter of his era.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003ELike Turner, Constable broke from convention and created innumerable studies from nature that in the twentieth century offered him wide acclaim. Unlike Turner, who sought out the wild and dramatic effects of nature, Constable preferred the more broad, bucolic vistas of the Lake District, Salisbury Cathedral, and most importantly the views hear his home in the Stour Valley in East Anglia near to where this work was painted.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EThe Tate Gallery owns the final larger version of this painting, made for Robert Vernon, titled only \u003Ci\u003EThe Valley Farm \u003C\/i\u003E(\u201cJohn Constable\u201d). According to Charles Robert Leslie\u2019s note, Lenox\u2019s painting, which evidently is sketchier and more freely painted and is not a copy, was done before the Vernon painting. However, in 1981 Leslie Parris, writing in \u003Ci\u003EThe Tate Gallery Constable Collection\u003C\/i\u003E, confirms that it is not certain if Lenox\u2019s painting came before or after Vernon\u2019s painting. Both paintings contain views of Willy Lott\u2019s house (also known as the Valley Farm) located in Flatford, Suffolk, along the Stour River.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EAccording to \u003Ci\u003EThe Valley Farm\u003C\/i\u003E\u2019s entry on the Tate website (\u201cJohn Constable\u201d), Lott was a farmer who lived in this house for over eighty years. Constable\u2019s family home was nearby and this particular site and Lott\u2019s house symbolized for the artist a lost way of life\u2014one more closely tied to nature and rural life, which were the painter\u2019s touchstones. Constable worked on the Vernon painting for a number of years, creating many studies in oil and pencil. He also used Lott\u2019s house in other paintings, such as \u003Ci\u003EThe Mill Stream\u003C\/i\u003E (1814\u201315; Ipswich Museum, Ipswich) and \u003Ci\u003EThe Hay Wain\u003C\/i\u003E (1821; National Gallery, London).\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003ELenox bought this painting shortly after the appearance of Leslie\u2019s \u003Ci\u003EMemoir of the Life of John Constable\u003C\/i\u003E (1845) confirming Leslie\u2019s knowledge of the painter and thereby the importance of his recommendation.\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_nationality":"British","field_date":"Unknown, original 1835","field_dimensions":"24 x 20 in. (61 x 51 cm.)","field_bibliography":"\u003Cp\u003EHamlyn, Robin. \u003Ci\u003ERobert Vernon\u2019s Gift\u2014British Art for the Nation 1847\u003C\/i\u003E. London: Tate Gallery, 1993. Exhibition catalogue.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003E\u201cJohn Constable, \u003Ci\u003EThe Valley Farm\u003C\/i\u003E, 1835.\u201d Tate. Accessed September 10, 2018. \u003Ca href=\u0022http:\/\/www.tate.org.uk\/art\/artworks\/constable-the-valley-farm-n00327\u0022\u003Ehttp:\/\/www.tate.org.uk\/art\/artworks\/constable-the-valley-farm-n00327\u003C\/a\u003E.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EParke-Bernet Galleries, New York. \u003Ci\u003ENotable Paintings All from Institutional Private Owners Including Paintings from the Collection of the New York Public Library.\u003C\/i\u003E New York: Parke-Bernet Galleries, 1956. Auction catalogue.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EParris, Leslie.\u003Ci\u003EThe Tate Gallery Constable Collection\u003C\/i\u003E. London, 1981. Collection catalogue.\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_desc_author":"SW","field_llg_number":"6, no. 23","field_alt_title":""},{"title":"Falls of Terni","nid":"600","field_image":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_3d\/public\/paintings\/2018-08\/B.2.1_giambattista-bassi-the-cascata-delle-marmore-on-the-river-velino-near-terni.jpg?itok=AbiiiJOL","field_image_hd":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_hd\/public\/paintings\/2018-08\/B.2.1_giambattista-bassi-the-cascata-delle-marmore-on-the-river-velino-near-terni.jpg?itok=QVV8GkIg","field_image_credit":"Artwork in the public domain, photograph courtesy of Artnet. ","field_position_code":"b_2_1","field_artist":"G. [Giambattista] Bassi","field_original_artist":"","field_artist_date":"1784\u20131852","field_current_owner":"Unknown","field_llg_info":"\u003Cp\u003E\u201cRome, 1820.\u201d\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_medium":"Oil on canvas","field_location":"north wall, west side","field_id":"27","field_description":"\u003Cp\u003EAccording to the \u003Cem\u003ELLG\u003C\/em\u003E, this painting, along with the Andrea del Sarto, was purchased in Rome in 1820. Lenox did not reach Rome until several years later. This may have been bought by his parents on a trip abroad or by his uncle, James Lennox, who was living in Scotland at the time. Neither supposition can be verified.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EThe little that is known about the Italian landscape painter Giambattista Bassi is that he was a friend of the Italian sculptor Antonio Canova and influenced by the work of eighteenth-century landscape painters, including the Italian artist Salvator Rosa, and the French painters Claude Lorraine and Nicolas Poussin. Examples of his work include \u003Cem\u003EFalls of Velino\u003C\/em\u003E (1820; location unknown) and \u003Cem\u003ELake Albano\u003C\/em\u003E (ca. 1816; location unknown). \u003Cem\u003EThe Cascata delle Marmore on the River Velino near Terni\u003C\/em\u003E, dated 1820, bears a strong resemblance to this work and may have been owned by Lenox.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EIn 2001, Bassi\u2019s work was included in an exhibition at the International Center for Arts and Culture in the Palazzo Te in Mantua entitled \u003Cem\u003EAn Enchanted Country: Italy Depicted by Artists from Thomas Jones to Corot\u003C\/em\u003E.\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_nationality":"Italian","field_date":"ca. 1820","field_dimensions":"38.8 x 28.5 in. (98.5 x 72.4 cm.)","field_bibliography":"\u003Cp\u003E\u201cPast auction [\u003Cem\u003EThe Cascata delle Marmore on the River Velino near Terni\u003C\/em\u003E].\u201d Artnet. Accessed September 10, 2018. \u003Ca href=\u0022http:\/\/www.artnet.com\/artists\/giambattista-bassi\/the-cascata-delle-marmore-on-the-river-velino-Btkeag__JfGUuPyLcjyLBw2\u0022 target=\u0022new\u0022\u003Ehttp:\/\/www.artnet.com\/artists\/giambattista-bassi\/the-cascata-delle-marmore-on-the-river-velino-Btkeag__JfGUuPyLcjyLBw2\u003C\/a\u003E.\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_desc_author":"SW","field_llg_number":"7, no. 24","field_alt_title":""},{"title":"A Romantic Woody Landscape, with a Peasant and Two Horses Crossing a Pool of Water, and Sheep on a Rising Ground","nid":"601","field_image":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_3d\/public\/paintings\/2018-08\/b.2.2_COLOR%20_0.jpg?itok=FSRQvc1N","field_image_hd":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_hd\/public\/paintings\/2018-08\/b.2.2_COLOR%20_0.jpg?itok=Ih6WkOlw","field_image_credit":"Artwork in the public domain; photograph courtesy Wadsworth Atheneum, Hartford, CT.","field_position_code":"b_2_2","field_artist":"Thomas Gainsborough","field_original_artist":"","field_artist_date":"1727\u201388","field_current_owner":"Wadsworth Atheneum, Hartford, CT","field_llg_info":"\u003Cp\u003E\u201c\u2018Originally in the collection of Sir Joshua Reynolds.\u2019 Bought at Christie\u2019s, London, June 21, 1850 from the collection of Charles Meigh, Esq.\u201d\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_medium":"Oil on canvas","field_location":"north wall, west side","field_id":"28","field_description":"\u003Cp\u003EThomas Gainsborough was, along with Sir Joshua Reynolds, one the of the best known and admired British portrait painters of the second half of the eighteenth century. He was also widely acclaimed for his landscape paintings and acknowledged, along with Richard Wilson, as the father of the British school. He was also one of the founding members of the Royal Academy.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EAccording to John Hayes, the compiler of a catalogue raisonn\u00e9 of Gainsborough\u2019s landscape paintings, this is a late landscape done during his \u201cLondon years\u201d and was probably undertaken during a tour of West England with his nephew and studio assistant, Gainsborough Dupont (Hayes 1982, 1:161).\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EThis beautifully lit landscape is painted in dull shades of green, gray, and brown. The scene is a darkened windswept hill at the bottom of which is a shallow pond. Traversing the pond is a rider on horseback, possibly the artist\u2019s nephew, who is accompanied by a pack horse and followed by white dog.\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_nationality":"British","field_date":"1783\u201384","field_dimensions":"25 x 30 in. (63.5 x 76.2 cm.)","field_bibliography":"\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cem\u003EA Critical and Descriptive Catalogue of a Collection of Pictures at Grove House\u003C\/em\u003E, Shelton. Hanley, UK: Thomas Allbut, 1843. Collection catalogue. Lenox\u2019s painting could be one of two paintings listed in the catalogue done by Gainsborough and called \u003Cem\u003EA Landscape\u003C\/em\u003E: p. 40, no. 120, or p. 35, no. 100.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EHayes, John. \u003Cem\u003EThe Landscape Paintings of Thomas Gainsborough Catalogue Raisonn\u00e9\u003C\/em\u003E. 2 vols. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1982.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EParke-Bernet Galleries, New York. \u003Cem\u003ENotable Paintings All from Institutional Private Owners Including Paintings from the Collection of the New York Public Library\u003C\/em\u003E. New York: Parke-Bernet Galleries, 1956. Auction catalogue.\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_desc_author":"SW","field_llg_number":"6, no. 25","field_alt_title":"Woody Landscape"},{"title":"The Mill House, near Kirkcudbright","nid":"602","field_image":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_3d\/public\/paintings\/2018-10\/image_not_found_8.jpg?itok=ZuViQpdj","field_image_hd":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_hd\/public\/paintings\/2018-10\/image_not_found_8.jpg?itok=HQ7cDui2","field_image_credit":"","field_position_code":"b_3_1","field_artist":"Major George Colomb","field_original_artist":"","field_artist_date":"1787\u20131874","field_current_owner":"Unknown","field_llg_info":"\u003Cp\u003E\u201c(Another view\u2014see No. 15) \u2018Painted for James Lennox [sic], Esq., of Dalscairth, in 1838.\u2019\u201d\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_medium":"Unknown","field_location":"north wall, west side","field_id":"29","field_description":"\u003Cp\u003EGeorge Colomb was a British naval officer who was stationed for two years in the United States just prior to the War of 1812. When he retired from the navy in 1841, he settled in Dublin and began painting landscapes and marines, submitting them for exhibition at the Royal Hibernian Academy, where he continued to exhibit until 1868. He had some local success but never achieved an international reputation.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EGiven the notation in the\u003Cem\u003E LLG\u003C\/em\u003E that this work was \u201cpainted for James Lennox, Esq. of Dalscairth,\u201d this Scottish landscape, as well as another painting by Colomb with the same title (LLG 5, no. 15), was owned by Lenox\u2019s uncle who lived in Scotland from 1817 to 1839. The ancestral home was called Dalskairth in Kirkcudbright. James Lenox\u2019s great uncle David Sproat owned the Kirkcudbright property, which he entailed \u201cin favor of his nephews, and upon his death it passed to David Lenox of Philadelphia, then to Robert Lenox of New York, and at his death to his son James, his brother James having died before him\u201d (Banks 1938, 102). After the deaths of his father and uncles, James inherited the Kirkcudbright property around 1840. It is further assumed that the mill referenced in the title was near the Lenoxes\u2019 ancestral home.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EThroughout his life as a collector, Lenox commissioned other landscape settings near his ancestral home. \u003Ca class=\u0022in_gallery\u0022 data-view=\u0022grid\u0022 href=\u0022#\u0022 id=\u0022genre\u0022 target=\u0022Views of Kirkcudbright\u0022\u003EThese include two paintings by Thomas Clark, View of Kirkcudbright and View of Port Mary, near Kirkcudbright, Where Queen Mary Embarked for England (1876; LLG 10, no. 48); a second work by Colomb with the same title, The Mill House, near Kirkcudbright (n.d.; LLG 5, no. 15); Peter Paton\u2019s View of Dalskairth, near Dumfries (1830; LLG 8, no. 35); and Henry Inman\u2019s View of Dundrennan Abbey near Kirkcudbright (1845; LLG 5, no. 13).\u003C\/a\u003E\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_nationality":"British","field_date":"Unknown","field_dimensions":"Unknown","field_bibliography":"\u003Cp style=\u0022margin:0in 0in 0.0001pt\u0022\u003EBanks, James Lenox. \u003Cem\u003EGenealogical Notes Concerning the Banks and Allied Families\u003C\/em\u003E. New York: privately printed, 1938.\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_desc_author":"SW","field_llg_number":"6, no. 26","field_alt_title":""},{"title":"Ruloff Jansen\u2019s Kill","nid":"603","field_image":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_3d\/public\/paintings\/2018-06\/b_3_2.jpg?itok=11BJaYC9","field_image_hd":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_hd\/public\/paintings\/2018-06\/b_3_2.jpg?itok=HbX2ETJK","field_image_credit":"Artwork in the public domain; photograph courtesy New York Public Library. ","field_position_code":"b_3_2","field_artist":"Asher Brown Durand","field_original_artist":"","field_artist_date":"1796\u20131886","field_current_owner":"Unknown","field_llg_info":"\u003Cp\u003E\u201cBought at the Metropolitan Fair in 1864.\u201d\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_medium":"Unknown","field_location":"north wall, west side","field_id":"30","field_description":"\u003Cp\u003EAsher B. Durand began his artistic career as an engraver. He took up oil painting by the early 1830s and enjoyed a successful career as a portraitist. Durand became interested in landscape painting during an 1837 sketching trip to Schroon Lake in the Adirondack Mountains with Thomas Cole. The following year, he exhibited nine landscapes at the National Academy of Design, and from this time forward he devoted himself to the subject almost exclusively. Durand remained one of the leading landscape painters in the United States from the time of Cole\u2019s death in 1848 until 1869, when he retired to his New Jersey property.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cem\u003ERuloff Jansen\u2019s Kill\u003C\/em\u003E dates from ca. 1863. The painting records a spot near the source of a major tributary to the\u00a0Hudson River, known as Ruloff Jansen\u2019s Kill, which begins near the northern border of Hillsdale in Columbia County, New York. The painting is probably based on sketches Durand created during the period between June and October 1861 when he went on various excursions in Hillsdale. Durand often ventured to Upstate New York during the summer months to sketch and plan future subjects, which he would then paint at his easel back in the city.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EAccording to the entry for the painting in the \u003Cem\u003ELLG\u003C\/em\u003E, Lenox purchased this landscape from the Metropolitan Fair, which opened in New York City on March 28, 1864. The fair was organized by the\u00a0United States Sanitary Commission (USSC), a private relief agency created by federal legislation to support sick and wounded soldiers of the\u00a0United States Union Army during the\u00a0American Civil War. Operating across the North, the USSC raised an estimated $25 million in revenue and in-kind contributions and enlisted thousands of volunteers. In support of relief for the sick and wounded of the Northern Army in the Civil War, Lenox also acquired paintings by Albert Bierstadt and John Frederick Kensett from the fair. The catalogue for the art exhibition at the fair lists the works by Bierstadt and Kensett, but not Durand\u2019s landscape. It is likely that the picture was a late addition and therefore did not make it onto the checklist.\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_nationality":"US","field_date":"Unknown","field_dimensions":"14 x 20 in. (35.6 x 50.8 cm.)","field_bibliography":"\u003Cp\u003ELawall, David B. Asher B. Durand, \u003Cem\u003EA Documentary Catalogue of the Narrative and Landscape Paintings\u003C\/em\u003E. New York: Garland Publishing, 1978.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EParke-Bernet Galleries, New York. \u003Cem\u003EEnglish and Continental Furniture, Paintings, Georgian Silver, Laces, Porcelains, Rugs\u003C\/em\u003E. New York: Parke-Bernet Galleries, 1943. Auction catalogue.\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_desc_author":"BW","field_llg_number":"7, no. 27","field_alt_title":"Summer Day: Study from Nature"},{"title":"Valley of the Yo Semite, California","nid":"604","field_image":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_3d\/public\/paintings\/2018-08\/b.3.3_Bierstadt.jpg?itok=FNrBHu7A","field_image_hd":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_hd\/public\/paintings\/2018-08\/b.3.3_Bierstadt.jpg?itok=fLIeS6mA","field_image_credit":"Artwork in the public domain; photograph courtesy Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.","field_position_code":"b_3_3","field_artist":"Albert Bierstadt","field_original_artist":"","field_artist_date":"1830\u20131902","field_current_owner":"Museum of Fine Arts, Boston","field_llg_info":"\u003Cp\u003E\u201cBought at the Metropolitan Fair in 1864.\u201d\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_medium":"Oil on paperboard","field_location":"north wall, west side","field_id":"31","field_description":"\u003Cp\u003EWhen the US artist Albert Bierstadt returned in 1857 after four years of study in Europe, he began to travel extensively in the United States, making at least six trips to the West. The artist is best known today for his monumental Western landscape paintings depicting the Colorado and California wilderness, but he also painted a number of smaller and comparatively intimate views, such as \u003Ci\u003EValley of the Yo Semite\u003C\/i\u003E,\u003Ci\u003E California\u003C\/i\u003E. The Lenox version, which he finished in his New York studio, may have been his first rendering of the subject and is likely related to \u003Ci\u003ELooking Down Yosemite Valley\u003C\/i\u003E,\u003Ci\u003E California\u003C\/i\u003E (1865; Birmingham Museum of Art, Birmingham), painted the following year.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003ELenox was among a group of mid-nineteenth-century collectors drawn to Bierstadt\u2019s vision of the American West. In the late 1850s and early 1860s, he was regarded as the first artist in the United States to successfully capture the grandeur of the region on canvas. Created during a period when the West was a source of great national interest, these works represented a symbol of promise, unimaginable wealth, and natural resources in the public mind. With the unparalleled expansion westward in the mid-nineteenth century came Bierstadt\u2019s visionary and ennobling views of this rugged and still relatively unchartered territory. He presented the spectacular sites that he discovered on his sketching trips in a highly theatrical manner, favoring panoramic views centered on magisterial mountains lit by dazzling sunlight. As Henry T. Tuckerman noted in \u003Ci\u003EBook of the Artists\u003C\/i\u003E, Bierstadt\u2019s object was \u201cto produce a powerful impression of overwhelming natural grandeur\u201d (Tuckerman 1867, 395).\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003ELenox purchased \u003Ci\u003EValley of the Yo Semite\u003C\/i\u003E for $1,600, the highest price paid for any painting at the Metropolitan Fair, which opened in New York City on March 28, 1864 (\u003Ci\u003ECatalogue of the Art Exhibition \u003C\/i\u003E1864, 12). The fair was organized by the United States Sanitary Commission (USSC), a private relief agency created by federal legislation to support sick and wounded soldiers of the United States Union Army during the American Civil War. Operating across the North, the USSC raised an estimated $25 million in revenue and in-kind contributions, and enlisted thousands of volunteers in support of relief for the sick and wounded of the Northern Army in the Civil War. Lenox also acquired paintings by Asher B. Durand and John Frederick Kensett from the fair. The exhibition also included Bierstadt\u2019s \u003Ci\u003EThe Rocky Mountains\u003C\/i\u003E,\u003Ci\u003E Lander\u2019s Peak \u003C\/i\u003E(1863; Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York), one of his grandest and most monumental depictions of the American West, which was owned at the time by the collector Emil Seitz.\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_nationality":"US","field_date":"1864","field_dimensions":"11.9 x 19.25 in. (30.2 x 48.9 cm.)","field_bibliography":"\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cem\u003ECatalogue of the Art Exhibition at the Metropolitan Fair in Aid of the U.S. Sanitary Commission\u003C\/em\u003E. New York, 1864. Exhibition catalogue.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003ETuckerman, Henry T. \u003Cem\u003EBook of the Artists\u003C\/em\u003E. New York: G. P. Putnam, 1867; second ed. 1870; reprint ed. New York: James F. Carr, 1967.\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_desc_author":"BW","field_llg_number":"7, no. 28","field_alt_title":""},{"title":"Coast Scene\u00a0\u00a0","nid":"605","field_image":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_3d\/public\/paintings\/2018-08\/b.3.4_Kensett_0.jpg?itok=CP24A-zL","field_image_hd":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_hd\/public\/paintings\/2018-08\/b.3.4_Kensett_0.jpg?itok=xyGDQC4H","field_image_credit":"Artwork in the public domain; photograph courtesy New York Public Library. ","field_position_code":"b_3_4","field_artist":"John Frederick Kensett","field_original_artist":"","field_artist_date":"1816\u201372","field_current_owner":"Unknown","field_llg_info":"\u003Cp\u003E\u201cBought at the Metropolitan Fair in 1864.\u201d\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_medium":"Unknown","field_location":"north wall, west side","field_id":"32","field_description":"\u003Cp\u003EJohn Frederick Kensett began his career as an engraver, but he abandoned the medium during the course of the 1840s after deciding to turn his full attention to landscape painting. During this early period, he formed a close friendship with Asher B. Durand, who offered his support and counsel. Kensett travelled to Europe in 1840 in the company of Durand and spent the next seven years living principally in England and Italy. There, he had the opportunity to become familiar with European painting and to develop his style and technique. Kensett established his reputation shortly after his return to New York in 1847. His closely observed and harmonious landscapes of the northeastern United States were immensely popular and highly praised. Upon his death in 1872 at the age of fifty-six, Kensett was recognized as one of the leading and most influential members of the Hudson River School.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003ELenox purchased \u003Cem\u003ECoast Scene \u003C\/em\u003E(\u003Cem\u003ESeascape, Marine Landscape, Sunset on the Coast, Pro Patria\u003C\/em\u003E) from the Metropolitan Fair, which opened in New York City on March 28, 1864 (\u003Cem\u003ECatalogue of the Art Exhibition\u003C\/em\u003E 1864, 12). The fair was organized by the\u00a0United States Sanitary Commission (USSC), a private relief agency created by federal legislation to support sick and wounded soldiers of the\u00a0United States Union Army during the\u00a0American Civil War. Operating across the North, the USSC raised an estimated $25 million in revenue and in-kind contributions, and enlisted thousands of volunteers in support of relief for the sick and wounded of the Northern Army in the Civil War. Lenox also acquired paintings by Asher B. Durand and Albert Bierstadt from the fair.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cem\u003ECoast Scene\u003C\/em\u003E was one of five works by Kensett included in the exhibition. It probably features a view along the shore of Newport, Rhode Island. An inveterate summer traveler in search of picturesque views of inland and coastal waters, Kensett particularly favored depicting the Rhode Island shore in the early 1860s. By 1864, Kensett had developed a style that eliminated all inessential detail, relying instead on subtlety of technique to create classic expressions of nature\u2019s serenity. The artist became more conceptual and deliberate in his compositional designs, more subtle in rendering tonal relationships, and devoted greater attention to water as the bearer of reflections and mirror of the natural world. John Driscoll has noted that \u201cSuch scenery. . .met his compelling desire to reduce compositions to nature\u2019s basic components\u2014earth, water, and sky\u201d (Driscoll 1985, 99). It would have been natural for Lenox to recognize Kensett\u2019s growing originality and appreciate his exquisite and carefully balanced vision of nature.\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_nationality":"US","field_date":"1864","field_dimensions":"14 x 24 in. (35.6 x 61 cm.)","field_bibliography":"\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cem\u003ECatalogue of the Art Exhibition at the Metropolitan Fair in Aid of the U.S. Sanitary Commission\u003C\/em\u003E. New York: 1864. Exhibition catalogue.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EDriscoll, John. \u201cFrom Burin to Brush: The Development of a Painter.\u201d In \u003Cem\u003EJohn Frederick Kensett: An American Master\u003C\/em\u003E, 46\u2013135. Worcester, MA: Worcester Art Museum, 1985.\u003Cbr \/\u003E\n\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_desc_author":"BW","field_llg_number":"7, no. 29","field_alt_title":"Seascape"},{"title":"Landscape\u2014The Cow Drinking","nid":"606","field_image":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_3d\/public\/paintings\/2018-10\/image_not_found_28.jpg?itok=juwpx1sa","field_image_hd":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_hd\/public\/paintings\/2018-10\/image_not_found_28.jpg?itok=4NqZOCAa","field_image_credit":"","field_position_code":"b_4_1","field_artist":"J. B. Tom","field_original_artist":"Paul Potter (Dutch, 1625\u201354)","field_artist_date":"dates unknown","field_current_owner":"Unknown","field_llg_info":"\u003Cp\u003E\u201cCopy from the picture by Paul Potter, at the Hague. Purchased there in June, 1856.\u201d\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_medium":"Unknown","field_location":"north wall, west side","field_id":"33","field_description":"\u003Cp\u003EThere is no information on the painter J. B. Tom, who is cited in \u003Cem\u003ELLG\u003C\/em\u003E as the copyist of Paul Potter\u2019s painting. There are three paintings by Potter on the Mauritshuis website (\u201cPaulus Potter\u201d) and, given the title of this painting, this could be Tom\u2019s copy of \u003Cem\u003EThe Reflecting Cow\u003C\/em\u003E (1648; Mauritshuis, The Hague). This is one of three copies of Potter paintings owned by Lenox; the others were copies of his \u003Cem\u003EYoung Bull\u003C\/em\u003E (\u003Cem\u003ELLG\u003C\/em\u003E 3, no. 1, and 4, no. 8).\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EPotter\u2019s rural subject matter was much admired by artists working in The Hague, and Lenox\u2019s desire to have a Potter painting, even a copy, was no doubt influenced by the resurgence of interest in Potter during the first half of the nineteenth century. Writing at this time, John Smith, who published an extensive catalogue of northern painters, noted that Potter through \u201cthe skillful introduction of his cows and other cattle which give interest and value to his pieces . . . [has] deservedly placed him[self] at the head of his profession in such representations\u201d (Smith 1827\u201342, 5:116).\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_nationality":"nationality unknown","field_date":"Unknown","field_dimensions":"Unknown","field_bibliography":"\u003Cp\u003E\u201cPaulus Potter,\u00a0\u003Cem\u003EThe Reflecting Cow\u003C\/em\u003E, 1648.\u201d Mauritshuis. Accessed September 10, 2018. \u003Ca href=\u0022http:\/\/www.mauritshuis.nl\/nl-nl\/verdiep\/de-collectie\/kunstwerken\/het-spiegelende-koetje-137\/detailgegevens\/\u0022 target=\u0022new\u0022\u003Ehttp:\/\/www.mauritshuis.nl\/nl-nl\/verdiep\/de-collectie\/kunstwerken\/het-spiegelende-koetje-137\/detailgegevens\/\u003C\/a\u003E.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003ESmith, John. \u003Cem\u003EA Catalogue Raisonn\u00e9 of the Works of the Most Eminent Dutch, Flemish and French Painters\u003C\/em\u003E. London: Smith \u0026amp; Son, 1827\u201342.\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_desc_author":"SW","field_llg_number":"7, no. 30","field_alt_title":""},{"title":"A Storm in a Wood\u2014With Deer by E. Verboeckhoven","nid":"607","field_image":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_3d\/public\/paintings\/2018-06\/b-4-2.jpg?itok=plclBX5A","field_image_hd":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_hd\/public\/paintings\/2018-06\/b-4-2.jpg?itok=0XOoDACy","field_image_credit":"Artwork in the public domain; photograph courtesy New York Public Library. ","field_position_code":"b_4_2","field_artist":"[Fran\u00e7ois] Aug. [Auguste] Ortmans","field_original_artist":"","field_artist_date":"1827\u201384; 1798\u20131881","field_current_owner":"Unknown","field_llg_info":"\u003Cp\u003E\u201cPurchased from the artist, by Mr. De Braekeleer [the Elder], in 1853.\u201d\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_medium":"Unknown","field_location":"north wall, west side","field_id":"34","field_description":"\u003Cp\u003EBorn in Paris, Fran\u00e7ois Auguste\u00a0Ortmans\u00a0studied at the Antwerp Academy with Jakob Jakobs (1843\u201344). During this time, he frequently visited the studio of Eug\u00e8ne Verboeckhoven. From 1849\u201352, he worked in Hamburg, before moving back to Paris. In 1854, he joined the Barbizon group in the Forest of Fontainebleau, where he met with Th\u00e9odore Rousseau and Rosa Bonheur, among others. He exhibited regularly at the Paris Salon and also at the Salons of Antwerp and Brussels.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EAs the \u003Cem\u003ELLG\u003C\/em\u003E states, Ortmans collaborated with the Belgian artist Verboeckhoven, who was one of four contemporary Belgian artists\u2014with Ferdinand De Braekeleer the Elder, J. B. Madou, and Constant Wauters\u2014whose work Lenox collected. All of their paintings were bought between 1850 and 1856. There was enough interest in contemporary Belgian painting that during this same time period De Braekeleer\u2019s son, Ferdinand De Braekeleer the Younger, opened a gallery in New York, where he exhibited paintings by modern Belgian artists, and an exhibition of Belgian and Rhenish paintings was held at the National Academy of Design in 1853.\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_nationality":"French","field_date":"1851","field_dimensions":"24.5 x 32.5 in. (62.2 x 82.5 cm.)","field_bibliography":"\u003Cp\u003EBertrand, \u00c9tienne. \u003Ci\u003EFran\u00e7ois-Auguste Ortmans, 1826\u003C\/i\u003E \u003Ci\u003E 1884: un maillon entre les \u00e9coles du Nord et Barbizon \u003C\/i\u003E . Paris: Lienart \u00c9ditions, 2009. Exhibition catalogue.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003E\u003Ci\u003ECatalogue of a Collection of Oil Paintings by the Modern Belgian Masters in Possession of De Braekeleer \u003C\/i\u003E . New York, 1852.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EFerdinand De Braekeleer Correspondence. James Lenox Papers. Box 2, Manuscripts and Archives Division. New York Public Library, New York.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003E\u201cOrtmans, Fran\u00e7ois August.\u201d Benezit Dictionary of Art. Published 2011. Accessed September 7, 2018. \u003Ca href=\u0022http:\/\/\/\/www.oxfordartonline.com\/benezit\/view\/10.1093\/benz\/9780199773787.001.0001\/acref-9780199773787-e-00133730\u0022 target=\u0022new\u0022\u003Ehttp:\/\/\/\/www.oxfordartonline.com\/benezit\/view\/10.1093\/benz\/9780199773787.001.0001\/acref-9780199773787-e-00133730\u003C\/a\u003E.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EParke-Bernet Galleries, New York. \u003Ci\u003EEnglish and Continental Furniture, Paintings, Georgian Silver, Laces, Porcelains, Rugs\u003C\/i\u003E. New York: Parke-Bernet Galleries, 1943. Auction catalogue.\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_desc_author":"SW","field_llg_number":"7, no. 31","field_alt_title":""},{"title":"A Scene on the French Coast, with an English Ship-of-War Stranded","nid":"608","field_image":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_3d\/public\/paintings\/2018-08\/b.4.3_Turner%20Frick%20.jpg?itok=1G8Kn86P","field_image_hd":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_hd\/public\/paintings\/2018-08\/b.4.3_Turner%20Frick%20.jpg?itok=iO7ruzPJ","field_image_credit":"Artwork in the public domain; photograph courtesy Frick Art Reference Library.","field_position_code":"b_4_3","field_artist":"Joseph\u00a0Mallord\u00a0William Turner","field_original_artist":"","field_artist_date":"1775\u20131851","field_current_owner":"Private Collection","field_llg_info":"\u003Cp\u003E\u201c\u2018In this arduous service (of reconnaissance) on the French coast, 1805, one of our cruisers took the ground, and had to sustain the attack of the flying artillery along shore, the batteries, and the fort of Vimieux, which fired heated shot, until she could warp off at the rising tide, which set in with all the appearance of a stormy night.\u2019\u2014\u003Cem\u003ENaval Anecdotes\u003C\/em\u003E. Painted and exhibited in 1831. Bought at Christie\u2019s, London, June 21, 1850, from the collection of Charles Meigh, Esq.\u201d\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_medium":"Unknown","field_location":"north wall, west side","field_id":"35","field_description":"\u003Cp\u003EJoseph M. W. Turner was acclaimed in the first half of the nineteenth century as one of the great landscape painters of the age. He was particularly admired by the English critic John Ruskin, who, in his book\u003Cem\u003E Modern Painters\u003C\/em\u003E (1843), praised Turner lavishly. In his \u003Cem\u003EHistory of the Rise and Progress of the Arts of Design\u003C\/em\u003E, William Dunlap traced the British artist\u2019s encounters with US painters to as early as 1804, when Washington Allston wrote Dunlap that, when he was travelling through the Swiss Alps, he was struck with \u201cthe truth of Turner\u2019s Swiss scenes\u201d (Dunlap 1969, 1:165).\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003ETurner\u2019s painting, now known simply as \u003Cem\u003EFort Vimieux\u003C\/em\u003E, was exhibited at London\u2019s Royal Academy in 1831. The extract from \u003Cem\u003ENaval Anecdotes\u003C\/em\u003E included in \u003Cem\u003ELLG\u003C\/em\u003E was published in the catalogue that accompanied the Royal Academy\u2019s exhibition. Using this anecdote as inspiration, Turner created a dramatic, yet elegiac portrait of an English man-of-war aground in the shallows near the French fort of Vimieux in July 1805 during the Napoleonic Wars. Later that year, England won an important naval victory at Trafalgar, yet Turner chose to depict an earlier moment when English victory was in doubt.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EThe empty foreground, with an anchor keeping the ship in place and a ball of shot, heightens the sense of impending doom\u2014not just for the ship but for England itself. A setting sun creates added drama while simultaneously signaling the approach of night and relief from the shelling by French batteries. Later, when the tide turned, the ship righted itself and under the cloak of darkness slipped away from the enemy.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EFive years earlier, Lenox had bought Turner\u2019s \u003Ca class=\u0022in_gallery\u0022 href=\u0022#\u0022 target=\u002237\u0022\u003E\u003Cem\u003EStaffa, Fingal\u2019s Cave\u003C\/em\u003E\u003C\/a\u003E (\u003Cem\u003ELLG\u003C\/em\u003E 8, no. 34).\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_nationality":"British","field_date":"1831","field_dimensions":"28 x 42 in. (71 x 106.7 cm.)","field_bibliography":"\u003Cp\u003EDunlap, William. \u003Cem\u003EHistory of the Rise and Progress of the Arts of Design in the United States\u003C\/em\u003E. 2 vols. New York: G. P. Scott and Co., 1834; reprint ed. New York: Dover Publications, 1969.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EParke-Bernet Galleries, New York. \u003Cem\u003ENotable Paintings All from Institutional Private Owners Including Paintings from the Collection of the New York Public Library\u003C\/em\u003E. New York: Parke-Bernet Galleries, 1956. Auction catalogue.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EWarrell, Ian, ed. \u003Cem\u003EJ. M. W. Turner\u003C\/em\u003E. Washington, DC: National Gallery of Art, 2008. Exhibition catalogue.\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_desc_author":"SW","field_llg_number":"7, no. 32","field_alt_title":"A Scene on the French Coast (Fort Vimieux)"},{"title":"Expulsion from Paradise","nid":"609","field_image":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_3d\/public\/paintings\/2018-08\/B.5.1_cole.jpg?itok=hDDQk2Ez","field_image_hd":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_hd\/public\/paintings\/2018-08\/B.5.1_cole.jpg?itok=eYbJvaYY","field_image_credit":"Artwork in the public domain; photograph courtesy Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.","field_position_code":"b_5_1","field_artist":"Thomas Cole","field_original_artist":"","field_artist_date":"1801\u201348","field_current_owner":"Museum of Fine Arts, Boston","field_llg_info":"\u003Cp\u003E\u201cFrom the collection of Dr. [David] Hosack. Bought August, 1849.\u201d\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_medium":"Oil on canvas","field_location":"north wall, west side","field_id":"36","field_description":"\u003Cp\u003EThomas Cole was the leading landscape painter of the early decades of the nineteenth century in the United States. He is regarded as the founder of the Hudson River School, the first distinctively US movement in the visual arts. By the late 1820s, the artist had established a successful career as a painter of Hudson River landscapes, but he harbored a desire to create a \u201chigher style of landscape\u201d that could express moral or religious meanings (Kelly 1994, 17). Among his earliest efforts in this direction are this painting and its pendant, The Garden of Eden (1828; Amon Carter Museum, Fort Worth), which were exhibited together in 1828 at the annual exhibition of the National Academy of Design in New York. They were the first works by Cole in which the landscape served as a backdrop to a religious or historical theme. In these works, he sought to introduce \u201cthe more terrible objects of Nature, and . . . endeavored to heighten the effect [of the expulsion] by giving a glimpse of The Garden of Eden in its tranquility.\u201d In Expulsion, Cole was inspired by the British painter and printmaker John Martin\u2019s illustrations for John Milton\u2019s Paradise Lost, which was popular on both sides of the Atlantic.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EExpulsion from the Garden of Eden was sold in 1829 to Dr. David Hosack of New York City, who made numerous important contributions to the field of medicine in the United States, and who was also a noted horticulturist. Among other things, Hosack made important progress in combating yellow fever and was the first person to make an accurate description of its symptoms. He was a biographer, historian, and founder and fourth president of New-York Historical Society, and he and his wife Magdalena hosted a Saturday evening salon that included many of the city\u2019s leading artists, intellectuals, and doctors. They patronized many US artists, including Cole, Samuel F. B. Morse, and John Trumbull. In later life, the Hosacks\u2019 country estate on the Hudson River in Hyde Park became a popular haunt for painters, writers, and naturalists. Upon Hosack\u2019s tragic death in 1835 from shock following a fire in\u00a0New York City\u00a0that destroyed his personal property, Cole\u2019s painting passed to his wife Magdalena and then to his son-in-law, Dr. J. Kearny Rodgers, from whom Lenox acquired it in 1849\u2014a year after Cole\u2019s death at the age of forty-seven following an attack of pleurisy.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003ECole\u2019s death was considered a great blow to US art. His impact on the course of landscape painting in the United States was profound, and his works influenced numerous painters who matured during the course of the late 1840s and 1850s. A memorial exhibition of his work was quickly organized, which included Expulsion from the Garden of Eden. The poet, essayist, and newspaper editor William Cullen Bryant delivered Cole\u2019s funeral oration at the National Academy of Design in May of 1848; he lamented that the artist\u2019s \u201cdeparture has left a vacuity which amazes and alarms us. It is as if the voyager on the Hudson were to look toward the great range of the Catskills, at the foot of which Cole, with a reverential fondness, had fixed his abode, and were to see that the grandest of its summits had disappeared\u2014had sunk into the plain from our sight. I might use a bolder similitude; it is as if we were to look over the heavens on a starlight evening and find that one of the greater planets, Hesperus or Jupiter, had been blotted from the sky\u201d (Cole 1928, 17). Perhaps the wave of grief that engulfed the US art world after Cole\u2019s death moved Lenox to acquire a major work by the artist.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003ELenox placed this painting in the center of the north wall of his gallery, above \u003Ca class=\u0022in_gallery\u0022 href=\u0022#\u0022 target=\u002237\u0022\u003EJ. M. W. Turner\u2019s Staffa, Fingal\u2019s Cave\u003C\/a\u003E. This was Lenox\u2019s gesture to pair what he believed to be the most important landscape artist in the United States and the best known British artist of the mid-nineteenth century.\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_nationality":"US","field_date":"1828","field_dimensions":"39.75 x 54.5 in. (101 x 138.4 cm.)","field_bibliography":"\u003Cp\u003EKelly, Franklin. \u003Cem\u003EThomas Cole\u2019s Paintings of Eden\u003C\/em\u003E. Fort Worth, TX: Amon Carter Museum of American Art, 1994. Exhibition catalogue.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EParke-Bernet Galleries, New York. \u003Cem\u003EEnglish and Continental Furniture, Paintings, Georgian Silver, Laces, Porcelains, Rugs\u003C\/em\u003E. New York: Parke-Bernet Galleries, 1943. Auction catalogue.\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_desc_author":"BW","field_llg_number":"7, no. 33","field_alt_title":"Expulsion from the Garden of Eden"},{"title":"View of\u00a0Dalskairth, near Dumfries (1830)","nid":"611","field_image":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_3d\/public\/paintings\/2018-06\/c-1-1.jpg?itok=UTbufolZ","field_image_hd":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_hd\/public\/paintings\/2018-06\/c-1-1.jpg?itok=Wk-JLhAI","field_image_credit":"Artwork in the public domain; photograph courtesy New York Public Library. ","field_position_code":"c_1_1","field_artist":"P. [Peter] Paton","field_original_artist":"","field_artist_date":"fl. ca. 1840\u201350","field_current_owner":"Unknown","field_llg_info":"\u003Cp\u003ENone\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_medium":"Unknown","field_location":"north wall, east side","field_id":"38","field_description":"\u003Cp\u003ELittle is known about the Scottish artist Peter Paton. What is known is that he travelled to Italy, where he painted watercolors of Rome, Naples, and Sicily. He also painted views of Edinburgh and a number of sepia drawings (National Gallery of Scotland, Edinburgh) for an edition of Sir Walter Scott\u2019s poetry, where they appear as woodcuts that have been described as \u201cfinely executed with a good sense of lights and shade\u201d (Halsby and Harris 1990, 173).\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EThe name Dalskrairth in the title refers to Lenox\u2019s ancestral home in Scotland where his uncle, James Lennox, lived until his death in 1839. Given this painting\u2019s early date, it may have been one of his uncle\u2019s paintings.\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003ELenox continued to purchase and commission landscape settings near his ancestral home. \u003Ca class=\u0022in_gallery\u0022 data-view=\u0022grid\u0022 href=\u0022#\u0022 id=\u0022genre\u0022 target=\u0022Kirkcudbright\u0022\u003EThese include two paintings by Thomas Clark, \u003Cem\u003EView of Kirkcudbright \u003C\/em\u003Eand \u003Cem\u003EView of Port Mary, near Kirkcudbright, Where Queen Mary Embarked for England\u003C\/em\u003E (LLG 10, no. 48); a second work by Colomb with the same title, \u003Cem\u003EThe Mill House, near Kirkcudbright\u003C\/em\u003E (LLG 6, no. 26); and Henry Inman, \u003Cem\u003EView of Dundrennan Abbey near Kirkcudbright\u003C\/em\u003E (LLG 5, no. 13)\u003C\/a\u003E.\u003Cbr \/\u003E\n\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_nationality":"","field_date":"1830","field_dimensions":"Unknown","field_bibliography":"\u003Cp\u003EHalsby, Julian and Paul Harris.\u003Cem\u003E The Dictionary of Scottish Painters 1600 to the Present\u003C\/em\u003E. Edinburgh: Canongate, 1990.\u003C\/p\u003E","field_desc_author":"SW","field_llg_number":"8, no. 35","field_alt_title":""},{"title":"Dismissal of a Village School on an October Afternoon","nid":"612","field_image":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_3d\/public\/paintings\/2018-08\/C.1.2_inman.jpg?itok=_Q4-CxBm","field_image_hd":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_hd\/public\/paintings\/2018-08\/C.1.2_inman.jpg?itok=wMafcEyy","field_image_credit":"Artwork in the public domain; photograph courtesy Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.","field_position_code":"c_1_2","field_artist":"Henry Inman","field_original_artist":"","field_artist_date":"1801\u201346","field_current_owner":"Museum of Fine Arts, Boston","field_llg_info":"\u003Cp\u003E\u201cBought from the artist, 1845.\u201d\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_medium":"Oil on canvas","field_location":"north wall, east side","field_id":"39","field_description":"\u003Cp\u003EHenry Inman was the leading portrait painter in New York from about 1830 until his death in 1846. A native of Utica, New York, he moved with his family to New York City around 1812. He served a seven-year apprenticeship with John Wesley Jarvis and in 1820 started to paint professionally. In the late 1830s, he began to receive important portrait commissions for City Hall, including likenesses of four of the city\u2019s mayors. His portraits are distinguished by their vigorous paint handling, dramatic chiaroscuro effects, and his ability to convey a beaming sense of self-assuredness and well-being in his sitters.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EInman also painted idealized landscape and genre paintings like this one. A softly lit landscape, which is Inman\u2019s largest and last, is the backdrop for a buoyant scene of children newly released from school. Their books and articles of clothing have been abandoned as they tussle, read, gesture, and talk to one another. Inman has also appended a literary note to the schoolhouse in the background. Above the door are the initials \u201cI. Crane,\u201d a nod to Washington Irving\u2019s story \u003Cem\u003EThe Legend of Sleepy Hollow\u003C\/em\u003E, which is reinforced by the top-hatted, awkward schoolmaster outside of the door matching the description of Ichabod Crane, a character in Irving\u2019s tale who was also a schoolmaster.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003ELenox and his family had a long-standing association with Inman, who also did miniatures of the Lenox children and a half-length portrait of Robert in the 1820s. Twenty years later, in 1843, James ordered paintings from Inman to support his trip to Europe: \u003Ca class=\u0022in_gallery\u0022 data-view=\u0022grid\u0022 href=\u0022#\u0022 id=\u0022singleArtist\u0022 target=\u0022Inman\u0022\u003E\u003Cem\u003EView of Dundrennan Abbey near Kirkcudbright\u003C\/em\u003E (1845; LLG 5, no. 13); \u003Cem\u003EPortrait of Dr. Thos. Chalmers\u003C\/em\u003E (1844; LLG 13, no. 76); and \u003Cem\u003EHeads of Children. Altered from Reynolds\u003C\/em\u003E (1843; LLG 20, no. 128).\u003C\/a\u003E\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_nationality":"US","field_date":"1845","field_dimensions":"26 x 35.75 in. (66 x 90.8 cm.)","field_bibliography":"\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cspan\u003E\u003Cspan\u003E\u003Cspan\u003EGerdts, William H. and Carrie Rebora. \u003Cem\u003EThe Art of Henry Inman\u003C\/em\u003E. Washington, DC: National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution, 1987. Exhibition catalogue.\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_desc_author":"SW","field_llg_number":"8, no. 36","field_alt_title":""},{"title":"The Old\u00a0T\u00e9m\u00e9raire","nid":"613","field_image":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_3d\/public\/paintings\/2018-08\/c.1.3_Engraving%20Tatejpg.jpg?itok=72uh2xfD","field_image_hd":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_hd\/public\/paintings\/2018-08\/c.1.3_Engraving%20Tatejpg.jpg?itok=aq0fEW_o","field_image_credit":"Artwork in the public domain; Digital Image \u00a9 Tate, London. (Cannot confirm that this example was owned by Lenox).","field_position_code":"c_1_3","field_artist":"Engraved by J. [James] T. Willmore","field_original_artist":"a painting by Joseph Mallord William Turner (British, 1775\u20131851)","field_artist_date":"(1800\u201363) ","field_current_owner":"Unknown","field_llg_info":"\u003Cp\u003E\u201c\u2018The Fighting T\u00e9m\u00e9raire tugged to her last berth, to be broken up.\u2019 Engraved by J. T. Willmore, A.R.A.\u201d\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_medium":"Engraving","field_location":"north wall, east side","field_id":"40","field_description":"\u003Cp\u003EJ. M. W. Turner was acclaimed in the first half of the nineteenth century as one of the great landscape painters of the age. He was particularly admired by the English critic John Ruskin, who, in his book \u003Cem\u003EModern Painters\u003C\/em\u003E (1843), praised Turner lavishly. In his \u003Cem\u003EHistory of the Rise and Progress of the Arts of Design\u003C\/em\u003E, William Dunlap traced the British artist\u2019s encounters with US painters to as early as 1804, when the US painter Washington Allston wrote Dunlap that while travelling through the Swiss Alps he was struck with \u201cthe truth of Turner\u2019s Swiss scenes\u201d (Dunlap 1969, 1:165).\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EThis engraving of one of Turner\u2019s most famous paintings, \u003Cem\u003EThe Fighting T\u00e9m\u00e9raire\u003C\/em\u003E (1839; National Gallery, London), was executed by James T. Willmore, who specialized in engravings after the artist. The painting is Turner\u2019s glorious homage to one of the last ships of line to participate in the 1805 Battle of Trafalgar at the time it was decommissioned in 1838. The original hangs in the National Gallery, London. In 2005, it was voted the UK\u2019s favorite painting by the BBC.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EAccording to Charles Robert Leslie, \u003Cem\u003EThe Fighting T\u00e9m\u00e9raire\u003C\/em\u003E was available for purchase at the time Lenox asked him to facilitate the purchase of a painting from Turner. Evidently another collector in the United States had asked to buy it, but Turner thought the price he offered was too low and he did not want to sell to another US collector (Leslie 1860, 1:205\u20136). This print appeared to the right of Turner\u2019s painting \u003Ca class=\u0022in_gallery\u0022 data-view=\u0022gallery\u0022 href=\u0022#\u0022 id=\u0022singleArtist\u0022 target=\u0022Turner\u0022\u003E\u003Cem\u003EStaffa, Fingal\u2019s Cave\u003C\/em\u003E (\u003Cem\u003ELLG\u003C\/em\u003E 8, no. 34) and near to his other Turner painting, \u003Cem\u003EA Scene on the French Coast \u003C\/em\u003E(\u003Cem\u003ELLG\u003C\/em\u003E 7, no. 32). By keeping all his Turner holdings together, Lenox tacitly acknowledged the British painter\u2019s importance.\u003C\/a\u003E\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_nationality":"British","field_date":"1859\u201361","field_dimensions":"Unknown","field_bibliography":"\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cspan\u003E\u003Cspan\u003E\u003Cspan\u003EDunlap, William. \u003Cem\u003EHistory of the Rise and Progress of the Arts of Design in the United States\u003C\/em\u003E. 2 vols. New York: G. P. Scott and Co., 1834; reprint ed. New York: Dover Publications, 1969.\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cspan\u003E\u003Cspan\u003E\u003Cspan\u003ELeslie, Charles Robert.\u003Cem\u003E Autobiographical Reflections\u003C\/em\u003E. Edited by Tom Taylor. London: John Murray, 1860.\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_desc_author":"SW","field_llg_number":"8, no. 37","field_alt_title":""},{"title":"Mill on the River Teign, near Crediton, Devonshire","nid":"614","field_image":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_3d\/public\/paintings\/2018-06\/c-2-1.jpg?itok=zeCFALjw","field_image_hd":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_hd\/public\/paintings\/2018-06\/c-2-1.jpg?itok=0IXVTxbU","field_image_credit":"Artwork in the public domain; photograph courtesy New York Public Library. ","field_position_code":"c_2_1","field_artist":"F. R. [Frederick Richard] Lee","field_original_artist":"","field_artist_date":"1798\u20131879","field_current_owner":"Unknown","field_llg_info":"\u003Cp\u003E\u201cBought at Christie\u2019s, London, June 21, 1850, from the collection of Chas. [\u003Cem\u003Esic\u003C\/em\u003E] Meigh, Esq.\u201d\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_medium":"Unknown","field_location":"north wall, east side","field_id":"41","field_description":"\u003Cp\u003EFrederick Lee began as an amateur artist, but by the 1820s he had achieved a reputation as a \u201cpainter of undemanding and attractive landscapes\u201d (Herrmann 2000, 160). He exhibited often at the Royal Academy and was particularly admired for his paintings of the Devon area in southeast England. Lenox owned \u003Ca class=\u0022in_gallery\u0022 data-view=\u0022grid\u0022 href=\u0022#\u0022 id=\u0022genre\u0022 target=\u0022Devon\u0022\u003Etwo other paintings of this part of England: William Collins, View in Devonshire, on the Webber (LLG 20, no. 135), and Major George Colomb, View of Plympton Castle (LLG 5, no. 20)\u003C\/a\u003E. Lenox\u2019s interest in this part of England is unknown.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EA catalogue of Meigh\u2019s collection was published in 1843, and in it Lee\u2019s painting was described as: \u201cA choice specimen from the pencil of one of the best of our English landscape painters; it is both excellently painted and beautifully coloured; there is about the whole, a truth which manifests that few have studied nature more closely\u201d (\u003Cem\u003EA Critical and Descriptive Catalogue\u003C\/em\u003E 1843, 12).\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_nationality":"British","field_date":"1842","field_dimensions":"24 x 18.5 in. (60.7 x 47 cm.)","field_bibliography":"\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cem\u003EA Critical and Descriptive Catalogue of a Collection of Pictures at Grove House\u003C\/em\u003E, Shelton. Hanley, UK: Thomas Allbut, 1843.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EHerrmann, Luke. \u003Cem\u003ENineteenth-Century British Painting\u003C\/em\u003E. London: Giles de la Mare, 2000.\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_desc_author":"SW","field_llg_number":"9, no. 38","field_alt_title":""},{"title":"Landscape","nid":"615","field_image":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_3d\/public\/paintings\/2018-06\/c-2-2.jpg?itok=_3u_o3bH","field_image_hd":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_hd\/public\/paintings\/2018-06\/c-2-2.jpg?itok=9qrUFMmO","field_image_credit":"Artwork in the public domain; photograph courtesy New York Public Library.","field_position_code":"c_2_2","field_artist":"Jacob Ruysdael [van Ruisdael]","field_original_artist":"","field_artist_date":"1628\u201382","field_current_owner":"Unknown","field_llg_info":"\u003Cp\u003E\u201cBought at Rome, October, 1853.\u201d\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_medium":"Unknown","field_location":"north wall, east side","field_id":"42","field_description":"\u003Cp\u003EAccording to a written notation in \u003Cem\u003ELLG\u003C\/em\u003E from 1889, this painting was removed from the Lenox gallery. Because of its early elimination, it was probably a copy or a fake. It\u2019s more likely that it was a fake, as Lenox was fastidious about identifying the copies in his collection. Because it is known only by this title, \u003Cem\u003ELandscape\u003C\/em\u003E\u00b8 it is not possible to identify the painting.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003ERuisdael, a seventeenth-century Dutch landscape painter, was born in Haarlem and may have studied painting with his uncle, Solomon van Ruysdael (LLG 10, no. 51). He was as admired in the nineteenth century as he is today. In her 1874 handbook \u003Cem\u003EPainters, Sculptors, Architects and Their Works\u003C\/em\u003E\u00b8 Clara Erskine Clement noted that Ruisdael was \u201cemphatically the first of Dutch landscape painters. . . . [He]deeply felt the poetry of the Northern nature about him, and rendered it most happily\u201d (Clement 1874, 532).\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003ELenox\u2019s interest in Ruisdael may have been sparked by the appearance of three paintings by the Dutch artist in Thomas Jefferson Bryan\u2019s Gallery of Christian Art, which opened in 1852 at the high point of Lenox\u2019s collecting (Bryan 1853, 82\u201383).\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_nationality":"Dutch","field_date":"Unknown","field_dimensions":"Unknown","field_bibliography":"\u003Cp style=\u0022margin:0in 0in 0.0001pt\u0022\u003EBryan, Thomas Jefferson. \u003Cem\u003ECompanion to the Bryan Gallery of Christian Art: Containing Critical Descriptions of the Pictures\u003C\/em\u003E. New York: Baker, Godwin \u0026amp; Co., 1853. Exhibition catalogue.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp style=\u0022margin:0in 0in 0.0001pt\u0022\u003E\u003Cbr \/\u003E\nClement, Clara Erskine. \u003Cem\u003EPainters, Sculptors, Architects, Engravers, and Their Works\u003C\/em\u003E. New York: Hurd and Houghton, 1874\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_desc_author":"SW","field_llg_number":"9, no. 39","field_alt_title":""},{"title":"Five Works","nid":"617","field_image":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_3d\/public\/paintings\/2018-06\/c-3-3.jpg?itok=uS1j0sWi","field_image_hd":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_hd\/public\/paintings\/2018-06\/c-3-3.jpg?itok=hHOJlV03","field_image_credit":"Artwork in the public domain; photograph courtesy New York Public Library.","field_position_code":"c_3_3","field_artist":"Sir David\u00a0Wilkie","field_original_artist":"","field_artist_date":"1785\u20131841","field_current_owner":"Unknown","field_llg_info":"\u003Cp\u003EFor \u003Cem\u003ELandscape with Group of Gipsies [sic], Landscape with Water and Ducks, Landscape with Goats, Landscape and Group of Ladies\u003C\/em\u003E \u2013 \u201cBought at Christie\u0027s, London, 10 March, 1848, from the collection of Sir William Knighton. Sketch.\u201d\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EFor \u003Cem\u003EHighland Still\u003C\/em\u003E \u2013\u00a0\u201cOriginal Sketch of the \u2018Highland Still,\u2019 the picture in the Gallery of Sir Willoughby Gordon, at Chelsea, never engraved. Compared with the picture, and found to correspond exactly. Bought at Christie\u2019s, London, 10 March, 1848, from the collection of Sir William Knighton.\u201d\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_medium":"Unknown","field_location":"north wall, east side","field_id":"50","field_description":"\u003Cp\u003ESir David Wilkie was a Scottish painter who received widespread acclaim for his genre pictures during the Regency period (1811\u201320) in Britain. Trained at the Trustees Academy in Edinburgh, young Wilkie was known to haunt local fairs and marketplaces, where he sketched the numerous figures and scenes that made their way into his early works. He moved to London in 1805, from which point forward his celebratory scenes of peasant life, derived from his close study of seventeenth-century Dutch genre painting, garnered him much success.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EThese small works were hung together in the same frame \u2014 four of which depict landscapes with either figures or animals, and\u00a0the fifth, \u003Cem\u003EHighland Still\u003C\/em\u003E. The outdoor subjects of the four works are rare in Wilkie\u2019s oeuvre; he only exhibited one other such painting during his lifetime, \u003Cem\u003ESheepwashing\u003C\/em\u003E (before 1817; National Galleries of Scotland, Edinburgh), at the British Institution in 1817. Known examples of his rural genre date between 1814 and 1822, during which time Wilkie was in regular contact with Perry Nursey, an amateur landscape painter and acquaintance of John Constable. Wilkie painted a number of sketches on Nursey\u2019s estate near Woodbridge in Suffolk, an example of which, \u003Cem\u003EA Woody Landscape \u003C\/em\u003E(1822), is currently owned by the Tate (Tate 2004).\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EThese paintings were purchased from the collection of Sir William Knighton (1776\u20131836), private secretary to King George IV from 1822 to 1830 and an enthusiastic supporter of Wilkie\u2019s work. Wilkie no doubt was in contact with Knighton around the same time that he was making landscape sketches, as he painted the monarch\u2019s portrait to commemorate his visit to Scotland in 1822.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EWilkie was especially well known during the Regency period, during which time he was elected a full member of the Royal Academy (1811) and began to receive his first royal commissions. Prince Regent George IV commissioned him to paint \u003Cem\u003EBlind-Man\u2019s Buff \u003C\/em\u003E(1813; Royal College of Art, London), an original sketch of which Lenox hung on the south wall of this gallery. In 1823, Wilkie succeeded Sir Henry Raeburn as limner to the king of Scotland, and in 1830 he became principal painter in ordinary to King William IV, a position he held until his death.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003ELenox was not in England at the time of these purchases, which suggests they were bought for him by Charles Robert Leslie, who served as an advisor to Lenox on several occasions. Leslie and Wilkie were great friends and admirers of each other\u2019s work in London following Leslie\u2019s nomination as an associate at the Royal Academy in 1821. Given Lenox\u2019s enthusiasm for rural genre scenes, the purchase of these small Wilkie paintings would have been in keeping with other paintings in his collection. Lenox\u2019s interest in all things Scottish may have been another contributing factor. In addition to this group of drawings, Lenox owned two other paintings by Wilkie, including \u003Ca class=\u0022in_gallery\u0022 data-view=\u0022grid\u0022 href=\u0022#\u0022 id=\u0022singleArtist\u0022 target=\u0022Wilkie\u0022\u003E\u003Cem\u003EThe Crown of Scotland\u2014On a Cushion\u003C\/em\u003E (\u003Cem\u003ELLG\u003C\/em\u003E 17, no. 106) and a sketch of his painting \u003Cem\u003EBlind Man\u2019s Buff\u003C\/em\u003E (\u003Cem\u003ELLG\u003C\/em\u003E 18, no. 110)\u003C\/a\u003E.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EThese paintings were deaccessioned by the New York Public Library in 1956, when they was purchased by Roy Thomson. The five works were shown together in the exhibition \u003Cem\u003EPaintings and Drawings by Sir David Wilkie\u003C\/em\u003E (1785\u20131841) at the National Gallery of Scotland, Edinburgh, and at Burlington House, London, in 1958 (Woodward 1958, 16). The works were last sold by Christie\u2019s on October 28, 1999 with the title \u003Cem\u003ETravellers and Donkeys by a Camp Fire in a Wooded Landscape along with Landscape with Goats\u003C\/em\u003E (\u003Cem\u003ELLG\u003C\/em\u003E 9, no. 45). A variation of this work is in the collection of the Victoria and Albert Museum, London (V\u0026amp;A).\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cstrong\u003ESeparate Details for each of the five works appear below:\u003C\/strong\u003E\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cstrong\u003ETitle\u003C\/strong\u003E:\u003Cem\u003E Landscape with Group of Gipsies\u003C\/em\u003E [sic]\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cstrong\u003EDate\u003C\/strong\u003E: Unknown\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cstrong\u003EMedium\u003C\/strong\u003E: Unknown\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cstrong\u003ESize\u003C\/strong\u003E: 8 x 10 in. (20 x 25 cm.)\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cstrong\u003ECurrent Owner\u003C\/strong\u003E: Unknown\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003E\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cstrong\u003ETitle\u003C\/strong\u003E: \u003Cem\u003ELandscape with Goats\u003C\/em\u003E\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cstrong\u003EDate\u003C\/strong\u003E: Unknown\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cstrong\u003EMedium\u003C\/strong\u003E: Unknown\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cstrong\u003ESize\u003C\/strong\u003E: 8 x 10 in. (20 x 25 cm.)\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cstrong\u003ECurrent Owner\u003C\/strong\u003E: Unknown\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003E\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cstrong\u003ETitle\u003C\/strong\u003E: \u003Cem\u003ELandscape with Water and Ducks\u003C\/em\u003E\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cstrong\u003EDate\u003C\/strong\u003E: Unknown\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cstrong\u003EMedium\u003C\/strong\u003E: Unknown\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cstrong\u003ESize\u003C\/strong\u003E: 8 x 6 in. (20 x 15 cm.)\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cstrong\u003ECurrent Owner\u003C\/strong\u003E: Unknown\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003E\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cstrong\u003ETitle\u003C\/strong\u003E: \u003Cem\u003ELandscape and Group of Ladies\u003C\/em\u003E\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cstrong\u003EDate\u003C\/strong\u003E: Unknown\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cstrong\u003EMedium\u003C\/strong\u003E: Unknown\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cstrong\u003ESize\u003C\/strong\u003E: 8 x 10 in. (20 x 25 cm.)\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cstrong\u003ECurrent Owner\u003C\/strong\u003E: Unknown\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003E\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cstrong\u003ETitle\u003C\/strong\u003E: \u003Cem\u003EHighland Still\u003C\/em\u003E\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cstrong\u003EDate\u003C\/strong\u003E: Unknown\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cstrong\u003EMedium\u003C\/strong\u003E: Unknown\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cstrong\u003ESize\u003C\/strong\u003E: 6 x 8.5 in. (15 x 22 cm.)\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cstrong\u003ECurrent Owner\u003C\/strong\u003E: Unknown\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cstrong\u003EText\u003C\/strong\u003E for \u003Cem\u003EHighland Still\u003C\/em\u003E:\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EThe \u003Cem\u003ELLG\u003C\/em\u003E indicates that Highland Still was made as a preparatory sketch for a work entitled \u003Cem\u003EA Highland Whisky Still at Lochgilphead\u003C\/em\u003E (1819), which was purchased by one of Wilkie\u2019s patrons, Sir Willoughby Gordon, for 120 guineas (Brettell et al. 2002, 56). The painting depicts two men and a boy distilling whiskey in a home still. One of the men holds a piece of the equipment, while the other, attended by the boy, examines the final product.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EThe study was produced in August 1817 while Wilkie was visiting the Scottish Highlands and visited the home of Mr. Macneill in Oakfield, near the whiskey-producing town of Lochgilpheadon Loch Fyne. \u201cThe men who kept the still,\u201d wrote Wilkie in a letter, \u201ccould not speak English, and the only interpreter I had was a breekless halflin [sic] who attended me to carry colours\u201d (Mollett 1881, 54).\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_nationality":"Scottish","field_date":"Unknown","field_dimensions":"6 x 8.5 in. (15 x 22 cm.)","field_bibliography":"\u003Cdiv class=\u0022WordSection1\u0022\u003E\n\u003Cp\u003EBrettell, Richard R., Fran\u00e7oise Forster-Hahn, Duncan Robinson, and Janis A. Tomlinson.\u003Cbr \/\u003E\u003Cem\u003ERobert Lehman Collection: Nineteenth- and Twentieth-Century European Drawings IX\u003C\/em\u003E. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2002.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EChiego, W.,\u00a0ed.\u00a0\u003Cem\u003ESir David Wilkie of Scotland\u003C\/em\u003E \u003Cem\u003E(1785\u20131841)\u003C\/em\u003E. New Haven: Yale Center for British Art, 1987. Exhibition catalogue.\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EMollett, John W.\u00a0\u003Cem\u003ESir David Wilkie\u003C\/em\u003E. New York: Scribner and Welford; London: Sampson Low, Marsont, Searle, \u0026amp; Rivington, 1881.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EWoodward, John. \u003Cem\u003EPaintings and Drawings by Sir David Wilkie\u003C\/em\u003E \u003Cem\u003E(1785\u20131841)\u003C\/em\u003E. Edinburgh: National Gallery of Scotland, 1958. Exhibition catalogue.\u003Cbr \/\u003E\n\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n\u003C\/div\u003E\n","field_desc_author":"CJ","field_llg_number":"9, no. 47","field_alt_title":""},{"title":"View of Port Mary, near Kirkcudbright, Where Queen Mary Embarked for England","nid":"618","field_image":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_3d\/public\/paintings\/2018-06\/c-4-1.jpg?itok=e7Hp3QER","field_image_hd":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_hd\/public\/paintings\/2018-06\/c-4-1.jpg?itok=Dk7jz9E9","field_image_credit":"Artwork in the public domain; photograph courtesy New York Public Library. ","field_position_code":"c_4_1","field_artist":"Thomas Clark","field_original_artist":"","field_artist_date":"1820\u201376","field_current_owner":"Unknown","field_llg_info":"\u003Cp\u003E\u201c\u2018The vessel went freshly through the firth, which divides the shores of Cumberland from those of Galloway, but not till the vessel diminished to the size of a child\u2019s frigate, did the doubtful and dejected and dismissed followers of the Queen cease to linger on the sands; and long, long could they discern the kerchief of Mary, as she waved the oft repeated signal of adieu to her faithful adherents, and to the shores of Scotland.\u2019\u2014\u003Cem\u003EThe Abbot\u003C\/em\u003E, chap. xxxviii. [Sir Walter Scott] Painted to order in 1876.\u201d\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_medium":"Unknown","field_location":"north wall, east side","field_id":"51","field_description":"\u003Cp\u003EThe little-known Thomas Clark hailed from Edinburgh, where he was well known as a landscape painter. This painting is a fanciful reconstruction of the historical departure of Queen Mary (Mary Stuart, Queen of Scots) from a location in Scotland near Lenox\u2019s ancestral home, Kirkcudbright. It is not known how Lenox obtained this painting, which was made late in the life of the artist and the collector.\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003ELenox was partial to such views that referenced his family\u2019s Scottish home. The quotation from Sir Walter Scott in the \u003Cem\u003ELLG \u003C\/em\u003Eis unusual and undoubtedly meaningful to Lenox. Several of the English artists he collected\u2014Leslie, Wilkie, and Landseer\u2014knew Scott, an author much admired by them and the entire English-speaking world. It is strange, though, that Lenox, a staunch Protestant, would obtain a painting that honored Queen Mary, the defender of British Catholicism.\u00a0\u003Cbr \/\u003E\n\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_nationality":"Scottish","field_date":"1876","field_dimensions":"Unknown","field_bibliography":"\u003Cp\u003EMallalieu, H[uon]. \u003Cem\u003EThe Dictionary of British Watercolour Artists up to 1920\u003C\/em\u003E. Woodbridge,\u00a0\u003Cbr \/\u003E\nUK: Antique Collectors\u2019 Club, 2002.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EMcEwan, Peter J. M. \u003Cem\u003EDictionary of Scottish Art \u0026amp; Architecture\u003C\/em\u003E. Woodbridge, UK:\u00a0\u003Cbr \/\u003E\nAntique Collectors\u2019 Club, 1994.\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003E\u201cObituary.\u201d \u003Cem\u003EArt Journal \u003C\/em\u003E16 (1877): 20, 38.\u003Cbr \/\u003E\n\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_desc_author":"SW","field_llg_number":"10, no. 48","field_alt_title":""},{"title":"Landscape","nid":"619","field_image":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_3d\/public\/paintings\/2018-10\/image_not_found_9.jpg?itok=X8v_yWXC","field_image_hd":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_hd\/public\/paintings\/2018-10\/image_not_found_9.jpg?itok=N-r6zPmQ","field_image_credit":"","field_position_code":"c_4_2","field_artist":"A. [Adriaen Hendriksz] Verboom","field_original_artist":"","field_artist_date":"1627\/28\u201373","field_current_owner":"Unknown","field_llg_info":"\u003Cp\u003E\u201cBought at the sale of J. P. Beaumont, New York, April, 1850.\u201d\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_medium":"Unknown","field_location":"north wall, east side","field_id":"52","field_description":"\u003Cp\u003EBorn in Rotterdam, Adriaen Hendriksz. Verboom was active in Haarlem and subsequently in Amsterdam (after 1661). He specialized in landscape paintings in the style of Jacob van Ruisdael.\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_nationality":"Dutch","field_date":"Unknown","field_dimensions":"Unknown","field_bibliography":"\u003Cp style=\u0022margin:0in 0in 0.0001pt\u0022\u003E\u201cAdriaen Hendriksz. Verboom.\u201d Stiching RKD (Dutch Institute for Art History) On-line Biographies of Dutch Artists. Accessed September 20, 2018. \u003Ca href=\u0022https:\/\/rkd.nl\/en\/explore\/artists\/80086\u0022\u003Ehttps:\/\/rkd.nl\/en\/explore\/artists\/80086\u003C\/a\u003E.\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_desc_author":"SW","field_llg_number":"10, no. 49","field_alt_title":""},{"title":"Portrait of John Bunyan","nid":"620","field_image":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_3d\/public\/paintings\/2018-10\/image_not_found_10.jpg?itok=zFMOr6gU","field_image_hd":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_hd\/public\/paintings\/2018-10\/image_not_found_10.jpg?itok=bLbnfbFB","field_image_credit":"","field_position_code":"c_4_3","field_artist":"Unknown","field_original_artist":"","field_artist_date":"dates unknown","field_current_owner":"Unknown","field_llg_info":"\u003Cp\u003E\u201cSaid to be an original. Bought at Bedford, in England.\u201d\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_medium":"Unknown","field_location":"north wall, east side","field_id":"53","field_description":"\u003Cp\u003ESince the image of this painting is indecipherable, the best that can be said about it comes from its titular reference to the sitter John Bunyan, a Puritan preacher and author of one of the most popular religious tracts in the nineteenth century, \u003Cem\u003EPilgrim\u2019s Progress\u003C\/em\u003E (1678). Lenox collected many copies of this allegory in all languages and today the New York Public Library has the world\u2019s leading collection.\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EThe portrait may have had some authenticity, since the \u003Cem\u003ELLG\u003C\/em\u003E states that it was \u201can original\u201d and bought in the city where Bunyan resided.\u00a0\u003Cbr \/\u003E\n\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_nationality":"nationality unknown","field_date":"Unknown","field_dimensions":"Unknown","field_bibliography":"","field_desc_author":"SW","field_llg_number":"10, no. 50","field_alt_title":""},{"title":"Landscape","nid":"621","field_image":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_3d\/public\/paintings\/2018-10\/image_not_found_11.jpg?itok=6pFJBiSS","field_image_hd":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_hd\/public\/paintings\/2018-10\/image_not_found_11.jpg?itok=QNp3gl4S","field_image_credit":"","field_position_code":"c_4_4","field_artist":"Solomon [Salomon van] Ruysdael","field_original_artist":"","field_artist_date":"1600\/03?\u201370","field_current_owner":"Unknown","field_llg_info":"\u003Cp\u003E\u201cBought at the sale of J. P. Beaumont, New York, April, 1850.\u201d\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_medium":"Unknown","field_location":"north wall, east side","field_id":"54","field_description":"\u003Cp style=\u0022margin:0in 0in 0.0001pt\u0022\u003EThis small picture was painted by the uncle of the better-known Jacob Ruysdael (LLG 9, no. 39). His work was included in the picture gallery at New York\u2019s Crystal Palace (1853) and the Boston writer Clara Erskine Clement, in her \u003Cem\u003EPainters, Sculptors, Architects, Engravers, and Their Works\u003C\/em\u003E, included a short note that described his usual subjects as \u201cviews of canals bordered with trees and houses, and thoroughly Dutch.\u201d In contrast, she regarded his nephew as \u201cemphatically the first of Dutch landscape painters\u201d (Clement 1874, 532).\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_nationality":"Dutch","field_date":"Unknown","field_dimensions":"7.5 x 10 in. (19 x 25 cm.)","field_bibliography":"\u003Cp style=\u0022margin:0in 0in 0.0001pt\u0022\u003EClement, Clara Erskine. \u003Cem\u003EPainters, Sculptors, Architects, Engravers, and Their Works\u003C\/em\u003E. New York: Hurd and Houghton, 1874.\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_desc_author":"SW","field_llg_number":"10, no. 51","field_alt_title":""},{"title":"\u201cLe Comte de Mi-Car\u00eame.\u201d Mid-Lent in a School ","nid":"622","field_image":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_3d\/public\/paintings\/2018-08\/C.4.5_ferdinand-de-braekeleer-the-elder-mid-lent-in-the-schoolroom.jpg?itok=3q2FmQva","field_image_hd":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_hd\/public\/paintings\/2018-08\/C.4.5_ferdinand-de-braekeleer-the-elder-mid-lent-in-the-schoolroom.jpg?itok=ytZZBsvA","field_image_credit":"Artwork in the public domain; photograph courtesy of Artnet.","field_position_code":"c_4_5","field_artist":"Ferdinand De Braekeleer the Elder","field_original_artist":"","field_artist_date":"1792\u20131883","field_current_owner":"Unknown","field_llg_info":"\u003Cp\u003E\u201cPainted to order, April, 1854.\u201d\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_medium":"Unknown","field_location":"north wall, east side","field_id":"55","field_description":"\u003Cp\u003EFerdinand De Braekeleer the Elder, orphaned at a young age, was admitted to the art school for orphans of Mathieu Ignace van Br\u00e9e in Antwerp. In his mid-teens, \u00a0he became a student at the Royal Academy of Antwerp. By his early twenties, his success was such that his work \u003Cem\u003EAeneas Saving Anchises from the Fire of Troy\u003C\/em\u003E (1813; present location unknown) was accepted at the Paris Salon of 1813. After travels throughout Europe and an extended stay in Rome, De Braekeleer returned to Antwerp, where he taught a number of Belgian painters, including his two sons, Ferdinand the Younger (1828\u201357) and Henri De Braekeleer (1840\u201388).\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EFerdinand the Elder, who aspired to be a history painter, is best known for his humorous genre scenes of contemporary Belgian life. This painting is one of five that Lenox bought in the early 1850s and is typical of the comic, everyday scenes that characterize the painter\u2019s work. When the painting was auctioned in 1943, the catalogue mistitled it as \u003Cem\u003EChristmas Eve\u003C\/em\u003E. It was described as follows: \u201cConfusion wrought in a schoolroom by a man in costume appearing in an aperture at upper left throwing apples to the eager children below, some unhappy episodes resulting; a woman in the blue holds a small child by the hand, another enters through a doorway in the background\u201d (Parke-Bernet Galleries 1943, 87). What the entry does not detail, nor is it evident in the modern title, is that this scene depicts the celebration of mid-Lent as a break from the privations of the forty-day Lenten period before Easter. Such f\u00eates were held primarily in France and French-speaking countries.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EDe Braekeleer was one of four contemporary Belgian artists\u2014with J. B. Madou, Eug\u00e8ne Verboeckhoven, and Constant Wauters\u2014whose work Lenox collected. All of their paintings were bought between 1850 and 1856. There was enough interest in contemporary Belgian painting that during this same time period De Braekeleer\u2019s son, Ferdinand De Braekeleer the Younger, opened a gallery in New York, where he exhibited paintings by modern Belgian artists, and an exhibition of Belgian and Rhenish paintings was held at the National Academy of Design in 1853.\u00a0\u003Cbr \/\u003E\n\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_nationality":"Flemish","field_date":"Signed and dated \u201cAntwerpen, 1854\u201d","field_dimensions":"31.75 x 43 in. (80 x 109 cm.)","field_bibliography":"\u003Cp\u003EFerdinand De Braekeleer Correspondence. James Lenox Papers. Box 2, Manuscripts and Archives Division. New York Public Library, New York.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EParke-Bernet Galleries, New York. \u003Cem\u003EEnglish and Continental Furniture, Paintings, Georgian Silver, Laces, Porcelains, Rugs\u003C\/em\u003E. New York: Parke-Bernet Galleries, 1943. Auction catalogue.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EVautier, Dominique. \u201cDe Braekeleer Family.\u201d Grove Art Online. Published 2003. Accessed September 5, 2018. \u003Ca href=\u0022http:\/\/\/\/www.oxfordartonline.com\/groveart\/view\/10.1093\/gao\/9781884446054.001.0001\/oao-9781884446054-e-7000021696\u0022\u003Ehttp:\/\/\/\/www.oxfordartonline.com\/groveart\/view\/10.1093\/gao\/9781884446054.001.0001\/oao-9781884446054-e-7000021696\u003C\/a\u003E.\u003Cbr \/\u003E\n\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_desc_author":"SW","field_llg_number":"10, no. 52","field_alt_title":"Christmas Eve"},{"title":"Portrait of a Gentleman [Robert Lenox]","nid":"623","field_image":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_3d\/public\/paintings\/2018-06\/d_1_1.jpg?itok=jYtHxnp8","field_image_hd":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_hd\/public\/paintings\/2018-06\/d_1_1.jpg?itok=Xbmwqnr2","field_image_credit":"Artwork in the public domain; photograph courtesy New York Public Library. ","field_position_code":"d_1_1","field_artist":"John Trumbull","field_original_artist":"","field_artist_date":"1756\u20131843","field_current_owner":"New York Public Library, New York","field_llg_info":"\u003Cp\u003E\u201c1810\u20131812\u201d\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_medium":"Oil on canvas","field_location":"east wall, south side","field_id":"56","field_description":"\u003Cp\u003EJohn Trumbull, painter of the American Revolution, was one of the preeminent members, along with Gilbert Stuart and John Vanderlyn, of the first generation of US artists trained in Europe who returned to the country to establish a national art tradition. He was born into an old Connecticut family and his father, Jonathan, served as the state\u2019s Revolutionary governor. Soon after the attack by British soldiers on Lexington and Concord, John joined the First Regiment of Connecticut as an adjutant. His regiment reached Boston in early May 1775 and was stationed in Roxbury, where the future artist witnessed the battle of Bunker Hill firsthand. This battle became the subject of his first Revolutionary painting, \u003Cem\u003EThe Death of General Warren at the Battle of Bunker\u2019s Hill June 17, 1775 \u003C\/em\u003E(1786; Wadsworth Atheneum, Hartford). Trumbull\u2019s oldest brother, who was commissary general of the army, recommended John\u2019s talents as mapmaker to General George Washington, who soon promoted him as his second aide-du-camp, but Trumbull left the army abruptly in a fit of pique in 1776 when his promotion to deputy adjunct general was misdated.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EOver the next few years, Trumbull wandered about, living first with his family in Hartford and then in Boston to study art, a fruitless venture during these wartime years. Determined to undertake a career as a painter, he found his way to England and studied with Benjamin West in the spring of 1784. Here, he began to develop ideas and compositions for his Revolutionary subjects, four of which were installed in the United States Capitol in the 1820s.\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EFor twenty years, Trumbull lived variously in London, Paris, and New York, returning in 1804 to the United States and settling in New York City, where, in only a brief period of time, he became the city\u2019s premier portrait artist. As befitting his training and renown, he was appointed a director of the newly formed New York (later, American) Academy of Fine Arts (1802) and was later its president (1817\u201335).\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EA year after his arrival, he undertook this half-length of Robert Lenox. Trumbull sent this portrait and its pendant,\u003Cem\u003E Mrs. Robert Lenox\u003C\/em\u003E (LLG 13, no. 75) to London for exhibit in 1806. He wrote to West asking his opinion, and West responded by saying that with a few adjustments Robert\u2019s portrait \u201cwould then stand the competition with some of the finest Portraits of the times\u201d (Cooper 1982, 162).\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003E\u003Ca class=\u0022in_gallery\u0022 data-view=\u0022grid\u0022 href=\u0022#\u0022 id=\u0022genre\u0022 target=\u0022Lenox Family\u0022\u003EThis portrait was one of seven family portraits placed on the east wall of the Lenox Library Picture Gallery adjacent or near to portraits of George Washington. These were two portraits by Gilbert Stuart of Robert\u2019s daughters, Isabella and Elizabeth; a second portrait by John Trumbull of his wife, Rachel; two portraits by John Wesley Jarvis of Robert and a posthumous rendering of his daughter, Alethea; and a portrait of Robert\u2019s son, James, by the Scottish painter Sir Francis Grant.\u003C\/a\u003E Collectively, they imply the family\u2019s patriotism and admiration, if not devotion, to the founding father of the United States.\u003Cbr \/\u003E\n\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_nationality":"US","field_date":"1805","field_dimensions":"37 x 28 in. (94 x 71 cm.)","field_bibliography":"\u003Cp\u003ECooper, H. A. \u003Cem\u003EJohn Trumbull: The Hand and Spirit of a Painter\u003C\/em\u003E. New Haven: Yale University Art Gallery, 1982. Exhibition catalogue.\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_desc_author":"SW","field_llg_number":"13, no. 77","field_alt_title":""},{"title":"A Girl Holding a Candle","nid":"624","field_image":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_3d\/public\/paintings\/2018-10\/image_not_found_12.jpg?itok=n6HywJDi","field_image_hd":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_hd\/public\/paintings\/2018-10\/image_not_found_12.jpg?itok=RHLUGVao","field_image_credit":"","field_position_code":"d_1_2","field_artist":"G. [Godfried] Schalcken","field_original_artist":"","field_artist_date":"1643\u20131706","field_current_owner":"Unknown","field_llg_info":"\u003Cp\u003E\u201cBought at the sale of J. P. Beaumont, New York, April, 1850.\u201d\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_medium":"Unknown","field_location":"east wall, south side","field_id":"57","field_description":"\u003Cp\u003EBorn in Dordrecht, Godfried Schalcken left for Leiden in 1656 to study with Gerrit Dou, who specialized in small-scale genre scenes that often contained trompe l\u2019oeil and candlelight effects. He spent the next thirty years in Dordrecht and The Hague. In his late forties, he moved to London, where he met with great success during the seven years he spent there. He returned to Holland, where he settled first in The Hague; he later lived in D\u00fcsseldorf, Germany.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003ESchalcken was best known for his highly finished paintings in the style of Dou. His works often feature the arresting effects of\u00a0candlelight. Lenox\u2019s painting is a characteristic example.\u003Cbr \/\u003E\n\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_nationality":"Dutch","field_date":"Unknown","field_dimensions":"Unknown","field_bibliography":"\u003Cp\u003EJansen, J. \u201cSchalcken, Godfried.\u201d Grove Art Online. Published 2003. Accessed September 7, 2018.\u003Ca href=\u0022 http:\/\/\/\/www.oxfordartonline.com\/groveart\/view\/10.1093\/gao\/9781884446054.001.0001\/oao-9781884446054-e-7000076391\u0022\u003E http:\/\/\/\/www.oxfordartonline.com\/groveart\/view\/10.1093\/gao\/9781884446054.001.0001\/oao-9781884446054-e-7000076391\u003C\/a\u003E.\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_desc_author":"SW","field_llg_number":"13, no. 78","field_alt_title":""},{"title":"A Boar Hunt on the\u00a0Campagna","nid":"625","field_image":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/index.php\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_3d\/public\/paintings\/2018-06\/pinsdaddy-piazza-di-spagna-page-two%20%281%29.jpg?itok=xm-qFWe0","field_image_hd":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/index.php\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_hd\/public\/paintings\/2018-06\/pinsdaddy-piazza-di-spagna-page-two%20%281%29.jpg?itok=YAhsAqwK","field_image_credit":"","field_position_code":"x_1","field_artist":"[Paolo] Vallati","field_original_artist":"","field_artist_date":"dates unknown","field_current_owner":"Unknown","field_llg_info":"\u003Cp\u003EPainted to order, Rome, November, 1852.\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_medium":"Unknown","field_location":"over door","field_id":"147","field_description":"\u003Cp\u003EThere is no extant information on this artist or painting.\u00a0\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_nationality":"Italian","field_date":"1852","field_dimensions":"58 1\/2 x 79\u00a0in\u00a0\u00a0","field_bibliography":"","field_desc_author":"Sally Webster","field_llg_number":"21, no.\u00a0138","field_alt_title":""},{"title":"La Marguerite (The Daisy)","nid":"627","field_image":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_3d\/public\/paintings\/2018-08\/d.1.5_constant-wauters-the-conversation.jpg?itok=dQj-HZ7E","field_image_hd":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_hd\/public\/paintings\/2018-08\/d.1.5_constant-wauters-the-conversation.jpg?itok=4ogRoV7n","field_image_credit":"Artwork in the public domain; photograph courtesy of Artnet.","field_position_code":"d_1_5","field_artist":"Constant Wauters","field_original_artist":"","field_artist_date":"1826\u201353","field_current_owner":"Unknown","field_llg_info":"\u003Cp\u003E\u201cPurchased from the artist, by Mr. De Braekeleer [the Elder], in 1852.\u201d\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_medium":"Unknown","field_location":"east wall, south side","field_id":"60","field_description":"\u003Cp\u003EConstant\u00a0Wauters, who was born in Antwerp,\u00a0was a pupil of Ferdinand De Braekeleer the Elder. He began to exhibit in his native city in the late 1840s. This painting was one of the twenty-four Belgian paintings exhibited by Ferdinand de Braekeleer the Younger in New York City on lower Broadway in 1852. None of the paintings in the catalogue are titled, including this one, which was listed in the Lenox catalogue, first published twenty-seven years later, as \u003Cem\u003ELa Marguerite\u003C\/em\u003E.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EThe information in De Braekeleer\u2019s catalogue about this painting included the mention that Wauters \u201cprincipally painted in the style of the times of Louis XIV \u0026amp; XV,\u201d and the fancy costume of the shepherdess romantically depicted in a sylvan setting evokes that era. More specifically, \u201cthis picture represents a sheepwalk, where a young shepherd and a young shepherdess, leaning against a fence, are trying to find a decision of their lot by plucking the leaves of a daisy [in French, \u003Cem\u003Ela marguerite\u003C\/em\u003E]. In the shade of the old oak at their feet is their dog watching, while their flock is to be seen grazing in the splendid pasture behind. This small painting is full of striking effect by its color, and one of the best productions of this young Master [Wauters died five years later at age 29]\u201d (\u003Cem\u003ECatalogue of a Collection\u003C\/em\u003E 1852, 5).\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EAccording to the notations in the catalogue owned by the New York Public Library, the picture sold for $300. It is likely that the handwriting is James Lenox\u2019s.\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_nationality":"Belgian","field_date":"1852","field_dimensions":"Unknown","field_bibliography":"\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cem\u003ECatalogue of a Collection of Oil Paintings by the Modern Belgian Masters in Possession of De Braekeleer\u003C\/em\u003E. New York: Sackett \u0026amp; Co., 1852. Exhibition catalogue.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003E\u201cWauters, Constant.\u201d Benezit Dictionary of Artists. Published 2011. Accessed September 7, 2018. \u003Ca href=\u0022http:\/\/\/\/www.oxfordartonline.com\/benezit\/view\/10.1093\/benz\/9780199773787.001.0001\/acref-9780199773787-e-00195017\u0022 target=\u0022new\u0022\u003Ehttp:\/\/\/\/www.oxfordartonline.com\/benezit\/view\/10.1093\/benz\/9780199773787.001.0001\/acref-9780199773787-e-00195017\u003C\/a\u003E.\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_desc_author":"SW","field_llg_number":"13, no. 81","field_alt_title":""},{"title":"Grotto of Neptune, Tivoli","nid":"628","field_image":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_3d\/public\/paintings\/2018-06\/d-2-1.jpg?itok=jJMnpvpF","field_image_hd":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_hd\/public\/paintings\/2018-06\/d-2-1.jpg?itok=ReNQffC9","field_image_credit":"Artwork in the public domain; photograph courtesy New York Public Library. ","field_position_code":"d_2_1","field_artist":"M. [Martin] Verstappen","field_original_artist":"","field_artist_date":"1773\u20131853","field_current_owner":"Unknown","field_llg_info":"\u003Cp\u003E\u201cRome, 1820.\u201d\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_medium":"Unknown","field_location":"east wall, south side","field_id":"61","field_description":"\u003Cp\u003EBorn in Antwerp, Verstappen studied with Petrus van Regemorter at the Antwerp Academy. He spent most of his life in Rome, where he taught at the famed Accademia di San Luca (Academy of St. Luke).\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EThe Grotto of Neptune in Tivoli was a popular tourist site in the eighteenth century. A guidebook from the 1820s described its aesthetic appeal: \u201cThe Grotto of Neptune, into which the Anio precipitates itself with such violence as to form a spray resembling rain, combines the sublime and the beautiful so wonderfully that even Salvatore Rosa could not do justice to the scene\u201d (Starke 1828, 337). From what can be discerned in the gallery photograph, the illuminated opening of the grotto was in the background of Verstappen\u2019s painting; four deer could be seen in the mid-ground.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003ELittle is known about this painting, and it may have been acquired by Lenox when he was in Rome in 1824 (see Appendix 3).\u00a0\u003Cbr \/\u003E\n\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_nationality":"Belgian","field_date":"Unknown","field_dimensions":"Unknown","field_bibliography":"\u003Cp\u003EStarke, Marian. \u003Cem\u003ETravels in Europe between the Years 1824 and 1828\u003C\/em\u003E. Leghorn, Italy: Glaucus Masi, 1828.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003E\u201cVerstappen, Martin.\u201d Benezit Dictionary of Artists. Published 2011. Accessed September 7, 2018. \u003Ca href=\u0022http:\/\/\/\/www.oxfordartonline.com\/benezit\/view\/10.1093\/benz\/9780199773787.001.0001\/acref-9780199773787-e-00190344\u0022 target=\u0022new\u0022\u003Ehttp:\/\/\/\/www.oxfordartonline.com\/benezit\/view\/10.1093\/benz\/9780199773787.001.0001\/acref-9780199773787-e-00190344\u003C\/a\u003E.\u00a0\u003Cbr \/\u003E\n\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_desc_author":"SW","field_llg_number":"13, no. 82","field_alt_title":""},{"title":"The Reception of a Young Prince","nid":"629","field_image":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_3d\/public\/paintings\/2018-06\/d_2_2.jpg?itok=1dNUXFSp","field_image_hd":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_hd\/public\/paintings\/2018-06\/d_2_2.jpg?itok=9sBW4Yc6","field_image_credit":"Artwork in the public domain; photograph courtesy of Wikipedia Commons.","field_position_code":"d_2_2","field_artist":"H. [possibly Hubert] Salentin","field_original_artist":"","field_artist_date":"1822\u20131910","field_current_owner":"Unknown","field_llg_info":"\u003Cp\u003E\u201cBought at Charles F. Haseltine\u2019s sale, April, 1874.\u201d\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_medium":"Unknown","field_location":"east wall, south side","field_id":"62","field_description":"\u003Cp\u003EHubert Salentin was a German artist from the Western region of North Rhine-Westphalia. He worked as a blacksmith before training at the Kunstakademie D\u00fcsseldorf. Associated with the D\u00fcsseldorf school of painting, Salentin was known for his genre scenes set in the German countryside.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EThis painting shows a small group of villagers, mostly children, who have gathered around the entrance of the home of an elegantly dressed young German prince, who appears at right with two noble gentlemen. The family\u2019s crest, featuring a yellow lion on a red background, is shown just above the doorway. Two of the young villagers appear to read aloud from small books, although it is also possible that they are following a song led by the man with an upraised hand at center.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003ESalentin\u2019s painting was purchased from Charles F. Haseltine, brother of the artist William Haseltine, a well-known art dealer and critic from Philadelphia who held auctions in New York in the 1870s. There is not enough information to determine Lenox\u2019s interest in owning this painting.\u003Cbr \/\u003E\n\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_nationality":"German","field_date":"ca. 1860","field_dimensions":"38 x 51 in. (96.5 x 129.5 cm.)","field_bibliography":"\u003Cp style=\u0022margin:0in 0in 0.0001pt\u0022\u003E\u201cSalentin, Hubert.\u201d Benezit Dictionary of Artists. Published 2011. Accessed September 7, 2018.\u003Cbr \/\u003E\u003Ca href=\u0022http:\/\/\/\/www.oxfordartonline.com\/benezit\/view\/10.1093\/benz\/9780199773787.001.0001\/acref-9780199773787-e-00159534\u0022\u003Ehttp:\/\/\/\/www.oxfordartonline.com\/benezit\/view\/10.1093\/benz\/9780199773787.001.0001\/acref-9780199773787-e-00159534\u003C\/a\u003E.\u003Cbr \/\u003E\n\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_desc_author":"CJ","field_llg_number":"11, no. 59","field_alt_title":""},{"title":"View near Bonmont, Switzerland. Part of the Jura Mountains in the Distance","nid":"630","field_image":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_3d\/public\/paintings\/2018-06\/d-3-1.jpg?itok=nivGjZEM","field_image_hd":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_hd\/public\/paintings\/2018-06\/d-3-1.jpg?itok=lDnub94o","field_image_credit":"Artwork in the public domain; photograph courtesy New York Public Library. ","field_position_code":"d_3_1","field_artist":"Copley Wilson","field_original_artist":"","field_artist_date":"dates unknown","field_current_owner":"Unknown","field_llg_info":"\u003Cp\u003E\u201cPresented by John Fisher Sheafe, 1877.\u201d\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_medium":"Unknown","field_location":"east wall, south side","field_id":"63","field_description":"\u003Cp\u003ENot much is known about the artist of this work, Copley Wilson. Based on the photographs taken of the Lenox Picture Gallery\u2019s walls in the nineteenth century, the painting appears to depict at least one figure with a group of livestock in a wooded setting.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EIn the Lenox Library, this painting was found above another landscape by Wilson, \u003Cem\u003E\u003Ca class=\u0022in_gallery\u0022 href=\u0022#\u0022 target=\u002264\u0022\u003ETemple of the Sibyl, Tivoli\u003C\/a\u003E \u003C\/em\u003E(n.d.; \u003Cem\u003ELLG\u003C\/em\u003E 21, no. 141), which features a similar composition. According to the LLG, these works were given to James Lenox by his brother-in-law John Fisher Sheafe, husband to his sister Mary, in 1877. To its right hung another image of Tivoli by Martin Verstappen, \u003Ca class=\u0022in_gallery\u0022 href=\u0022#\u0022 target=\u002261\u0022\u003E\u003Cem\u003EGrotto of Neptune, Tivoli\u003C\/em\u003E\u003C\/a\u003E (1820; \u003Cem\u003ELLG\u003C\/em\u003E 13, no. 82).\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EThe painting depicts an area in the Jura Mountains (visible in the break between the trees in the center) along the border between France and Switzerland. The title, Bonmont, likely refers to a Cistercian monastery in the region that was founded in the early twelfth century. The abbey was secularized with the Reformation in 1536 and put to practical use. The area now features a golf resort.\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_nationality":"nationality unknown","field_date":"Unknown","field_dimensions":"Unknown","field_bibliography":"","field_desc_author":"CJ","field_llg_number":"21, no. 141","field_alt_title":""},{"title":"The Field of Battle\u00a0","nid":"631","field_image":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_3d\/public\/paintings\/2018-08\/D.3.3_PDelaroche0003.jpg?itok=kRJtkEfU","field_image_hd":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_hd\/public\/paintings\/2018-08\/D.3.3_PDelaroche0003.jpg?itok=QnZVNx5E","field_image_credit":"Artwork in the public domain; photograph courtesy Sotheby\u2019s, Inc.","field_position_code":"d_3_3","field_artist":"Paul Delaroche","field_original_artist":"","field_artist_date":"1797\u20131856","field_current_owner":"Unknown","field_llg_info":"\u003Cp\u003E\u201cBought at the sale of Mr. W. W. Hope, Paris, June, 1855.\u201d\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_medium":"Oil on canvas","field_location":"east wall, south side","field_id":"65","field_description":"\u003Cp\u003EPaul Delaroche came from a family of artists, dealers, collectors, and arts administrators that included his father, dealer Gr\u00e9goire-Hippolyte Delaroche, and brother, artist Jules-Hippolyte Delaroche. Between 1816 and 1818, he studied landscape painting at the \u00c9cole des Beaux-Arts under Louis-Etienne Watelet before working in the studios of Constant-Joseph Desbordes and Antoine-Jean Gros. He made his d\u00e9but at the Salon of 1822, and soon became one of he most celebrated artists of France. Delaroche is one of the main representatives of the so-called juste milieu, a style of painting that reconciled classicism and romanticism.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EDelaroche was commissioned to paint numerous works depicting scenes from English and French history, such as \u003Cem\u003EDeath of Queen Elizabeth\u003C\/em\u003E (Louvre; 1828) and\u003Cem\u003E The State Barge of Cardinal Richelieu on the Rh\u00f4ne\u003C\/em\u003E (1829; Wallace Collection, London), eventually becoming the leader of the French school of history painting. Delaroche was elected a member of the Acad\u00e9mie des Beaux-Arts in 1832. The following year he became a professor at the \u00c9cole des Beaux-Arts, where his students included Thomas Couture and Jean-L\u00e9on G\u00e9r\u00f4me. He was also an artist popular with collectors in the United States, including William Walters, who owned a reduction of his \u003Cem\u003EH\u00e9micyle\u003C\/em\u003E, a mural for the auditorium for the \u00c9cole des Beaux-Arts. Also called \u003Cem\u003EArtists of all Nations\u003C\/em\u003E, it was sculpturally reproduced for the fa\u00e7ade of the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts in 1876 (see Webster 2012).\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EThe artist was praised for the detail of his paintings and theatrical compositions, which often resemble wax figures or staged tableaux. In fact, he was known for making wax and plaster models to aid in the arrangement of his figures, some of which were made into bronze casts.\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cem\u003EThe Field of Battle\u003C\/em\u003E depicts a member of the French \u003Cem\u003Ecuirassiers\u003C\/em\u003E, the armored cavalry named after their breastplate (\u003Cem\u003Ecuirasse\u003C\/em\u003E) that came to prominence during the Napoleonic Wars (1803\u201315). Sitting on horseback and carrying the Austrian standards, the soldier appears to take a pause from the battle raging behind him.\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EThis painting was acquired by James Lenox while he was in Paris in June 1855. He purchased it in a sale of \u003Ca class=\u0022in_gallery\u0022 data-view=\u0022grid\u0022 href=\u0022#\u0022 id=\u0022auction\u0022 target=\u0022W. W. Hope sale 1855\u0022\u003EW. William Hope along with \u003Cem\u003EThe Siege of Saragossa\u003C\/em\u003E\u003C\/a\u003E by \u00c9mile-Jean-Horace Vernet (LLG 10, no. 55). A nineteenth-century print based on this work by John Sartain (1808\u201397) is in the collection of the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts. The painting was deaccessioned by the library in April 2008 and was acquired by real estate tycoon John F. Eulich. It was auctioned following Eulich\u2019s death at Sotheby\u2019s New York on November 21, 2017.\u003Cbr \/\u003E\n\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_nationality":"French","field_date":"Unknown","field_dimensions":"26 x 21 in. (66 x 53 cm.)","field_bibliography":"\u003Cp\u003EWebster, Sally. \u201cA Mural Carved in Stone, Delaroche\u2019s Hemicycle for the Facade of the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts.\u201d Museum History Journal 5, no. 2 (June 2012): 283\u2013301.\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EWhiteley, Linda. \u201cDelaroche Family.\u201d Grove Art Online. Published 2003. Accessed April 2, 2018. \u003Ca href=\u0022http:\/\/www.oxfordartonline.com\/groveart\/view\/10.1093\/gao\/9781884446054.001.0001\/oao-9781884446054-e-7000021935\u0022 target=\u0022new\u0022\u003Ehttp:\/\/www.oxfordartonline.com\/groveart\/view\/10.1093\/gao\/9781884446054.001.0001\/oao-9781884446054-e-7000021935\u003C\/a\u003E.\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_desc_author":"CJ","field_llg_number":"11, no. 57","field_alt_title":""},{"title":"Tobit and the Angel","nid":"632","field_image":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_3d\/public\/paintings\/2018-10\/andrea-del-sarto-archangel-raphael-with-tobias_a-G-10304810-9664567_0.jpg?itok=_Rd-RKAb","field_image_hd":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_hd\/public\/paintings\/2018-10\/andrea-del-sarto-archangel-raphael-with-tobias_a-G-10304810-9664567_0.jpg?itok=_KygLdZs","field_image_credit":"Artwork in the public domain; photograph courtesy New York Public Library.","field_position_code":"d_4_1","field_artist":"Unknown artist","field_original_artist":"Andrea del Sarto (Italian, 1486\u20131530)","field_artist_date":"dates unknown","field_current_owner":"Unknown. The original is in the Palatine Gallery, Pitti Palace, Florence.","field_llg_info":"\u003Cp\u003E\u201cPurchased in Rome in 1820.\u201d\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_medium":"Unknown","field_location":"east wall, south side","field_id":"66","field_description":"\u003Cp\u003EThis is one of the few copies that is not acknowledged as such. The original work, a copy of a detail of a work by Del Sarto painted by Francesco Bianchi from 1618, hangs in the Pitti Palace, Florence, Italy (Lydecker 1985, 352). It depicts the winged Archangel Raphael holding the hand of the adoring Tobias, whose small dog looks out at the viewer.\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EThe original work by Andrea del Sarto (1486\u20131530), an altarpiece that includes Saint Lorenzo and the donor to the right of Raphael, was painted in 1512 for the church of Sta Lucia a Settimello, outside Florence, for the family altar of Leonardo Morelli (Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna). According to Serena Padovani, this work is among a series of three altarpieces created in 1512\u201313 that are \u201cas revolutionary in their originality of composition and colour as those by Pontormo and Rosso at the same date\u201d (Padoviani 2003).\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EAt the time when Andrea del Sarto painted this work, he was one of the most sought-after artists in Florence, particularly by religious orders, which commissioned him to paint frescoes throughout Florence. In 1518\u201319, Del Sarto travelled to Paris, where King Francis I engaged him briefly as a court painter. According to Giorgio Vasari, his pupil and biographer, the artist\u2019s wife was so stricken by his absence that she begged him to return to Florence, and the king granted Del Sarto permission to leave with the understanding that he would purchase Florentine paintings and sculptures on the king\u2019s behalf. Instead of spending the royal money on art, however, Del Sarto built a house for himself in Florence, thus ruining his reputation and preventing him from ever returning to France.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EGiven the details of its purchase, this painting may not have been purchased by James Lenox, whose first trip to Europe occurred in 1824. Rather, it was probably obtained by a family member such as his father, who may have travelled to Europe in 1820, or his uncle, also named James, who at the time was a resident of Scotland.\u00a0\u003Cbr \/\u003E\n\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_nationality":"nationality unknown","field_date":"Original, 1506\u201330","field_dimensions":"Unknown","field_bibliography":"\u003Cp\u003ELydecker, John Kent. \u201cThe Patron, Date, and Original Location of Andrea Del Sarto\u2019s Tobias Altar-Piece.\u201d \u003Cem\u003EThe Burlington Magazine \u003C\/em\u003E127, no. 987 (June 1985): 349\u201355.\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EPadovani, Serena. \u201cSarto, Andrea del.\u201d Grove Art Online. Published 2003. Accessed April 2, 2018. \u003Ca href=\u0022http:\/\/\/\/www.oxfordartonline.com\/groveart\/view\/10.1093\/gao\/9781884446054.001.0001\/oao-9781884446054-e-700007606\u0022\u003Ehttp:\/\/\/\/www.oxfordartonline.com\/groveart\/view\/10.1093\/gao\/9781884446054.001.0001\/oao-9781884446054-e-700007606\u003C\/a\u003E7.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003E\u201cSchool of Andrea del Sarto. \u2018Archangel Raphael with Tobias,\u2019 Seventeenth Century.\u201d Accessed September 16, 2018.\u003Cbr \/\u003E\u003Ca href=\u0022https:\/\/www.gettyimages.com\/detail\/illustration\/archangel-raphael-with-tobias-by-school-dagnolo-andrea-stock-graphic\/115625797\u0022\u003Ehttps:\/\/www.gettyimages.com\/detail\/illustration\/archangel-raphael-with-tobias-by-school-dagnolo-andrea-stock-graphic\/115625797\u003C\/a\u003E.\u003Cbr \/\u003E\n\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_desc_author":"CJ","field_llg_number":"14, no. 86","field_alt_title":"The Archangel Raphael and Tobias"},{"title":"The First Grandchild","nid":"633","field_image":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_3d\/public\/paintings\/2018-06\/d-4-2.jpg?itok=LDtSaSCq","field_image_hd":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_hd\/public\/paintings\/2018-06\/d-4-2.jpg?itok=MKHSbjRK","field_image_credit":"Artwork in the public domain; photograph courtesy New York Public Library. ","field_position_code":"d_4_2","field_artist":"Carl [Wilhelm] H\u00fcbner","field_original_artist":"","field_artist_date":"1814\u201379","field_current_owner":"Unknown","field_llg_info":"\u003Cp\u003E\u201cBought at the sale of J. P. Beaumont, New York, April 19, 1870.\u201d\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_medium":"Oil on canvas","field_location":"east wall, south side","field_id":"67","field_description":"\u003Cp\u003ECarl H\u00fcbner was a German painter from the Prussian city of K\u00f6nigsberg (now Kaliningrad, Russia). He trained with Johann Edward Wolf in K\u00f6nigsberg, then with Wilhelm Schadow and Karl Sohn at the Kunstakademie D\u00fcsseldorf. He gained renown in 1844 for his genre painting depicting Silesian weavers, which was presented numerous times in New York in the 1850s and 1860s. The majority of his works illustrate rural themes, with particular attention to social problems such as poverty and need. After 1848, the subjects of his paintings catered more to a general interest. He was connected to a romantic tradition, but the sentimental treatment of his subjects also links him with the D\u00fcsseldorf school.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EThis painting was purchased by Lenox in April 1870 at the J. P. Beaumont sale along with a work by Gilbert Stuart (\u003Ca class=\u0022in_gallery\u0022 href=\u0022#\u0022 target=\u002272\u0022\u003E\u003Cem\u003EHead of Mrs. Robert Morris\u003C\/em\u003E\u003C\/a\u003E; \u003Cem\u003ELLG\u003C\/em\u003E 12, no. 65). It shows the interior of a cottage with a peasant family surrounding a sleeping baby in a crib. The child\u2019s joyous grandparents are also in attendance.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EH\u00fcbner was already quite popular in the United States by the time Lenox purchased this work. In 1874\u201375, he travelled to the United States, where he was well received in cities such as New York and Philadelphia. He became an honorary member of the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts in Philadelphia.\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_nationality":"German","field_date":"1869","field_dimensions":"38 x 44.5 in. (96.5 x 113 cm.)","field_bibliography":"\u003Cp\u003EChamplin, John Denison and Charles Callahan Perkins, eds. \u003Cem\u003ECyclopedia of Painters and Paintings\u003C\/em\u003E. Vol. 2. New York: C. Scribner\u2019s Sons, 1905.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EParke-Bernet Galleries, New York.\u003Cem\u003E English and Continental Furniture, Paintings, Georgian Silver, Laces, Porcelains, Rugs\u003C\/em\u003E. New York: Parke-Bernet Galleries, 1943. Auction catalogue.\u003Cbr \/\u003E\n\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_desc_author":"CJ","field_llg_number":"13, no. 83","field_alt_title":""},{"title":"Portrait of George Washington","nid":"634","field_image":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_3d\/public\/paintings\/2018-06\/e_3_1_0.jpg?itok=LXRtiBMc","field_image_hd":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_hd\/public\/paintings\/2018-06\/e_3_1_0.jpg?itok=mksnzced","field_image_credit":"Artwork in the public domain; photograph courtesy New York Public Library.","field_position_code":"e_3_1","field_artist":"Rembrandt Peale","field_original_artist":"","field_artist_date":"1778\u20131860","field_current_owner":"New York Public Library, New York","field_llg_info":"\u003Cp\u003E\u0022Copied to order.\u201d\u003C\/p\u003E","field_medium":"Oil on canvas","field_location":"east wall, middle","field_id":"78","field_description":"\u003Cp\u003ERembrandt Peale first portrayed George Washington from life in 1795, painting alongside his father, Charles Willson Peale. For the remainder of Rembrandt\u2019s life, the problem of making an accurate and convincing likeness of Washington haunted him. Finally, in 1823 and 1824 he created what was generally considered to be the most lifelike image of the first president, which satisfied his goal of creating a likeness that \u201cconveyed an adequate idea of his mild thoughtful and dignified, yet firm and energetic countenance\u201d (Eisen 1932, 312). The resulting painting measures sixty-two by fifty-four inches and was purchased by the federal government in 1832 (Collection of the United States Capitol, Washington, DC). The work came to be known as the \u201cPatriae Pater\u201d portrait after the inscription on the simulated stone oval in which the likeness is illusionistically framed. This image of Washington is principally a composite of Charles Willson Peale\u2019s 1795 life portrait (The New-York Historical Society, New York), Jean Antoine Houdon\u2019s 1785 life sculpture (National Portrait Gallery, Washington, DC), and Rembrandt\u2019s own 1795 life study (Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia).\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EThe Patriae Pater portrait proved to be so much in demand following the centennial of Washington\u2019s birth in 1832 that beginning in 1846 Peale produced approximately eighty replicas of a reduced and simplified version, familiarly known as the \u201cPorthole\u201d portrait, for individuals and institutions. These works show Washington gazing into space, encircled by an oval trompe l\u2019oeil stone frame, which is usually cracked and occasionally festooned with a wreath. In these bust-length portraits, Washington is surrounded by shadows and clouds and is dressed in either military or civilian attire and shown either looking left or right. Peale referred to these works as his \u201cstandard national likenesses\u201d and \u201cGeorge Washington copies.\u201d The artist felt that he was fulfilling a national need for an affordable and accurate depiction of the first president. Art historian William Oedel has referred to the portrait as \u201can ideal leonine type with square face, broad forehead, lowering brow, deep-set eyes spaced far apart, wide aquiline nose, and square jaw [marked by] attributes of intelligence, dignity, strength, resolve, and magnanimity\u201d (Oedel 1996, 165, 167).\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003ELenox\u2019s interest in George Washington would naturally have led him to become closely familiar with Rembrandt Peale. From the late 1840s, Peale increasingly sought to identify himself with Washington, and from 1854 he began to deliver a lecture on the subject of \u201cWashington and his Portraits\u201d in cities in the North and South. The lecture helped generate orders for the likeness, and this occupied most of the last five years of Peale\u2019s life. Lenox undoubtedly attended one of Peale\u2019s lectures, which were very popular and which he constantly revised. In addition to delivering the lecture, Peale would exhibit various portraits of Washington, including his own originals and copies after other artists. The art historian Carol Eaton Hevner has remarked, \u201cIn bringing his own Washington portraits and well executed copies of other famous Washington portraits before the public, Peale sought to make Washington\u2019s presence felt by a generation which was too young to remember. Rembrandt sought to transmit history he had seen and felt and he attempted to do this through a presentation aimed not only at the ear but at the eye\u201d (Hevner 1985, 89).\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003ELenox honored the Peale family by placing \u003Ca class=\u0022in_gallery\u0022 href=\u0022#\u0022 id=\u0022genre\u0022 target=\u0022Washington by Peale\u0022\u003Efour of their renderings of Washington along the top of this section of the wall\u003C\/a\u003E and above Stuart\u2019s \u201cLandsdowne\u201d version. Reading from left to right were portraits by James, Rembrandt\u2019s copy of Gilbert Stuart\u2019s \u201cVaughan\u201d portrait, this \u201cPorthole\u201d version, and his copy of his father\u2019s portrait of Washington from 1772.\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_nationality":"US","field_date":"1850","field_dimensions":"Unknown","field_bibliography":"\u003Cp\u003EHevner, Carol Eaton. \u201cThe Washington Copies.\u201d In \u003Ci\u003ERembrandt Peale 1778\u20131860: A Life in the Arts\u003C\/i\u003E, 89. Philadelphia: The Historical Society of Pennsylvania, 1985.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EOedel, William. \u201cThe Rewards of Virtue: Rembrandt Peale and Social Reform.\u201d In \u003Ci\u003EThe Peale Family: Creation of a Legacy 1770\u20131870\u003C\/i\u003E, 150\u201367. New York: Abbeville Press, 1996.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003E\u201cRembrandt Peale\u2019s Lecture on Washington and His Portraits.\u201d Appendix in Eisen, Gustavus A. \u003Ci\u003EPortraits of Washington\u003C\/i\u003E. New York: Robert Hamilton and Associates, 1932.\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_desc_author":"BW","field_llg_number":"14, no. 85","field_alt_title":""},{"title":"Portrait of Edmund Burke","nid":"636","field_image":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_3d\/public\/paintings\/2018-06\/e_1_4.jpg?itok=V4S-EE0p","field_image_hd":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_hd\/public\/paintings\/2018-06\/e_1_4.jpg?itok=W1MJbrEJ","field_image_credit":"Artwork in the public domain; photograph courtesy New York Public Library.","field_position_code":"e_1_4","field_artist":"John Jackson","field_original_artist":"Sir Joshua Reynolds (British, 1723\u20131792)","field_artist_date":"1778\u20131831","field_current_owner":"Unknown","field_llg_info":"\u003Cp\u003E\u201cProbably a copy by John Jackson. Bought at Christie\u2019s, London, June 21, 1850, from the collection of Charles Meigh, Esq.\u201d\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_medium":"Oil on panel","field_location":"east wall, middle","field_id":"71","field_description":"\u003Cp\u003EThis three-quarter-length portrait depicts Edmund Burke (1729\u201397), an Irish-born British statesman and political philosopher. Known for his conservative opinions\u2014which later gained him the moniker of founder of modern British conservatism in the twentieth century\u2014Burke was a proponent of limiting the powers of the monarchy. As a member of the parliament in the liberal Whig party, he advocated for increased rights for American colonists, particularly in terms of taxation, but was a staunch opponent of the French Revolution, which he saw as destructive of traditional values. He was also instrumental in reforming the British East India Company, and opened successful impeachment proceedings on Warren Hastings, governor-general of Bengal.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EThis modest portrait of Burke may have been painted by Sir Joshua Reynolds or a painter from his studio, although the \u003Cem\u003ELLG\u003C\/em\u003E indicates that it was a copy made by John Jackson. It shows the man without facial expression, turned at such an oblique right angle that his face is nearly shown in profile and much of his body is obscured by darkness. The monotone mossy hue of his jacket and vest contrasts with the fleshy tones of his face and bright auburn hair, which are highlighted by Reynolds\u2019s dramatic use of chiaroscuro.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EIn the nineteenth century, Reynolds was renowned in the United States, particularly among artists, for the quality and accuracy of his portraiture and for a series of lectures he gave to the graduates of the Royal Academy (of which he was president) in 1769\u201370, entitled\u003Cem\u003E Discourses on Art\u003C\/em\u003E. His promotion of classical ideals was even referenced by Samuel F. B. Morse in the founding documents for the National Academy of Design in 1826. British-US artist Charles Robert Leslie, a member of both academies and a friend of Lenox, published a biography entitled \u003Cem\u003EThe Life and Times of Sir Joshua Reynolds\u003C\/em\u003E in 1865.\u00a0\u003Cbr \/\u003E\n\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_nationality":"British","field_date":"1774?","field_dimensions":"Unknown","field_bibliography":"\u003Cp\u003ELeslie, Charles Robert. \u003Cem\u003ELife and Times of Sir Joshua Reynolds: With Notices of Some of His Cotemporaries [sic]. Commenced by Charles Robert Leslie, R. A. Continued and Concluded by Tom Taylor, M. A. In Two Volumes. With Portraits and Illustrations\u003C\/em\u003E. 2 vols. Edited by Tom Taylor. London: J. Murray, 1865.\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_desc_author":"CJ","field_llg_number":"12, no. 65","field_alt_title":""},{"title":"Portrait of George Washington","nid":"637","field_image":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_3d\/public\/paintings\/2018-06\/e_2_1.jpg?itok=stfpsvS1","field_image_hd":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_hd\/public\/paintings\/2018-06\/e_2_1.jpg?itok=uGEnZPeq","field_image_credit":"Artwork in the public domain; photograph courtesy New York Public Library.","field_position_code":"e_2_1","field_artist":"Rembrandt Peale","field_original_artist":"Gilbert Stuart (US, 1755\u20131828)","field_artist_date":"1778\u20131860","field_current_owner":"New York Public Library, New York","field_llg_info":"\u003Cp\u003E\u201cCopy of Stuart\u2019s first portrait, painted in 1795. Bought at the sale of Rembrandt Peale, in Philadelphia, in November, 1862.\u201d\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_medium":"Oil on canvas","field_location":"east wall, middle","field_id":"73","field_description":"\u003Cp\u003ERembrandt Peale was born in Bucks County, Pennsylvania. He began painting at a young age and moved to London in 1801 to study with Benjamin West at the Royal Academy. While there, he became ill and returned to the United States to take up farming, but found himself greatly in demand as a portrait painter. In 1807, he went to Paris, where he became court painter to Napoleon. In 1820, he settled to Philadelphia, where he painted his large and ambitious \u003Cem\u003ECourt of Death\u003C\/em\u003E (Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, Philadelphia). In 1822, he moved to Baltimore, where he and his artist brothers established the Peale Museum and Gallery. Peale moved to New York in 1834, but he later returned to Philadelphia, where he remained the rest of his life. Peale was a founding member of the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts and the National Academy of Design. In his later years, he wrote articles for periodicals, texts on painting technique, and lectured on various topics.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EPeale\u2019s portrait of President Washington is a copy of Gilbert Stuart\u2019s first renderings of the president. It is similar to works known as the \u201cVaughan\u201d portraits. This original portrait by Stuart, painted in 1795 according to Rembrandt Peale, was acquired by Joseph Harrison of Philadelphia and subsequently lost. While in Harrison\u2019s collection, Rembrandt Peale copied it many times.\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EDuring the 1850s, Peale lectured in many cities on the portraits of Washington painted from life. The artists he referenced included Stuart, his father Charles Willson Peale, his uncle James Peale, and himself. Lenox honored the Peale family by placing \u003Ca class=\u0022in_gallery\u0022 href=\u0022#\u0022 id=\u0022genre\u0022 target=\u0022Washington by Peale\u0022\u003Efour of their renderings of Washington along the top of this section of the wall\u003C\/a\u003E and above Stuart\u2019s \u201cLandsdowne\u201d version. Reading from left to right were portraits by James, this copy of Stuart\u2019s \u201cVaughan\u201d portrait, Rembrandt\u2019s \u201cPorthole\u201d version, and his copy of his father\u2019s portrait of Washington from 1772.\u003Cbr \/\u003E\n\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_nationality":"US","field_date":"Original, 1795","field_dimensions":"30 x 25 in. (76.2 x 63.5 cm.) (oval)","field_bibliography":"\u003Cp\u003EMiller, Lillian B. and Margaret Barlow. \u201cRembrandt Peale.\u201d Grove Encyclopedia of American Art. Published 2011. Accessed September 6, 2018. \u003Ca href=\u0022http:\/\/www.oxfordreference.com\/view\/10.1093\/acref\/9780195335798.001.0001\/acref-9780195335798-e-1559\u0022\u003Ehttp:\/\/www.oxfordreference.com\/view\/10.1093\/acref\/9780195335798.001.0001\/acref-9780195335798-e-1559\u003C\/a\u003E.\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_desc_author":"SW","field_llg_number":"11, no. 60","field_alt_title":""},{"title":"L\u2019Espagnol (The Spaniard)","nid":"638","field_image":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_3d\/public\/paintings\/2018-06\/g-2-4.jpg?itok=qPvu1mwl","field_image_hd":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_hd\/public\/paintings\/2018-06\/g-2-4.jpg?itok=MWGfwBSl","field_image_credit":"Artwork in the public domain; photograph courtesy New York Public Library. ","field_position_code":"g_2_4","field_artist":"Constant Wauters","field_original_artist":"","field_artist_date":"1826\u201353","field_current_owner":"Unknown","field_llg_info":"\u003Cp\u003E\u201cPurchased from the artist, by Mr. De Braekeleer.\u201d\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_medium":"Unknown","field_location":"south wall, west side","field_id":"105","field_description":"\u003Cp\u003EConstant Wauters, who was born in Antwerp, was a pupil of Ferdinand De Braekeleer the Elder, and began to exhibit in his native city in the late 1840s. Lenox owned another painting by Wauters, \u003Ca class=\u0022in_gallery\u0022 href=\u0022#\u0022 target=\u002260\u0022\u003E\u003Cem\u003ELa Marguerite\u003C\/em\u003E (\u003Cem\u003ELLG\u003C\/em\u003E 13, no. 81)\u003C\/a\u003E, which was bought by the collector from De Braekeleer the Younger, who maintained a gallery in New York in the early 1850s.\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cem\u003EL\u2019Espagnol\u003C\/em\u003E was not listed in the catalogue of the twenty-four Belgian paintings exhibited by De Braekeleer the Younger in New York. However, a painting entitled \u003Cem\u003EThe Spanish Adventurer\u003C\/em\u003E was included in the exhibition and may be identical with\u003Cem\u003E L\u2019Espagnol\u003C\/em\u003E. Judging from its reproduction on the Lenox Library Picture Gallery\u2019s wall, it was a small painting of a man, presumably in Spanish attire, seated at a table against the wall of a room.\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_nationality":"Belgian","field_date":"Unknown","field_dimensions":"Unknown","field_bibliography":"\u003Cp\u003E\u201cWauters, Constant.\u201d Benezit Dictionary of Artists. Published 2011. Accessed September 8, 2018, \u003Ca href=\u0022http:\/\/\/\/www.oxfordartonline.com\/benezit\/view\/10.1093\/benz\/9780199773787.001.0001\/acref-9780199773787-e-00195017\u0022\u003Ehttp:\/\/\/\/www.oxfordartonline.com\/benezit\/view\/10.1093\/benz\/9780199773787.001.0001\/acref-9780199773787-e-00195017\u003C\/a\u003E.\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_desc_author":"SW","field_llg_number":"17, no. 109","field_alt_title":""},{"title":"Head of a Lady\u00a0","nid":"639","field_image":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_3d\/public\/paintings\/2018-06\/e-2-5.jpg?itok=_l4eMedn","field_image_hd":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_hd\/public\/paintings\/2018-06\/e-2-5.jpg?itok=68y4VUpS","field_image_credit":"Artwork in the public domain; photograph courtesy New York Public Library.","field_position_code":"e_2_5","field_artist":"A. E. [Alfred Edward] Chalon","field_original_artist":"","field_artist_date":"1780\u20131860","field_current_owner":"Unknown","field_llg_info":"\u003Cp\u003E\u201cPainted in 1848, as a companion to [\u003Cem\u003ELLG \u003C\/em\u003E12] No. 68.\u201d\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_medium":"Oil on panel","field_location":"east wall, middle","field_id":"77","field_description":"\u003Cp\u003EAlfred Edward Chalon was an artist of French descent who was born in Switzerland and moved to England as a boy with his family in the wake of the French Revolution. He entered the Royal Academy at age seventeen and became a member in 1816. He was best known for his portraits of prominent British social figures, including Queen Victoria, Georgina Russell, Luisa Russell, Lady Blessington, and the actress Madame Vestris.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EIn 1808, Alfred and his brother, John James Chalon, also an artist, together with the painter Francis Stevens (1781\u20131822), founded the Society for the Study of Epic and Pastoral Design, later known as the Bread and Cheese Society or the\u00a0Chalon\u00a0Sketching Society. At their meetings, members chose scenes and verses from the Bible, Shakespeare, Classical literature, and English poetry as themes for their drawings. A version of this type of sketching society was also popular in New York. Known as the Sketch Club, it was organized in 1829 and in 1847 it became the more broadly based Century Association.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EAlfred Chalon was known for his extroverted personality; many of his famous sitters included figures from the worlds of music and theater. He was elected a full member of the Royal Academy in 1816 and became portrait painter in watercolors to Queen Victoria. His specialization was in small, full-scale portraits on ivory, although he also produced oil paintings.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EBased on the image above and a description from a twentieth-century auction catalogue, this painting depicts an unknown young woman seated in a turquoise chair, facing away from the viewer with her head in profile view. Her dark hair, covered in a translucent white veil, and plumb-colored gown contrast with the ivory color of her face and long neck. The work was made as a companion piece to Charles Robert Leslie\u2019s \u003Ca class=\u0022in_gallery\u0022 href=\u0022#\u0022 target=\u002276\u0022\u003E\u003Cem\u003EPortrait of a Lady\u003C\/em\u003E\u003C\/a\u003E (\u003Cem\u003ELLG\u003C\/em\u003E 12, no. 68).\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EChalon and Leslie were close friends (Leslie 1860, 79). They socialized in the same circles in London and were both members of the Royal Academy during the same period. Chalon also illustrated works by Sir Walter Scott, one of Leslie\u2019s other friends. It is therefore likely that Leslie had a hand in purchasing this work for Lenox as a companion to his own small bust portrait of a woman. In all likelihood, Lenox obtained this painting through the good offices of Leslie.\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_nationality":"Swiss","field_date":"1848","field_dimensions":"10 x 7 in. (25.4 x 17.8 cm.)","field_bibliography":"\u003Cp\u003ELeslie, Charles Robert. \u003Cem\u003EAutobiographical Recollections\u003C\/em\u003E. Edited by Tom Taylor. London: J. Murray, 1860.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EParke-Bernet Galleries. \u003Cem\u003EEnglish and Continental Furniture, Paintings, Georgian Silver, Laces, Porcelains, Rugs\u003C\/em\u003E. New York: Parke-Bernet Galleries, 1943. Auction catalogue.\u003Cbr \/\u003E\n\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_desc_author":"CJ","field_llg_number":"12, no. 69","field_alt_title":"Portrait of a Lady"},{"title":"Portrait of George Washington","nid":"640","field_image":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_3d\/public\/paintings\/2018-06\/e_3_2.jpg?itok=pSzSjXQ8","field_image_hd":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_hd\/public\/paintings\/2018-06\/e_3_2.jpg?itok=F7Cv-bC4","field_image_credit":"Artwork in the public domain; photograph courtesy New York Public Library.","field_position_code":"e_3_2","field_artist":"Gilbert Stuart","field_original_artist":"","field_artist_date":"1755\u20131828","field_current_owner":"Private Collection","field_llg_info":"\u003Cp\u003E\u201cFull length. Painted for Peter Jay Munro, Esq., in 1799. Purchased from his family in July, 1845.\u201d\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_medium":"Oil on canvas","field_location":"east wall, middle","field_id":"79","field_description":"\u003Cp\u003EGilbert Stuart was a native of Rhode Island. In 1777, he sailed for England on the last ship that escaped detection by the British in Boston harbor. In London, he studied with Benjamin West and learned from the example of his teacher, as well as from the work of Joshua Reynolds, Thomas Gainsborough, and George Romney. In 1792, he sailed to the United States, where he settled briefly in New York before moving to Philadelphia and then to Boston. Stuart introduced to the United States the new loosely brushed style used by many of the leading artists of late eighteenth-century London. Younger US artists sought out his advice and imitated his portraits. According to the painter and early historian of US art William Dunlap, Stuart professed that \u201cgood flesh coloring partook of all colors, not mixed, so as to be combined in one tint, but shining through each other, like the blood through the natural skin\u201d (Howat and Spasky 1970, n.p.).\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EThe portrait is the first of four identical full-length paintings for which Stuart revised his earlier Landsdowne portrait of the sitter. It has been known since at least the 1930s as the Munro-Lenox portrait, named for its nineteenth-century owners, Peter Jay Munro and James Lenox, who purchased the work from Munro\u2019s descendants in July 1845. Two of the four full-length likenesses are in the collection of the State of Rhode Island, and the fourth is owned by the Connecticut State Library. The four full-lengths were created in the wake of Washington\u2019s death in 1799, when Stuart was flooded with demands to paint full-lengths of the first president. The art historian Richard McLanathan has referred to the work as \u201cat once more grand and more personal [than the Landsdowne], and incomparably the finest of Stuart\u2019s full-length portraits of Washington\u201d (McLanathan 1986, 103). \u003Ca class=\u0022in_gallery\u0022 href=\u0022#\u0022 id=\u0022genre\u0022 target=\u0022Portraits of Washington\u0022\u003EAlong with portraits by James and Rembrandt Peale, the Stuart is one of the five portraits of Washington owned by Lenox, who had a deep interest in the life, accomplishments, and character of the first president.\u003C\/a\u003E\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_nationality":"US","field_date":"1799","field_dimensions":"95 x 64 in. (241.3 x 162.6 cm.)","field_bibliography":"\u003Cp\u003EBarratt, Carrie Rebora and Ellen G. Miles. \u003Cem\u003EGilbert Stuart.\u003C\/em\u003E New Haven: Yale University Press, 2005. Exhibition catalogue.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EHowat, John and Natalie Spasky. \u003Cem\u003E19th Century Paintings and Sculpture\u003C\/em\u003E. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1970. Collection catalogue.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EMcLanathan, Richard. \u003Cem\u003EGilbert Stuart\u003C\/em\u003E. New York: Harry M. Abrams, Inc., 1986.\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_desc_author":"BW","field_llg_number":"12, no. 70","field_alt_title":""},{"title":"Portrait of Mr. [John] Campbell, of Jamaica, 1816","nid":"641","field_image":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_3d\/public\/paintings\/2018-09\/e.4.2_Stuart_John%20Campbell.JPG?itok=UMQiZfVL","field_image_hd":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_hd\/public\/paintings\/2018-09\/e.4.2_Stuart_John%20Campbell.JPG?itok=Ae7hAapi","field_image_credit":"Artwork in the public domain; photograph courtesy Sotheby\u0026#039;s Inc., New York.","field_position_code":"e_4_2","field_artist":"Gilbert Stuart","field_original_artist":"","field_artist_date":"1755\u20131828","field_current_owner":"Unknown","field_llg_info":"\u003Cp\u003ENone\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_medium":"Oil on canvas","field_location":"east wall, middle","field_id":"81","field_description":"\u003Cp\u003EGilbert Stuart was a native of Rhode Island. In 1777, he sailed for England on the last ship that escaped detection by the British in Boston harbor. In London, he studied with Benjamin West and learned from the example of his teacher, as well as from the work of Joshua Reynolds, Thomas Gainsborough, and George Romney. In 1792, he sailed to the United States, where he settled briefly in New York before moving to Philadelphia and then to Boston. Stuart introduced to the United States the new loosely brushed style used by many of the leading artists of late eighteenth-century London. Younger US artists sought out his advice and imitated his portraits. According to the painter and early historian of US art William Dunlap, Stuart professed that \u201cgood flesh coloring partook of all colors, not mixed, so as to be combined in one tint, but shining through each other, like the blood through the natural skin\u201d (Howat and Spasky 1970, n.p.).\u003Cbr \/\u003E\n\u00a0\u003Cbr \/\u003E\nJames Lenox greatly admired the work of Stuart, the leading portrait painter in the United States in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. He owned six portraits by the artist, including a portrait of his sister, Isabella Henderson Lenox, and this likeness of the planter John Campbell of Jamaica, which he acquired as a gift from a relative sometime between 1859 and 1864. The early date of the painting suggests that it may have been first bought by his father, who had an active trading relationship with Jamaica and other Caribbean islands. Even though the title of the painting in \u003Cem\u003ELLG\u003C\/em\u003E includes the date 1816, the early twentieth-century Stuart authority Lawrence Park believed the painting was executed about 1794 (Park 1926, 1:200).\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003ECampbell represented the parish of Trelawny in the Jamaica House of Assembly. One of the largest landowners in the area and owner of the estates of Kinloss and Duanville, Campbell also kept an estate at Phill\u2019s Hill, New York. It is known that Robert Lenox, James\u0027s father, was a trustee for the sale of Phill\u0027s Hill after Campbell\u0027s death in 1828. It has even been speculated that Campbell and the Lenoxes were related (\u201cCampbell Geneology Notes\u201d). These family connections probably influenced Lenox\u0027s purchase of the portrait, which may have been executed in the course of a visit by Campbell to Boston when Stuart was in residence.\u003Cbr \/\u003E\n\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_nationality":"US","field_date":"ca. 1794 or 1816","field_dimensions":"36 x 28 in. (91.4 x 71.1 cm.)","field_bibliography":"\u003Cp\u003E\u201cCampbell Genealogy Notes.\u201d Published 2012. Accessed September 16, 2018.\u003Cbr \/\u003E\u003Ca href=\u0022https:\/\/campbellgenealogynotes.wordpress.com\/category\/jamaica\/\u0022\u003Ehttps:\/\/campbellgenealogynotes.wordpress.com\/category\/jamaica\/\u003C\/a\u003E.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EHowat, John and Natalie Spasky. \u003Cem\u003E19th Century Paintings and Sculpture\u003C\/em\u003E. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1970. Collection catalogue.\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EPark, Lawrence. \u003Cem\u003EGilbert Stuart: An Illustrated Descriptive List of His Work\u003C\/em\u003E. New York: William Edward Rudge, 1926.\u003Cbr \/\u003E\n\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_desc_author":"BW","field_llg_number":"12, no. 71","field_alt_title":""},{"title":"Portrait of a Lady [Isabella Henderson Lenox]","nid":"642","field_image":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_3d\/public\/paintings\/2018-06\/e_4_3.jpg?itok=9s2SWrJ3","field_image_hd":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_hd\/public\/paintings\/2018-06\/e_4_3.jpg?itok=f3VN57JS","field_image_credit":"Artwork in the public domain; photograph courtesy New York Public Library.","field_position_code":"e_4_3","field_artist":"Gilbert Stuart","field_original_artist":"","field_artist_date":"1755\u20131828","field_current_owner":"New York Public Library, New York","field_llg_info":"\u003Cp\u003E\u201cPainted about 1813.\u201d\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_medium":"Oil on panel","field_location":"east wall, middle","field_id":"82","field_description":"\u003Cp\u003EGilbert Stuart was a native of Rhode Island. In 1777, he sailed for England on the last ship that escaped detection by the British in Boston harbor. In London, he studied with Benjamin West and learned from the example of his teacher, as well as from the work of Joshua Reynolds, Thomas Gainsborough, and George Romney. In 1792, he sailed to the United States, where he settled briefly in New York before moving to Philadelphia and then to Boston. Stuart introduced to the United States the new loosely brushed style used by many of the leading artists of late eighteenth-century London. Younger US artists sought out his advice and imitated his portraits. According to the painter and early historian of US art William Dunlap, Stuart professed that \u201cgood flesh coloring partook of all colors, not mixed, so as to be combined in one tint, but shining through each other, like the blood through the natural skin\u201d (Howat and Spasky 1970, n.p.).\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cem\u003EPortrait of a Lady\u003C\/em\u003E [Isabella Henderson Lenox] dates from about 1813, when the sitter was age twenty-four. Stuart painted Isabella and her sister Elizabeth on a visit to Boston, and the likenesses descended to their brother James Lenox. In 1823, Isabella married William Banks of New York. In total, Lenox owned six portraits by Stuart, a reflection of his high regard for the artist, who was the leading portraitist in the United States in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EThis portrait of Isabella Henderson Lenox and that of her sister were placed on the \u003Ca class=\u0022in_gallery\u0022 href=\u0022#\u0022 id=\u0022genre\u0022 target=\u0022Lenox Family\u0022\u003Eeast wall of the Lenox Library Picture Gallery flanking Stuart\u2019s portrait of George Washington. Nearby were other family portraits: two by John Trumbull of their parents, Robert and Rachel Lenox; two portraits by John Wesley Jarvis of Robert and a posthumous rendering of her sister, Alethea; and a portrait of her brother, James, by the Scottish painter Sir Francis Grant. \u003C\/a\u003ECollectively these portraits imply the family\u2019s patriotism and admiration, if not devotion, to the founding father of the United States.\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_nationality":"US","field_date":"1813","field_dimensions":"Unknown","field_bibliography":"\u003Cp\u003EHowat, John and Natalie Spasky. \u003Cem\u003E19th Century Paintings and Sculpture\u003C\/em\u003E. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1970. Collection catalogue.\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_desc_author":"BW","field_llg_number":"12, no. 72","field_alt_title":""},{"title":"Study of a White Horse","nid":"643","field_image":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_3d\/public\/paintings\/2018-08\/e.4.4_sir-edwin-henry-landseer-white-horse.jpg?itok=rC0RxMLB","field_image_hd":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_hd\/public\/paintings\/2018-08\/e.4.4_sir-edwin-henry-landseer-white-horse.jpg?itok=xHYCDH54","field_image_credit":"Artwork in the public domain; photograph courtesy of Artnet.","field_position_code":"e_4_4","field_artist":"Sir Edwin Landseer","field_original_artist":"","field_artist_date":"1802\u201373","field_current_owner":"Unknown","field_llg_info":"\u003Cp\u003E\u201cGiven by the artist to Mr. Leslie, as a hint for Rozinante in the picture of Don Quixote, belonging to Lord Essex. Bought at the sale of C. R. Leslie, April, 1860.\u201d\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_medium":"Unknown","field_location":"east wall, middle","field_id":"83","field_description":"\u003Cp\u003EThis small image of a horse\u2019s head was made by Sir Edwin Landseer for Charles Robert Leslie (1794\u20131859), a British-US artist celebrated for his paintings with literary themes. Landseer intended this work to be used for Leslie\u2019s painting \u003Cem\u003EDon Quixote Having Retired into the Sierra Morena to Do Penance, in Imitation of Amadis De Gaul, Is Prevailed on to Relinquish His Design by a Stratagem of the Curate and the Barber, Assisted by Dorothea\u003C\/em\u003E, which was made for the Earl of Essex in 1826. The two men were friends and travelled together to Scotland in 1824, a visit during which Leslie painted Sir Walter Scott\u2019s portrait (Leslie 1860, 56). The visit prompted Landseer\u2019s long fascination with Scotland, which may have endeared him to Lenox.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003ELandseer was known as a draftsman, etcher, painter, and sculptor. He was precociously gifted and exhibited drawings of mules and heads of dogs at the Royal Academy at age thirteen in 1815 (Upstone 2003). A favorite of Queen Victoria, Landseer was a popular painter of farm animals\u2014horses and dogs\u2014and animals of the wild, such as stags and the lions he sculptured for\u00a0Trafalgar Square. His great contribution, and the basis of his large appeal, was his ability to imbue his representations of animals with human, sentimental feelings, often casting the scene in a storytelling mode paralleling the efforts of Leslie.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003ELenox owned two other small-scale Landseer paintings: \u003Ca class=\u0022in_gallery\u0022 data-view=\u0022grid\u0022 href=\u0022#\u0022 id=\u0022single_artist\u0022 target=\u0022Landseer\u0022\u003E\u003Cem\u003EDog in a Stable\u003C\/em\u003E (n.d.; \u003Cem\u003ELLG\u003C\/em\u003E 3, no. 2) and \u003Cem\u003EA Landscape\u2014Sunset\u003C\/em\u003E (mid-1820s; \u003Cem\u003ELLG\u003C\/em\u003E 4, no. 11)\u003C\/a\u003E, both of which were purchased from the Charles Meigh sale at Christie\u2019s in 1850. Lenox\u2019s interest in the artist was furthered by the great number of Landseer engravings he purchased.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EThis study of a horse was purchased by Lenox from Leslie\u2019s estate sale in 1860 following Leslie\u2019s death in 1859. Of the art advisors Lenox consulted, Leslie was the only one documented in the LLG, as well as the artist\u2019s Autobiographical Reminiscences. In his capacity as an advisor, Leslie was the go-between for the purchase of several Landseer paintings and, most famously, for J. M. W. Turner\u2019s \u003Ca class=\u0022in_class\u0022 href=\u0022#\u0022 target=\u002237\u0022\u003E\u003Cem\u003EStaffa: Fingal\u2019s Cave\u003C\/em\u003E\u003C\/a\u003E (\u003Cem\u003ELLG\u003C\/em\u003E 8, no. 34) (Leslie 1860, 205\u20137).\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_nationality":"British","field_date":"Unknown","field_dimensions":"Unknown","field_bibliography":"\u003Cdiv class=\u0022WordSection1\u0022\u003E\n\u003Cp\u003ELeslie, Charles Robert.\u003Cem\u003E\u00a0Autobiographical Recollections\u003C\/em\u003E. Edited by Tom Taylor. London: J. Murray, 1860.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EUpstone, Robert. \u201cSir Edwin (Henry) Landseer.\u201d Grove Art Online. Updated 2003. Accessed January 13, 2018.\u003Cbr \/\u003E\u003Ca href=\u0022http:\/\/\/\/www.oxfordartonline.com\/groveart\/view\/10.1093\/gao\/9781884446054.001.0001\/oao-9781884446054-e-7000049073\u0022 target=\u0022new\u0022\u003Ehttp:\/\/\/\/www.oxfordartonline.com\/groveart\/view\/10.1093\/gao\/9781884446054.001.0001\/oao-9781884446054-e-7000049073\u003C\/a\u003E.\u003Cbr \/\u003E\n\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n\u003C\/div\u003E\n","field_desc_author":"CJ","field_llg_number":"12, no. 73","field_alt_title":""},{"title":"Portrait of Washington Irving","nid":"644","field_image":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_3d\/public\/paintings\/2018-06\/e_4_5_0.jpg?itok=kEC6r4Cp","field_image_hd":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_hd\/public\/paintings\/2018-06\/e_4_5_0.jpg?itok=8lfVtYl2","field_image_credit":"Artwork in the public domain; photograph courtesy New York Public Library.","field_position_code":"e_4_5","field_artist":"Charles R. [Robert] Leslie","field_original_artist":"","field_artist_date":"1794\u20131859","field_current_owner":"New York Public Library, New York","field_llg_info":"\u003Cp\u003E\u201cBought at the sale of C. R. Leslie, April, 1860. Engraved by Danforth.\u201d\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_medium":"Oil on canvas","field_location":"east wall, middle","field_id":"84","field_description":"\u003Cp\u003ECharles Robert Leslie, a London-born artist whose parents were American, spent early years in Philadelphia, where he apprenticed as a bookseller before turning to art. His paintings impressed several US patrons, who financed his return to England in 1811 and provided him with introductions to influential people in London, including Irving, Coleridge, and the US painter Washington Allston. His friendship with writers influenced his interest in literary themes and by the 1820s he was well known as a painter of this genre. Although Leslie is regarded today as a British artist, as he spent the most part of his life in England, at the time he was lauded as an American, including by his friend William Dunlap, who included him in his 1834 biographical compendium of American artists (Dunlap 1969, 2:239\u201340).\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EThis small, genial bust portrait depicts the US author, historian, and diplomat Washington Irving (1783\u20131859), who is best known for short stories including \u201cRip Van Winkle\u201d (1819) and \u201cThe Legend of Sleepy Hollow\u201d (1820). A native New Yorker like Lenox, Irving wrote several historical biographies, including the five volume \u003Cem\u003EThe Life of George Washington\u003C\/em\u003E, 1855\u201359).\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003ELeslie likely became aware of Irving following the publication of his first book, \u003Cem\u003EA Complete History of New York from the Beginning of the World to the End of the Dutch Dynasty, by Diedrich Knickerbocker\u003C\/em\u003E\u00a0(1809), a satire on self-important local history and contemporary politics, public interest around which was stoked by the author\u2019s placement of missing-person ads for Mr. Knickerbocker in New York daily newspapers. Leslie avidly read and collected Irving\u2019s books and was even known to have lent his copy of A Complete History of New York to his friend, poet Samuel Coleridge (Leslie 1860, 23).\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EPrompted by his family\u2019s failing trading business, in 1815 Irving moved to England, where he stayed for the next seventeen years. He first met Leslie while visiting Sir Walter Scott in 1820, the same year this work was painted (Leslie 1860, 42). The two men enjoyed a long friendship, and this portrait of Irving remained in Leslie\u2019s private collection until his death in 1859.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003ELenox bought a number of Leslie\u2019s paintings, beginning with \u003Ca class=\u0022in_gallery\u0022 href=\u0022#\u0022 target=\u002276\u0022\u003E\u003Cem\u003EPortrait of a Lady\u003C\/em\u003E\u003C\/a\u003E from 1824 (\u003Cem\u003ELLG\u003C\/em\u003E 12, no. 68), which was probably purchased during Lenox\u2019s first European trip (1824\u201325). Lenox also sought his assistance in purchases from other artists including, most famously, J. M. W. Turner\u2019s \u003Ca class=\u0022in_gallery\u0022 href=\u0022#\u0022 target=\u002237\u0022\u003E\u003Cem\u003EStaffa, Fingal\u2019s Cave\u003C\/em\u003E\u003C\/a\u003E (\u003Cem\u003ELLG\u003C\/em\u003E 8, 34), which was the first Turner painting to enter a collection in the United States. Leslie is also the artist most frequently represented in Lenox\u2019s collection\u2014a total of eight paintings and a number of engravings (see Appendix 3).\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_nationality":"British","field_date":"1820","field_dimensions":"Unknown","field_bibliography":"\u003Cp\u003EDunlap, William. \u003Cem\u003EHistory of the Rise and Progress of the Arts of Design in the United States\u003C\/em\u003E. 2 vols. New York: G. P. Scott and Co., 1834; reprint ed. New York: Dover Publications, 1969.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003ELeslie, Charles Robert.\u00a0\u003Cem\u003EAutobiographical Recollections\u003C\/em\u003E. Edited by Tom Taylor. London: J. Murray, 1860.\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_desc_author":"CJ","field_llg_number":"13, no. 74","field_alt_title":""},{"title":"Portrait of a Lady","nid":"646","field_image":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_3d\/public\/paintings\/2018-06\/e-2-4.jpg?itok=YwgbzI_r","field_image_hd":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_hd\/public\/paintings\/2018-06\/e-2-4.jpg?itok=o06u3ebp","field_image_credit":"Artwork in the public domain; photograph courtesy New York Public Library.","field_position_code":"e_2_4","field_artist":"Charles R. [Robert] Leslie","field_original_artist":"","field_artist_date":"1794\u20131859","field_current_owner":"Unknown","field_llg_info":"\u003Cp\u003E\u201cPainted at London, in 1824.\u201d\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_medium":"Unknown","field_location":"east wall, middle","field_id":"76","field_description":"\u003Cp\u003ECharles Robert Leslie, a London-born artist whose parents were from the United States, spent early years in Philadelphia, where he apprenticed as a bookseller before turning to art. His paintings impressed several patrons in the United States, who financed his return to England in 1811 and provided him with introductions to influential people in London, including the US painter Washington Allston, poet Samuel Coleridge, and author Washington Irving. His friendship with writers influenced his interest in literary themes, and by the 1820s he was well known as a painter of this genre. Although Leslie is regarded today as a British artist, as he spent the most part of his life in England, at the time he was lauded as an American, including by his friend William Dunlap, who included him in his 1834 biographical compendium of US artists (Dunlap 1969, 2:239\u201340).\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EThis small half-length portrait by Leslie depicts an unknown young woman. Based on the photographic image above and a written description from a twentieth-century auction catalogue, the sitter, who faces half right, wears a blue gown and is encircled by a rose-colored shawl; her head is covered by a white turban headdress. The background of the painting is neutral. An adjacent piece, \u003Ca class=\u0022in_gallery\u0022 href=\u0022#\u0022 target=\u002277\u0022\u003E\u003Cem\u003EHead of a Lady\u003C\/em\u003E \u003C\/a\u003E(\u003Cem\u003ELLG\u003C\/em\u003E 12, no. 69), was painted as a companion by Alfred Edward Chalon in 1848.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003ELenox bought a number of Leslie\u2019s paintings, beginning with this one from 1824, which was probably purchased during Lenox\u2019s first European trip (1824\u201325). Lenox also sought his assistance in purchases from other artists including, most famously, William Turner\u2019s \u003Ca class=\u0022in_gallery\u0022 href=\u0022#\u0022 target=\u002237\u0022\u003E\u003Cem\u003EStaffa, Fingal\u2019s Cave\u003C\/em\u003E\u003C\/a\u003E (\u003Cem\u003ELLG\u003C\/em\u003E 8, no. 34), which was the first Turner painting to enter a collection in the United States. Leslie is also the artist most frequently represented in Lenox\u2019s collection\u2014a total of eight paintings and a number of engravings (see Appendix 3).\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_nationality":"British","field_date":"1824","field_dimensions":"9 x 6.75 in. (22.9 x 17.1 cm.)","field_bibliography":"\u003Cp\u003EDunlap, William. \u003Cem\u003EHistory of the Rise and Progress of the Arts of Design in the United States.\u003C\/em\u003E 2 vols. New York: G. P. Scott and Co., 1834; reprint ed. New York: Dover Publications, 1969.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003ELeslie, Charles Robert.\u00a0\u003Cem\u003EAutobiographical Recollections\u003C\/em\u003E. Edited by Tom Taylor. London: J. Murray, 1860.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EParke-Bernet Galleries, New York. \u003Cem\u003EEnglish and Continental Furniture, Paintings, Georgian Silver, Laces, Porcelains, Rugs\u003C\/em\u003E. New York: Parke-Bernet Galleries, 1943. Auction catalogue.\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_desc_author":"CJ","field_llg_number":"12, no. 68","field_alt_title":""},{"title":"Portrait of Dr. Thos. Chalmers","nid":"647","field_image":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_3d\/public\/paintings\/2018-06\/e-5-3.jpg?itok=Ac6b_ZXk","field_image_hd":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_hd\/public\/paintings\/2018-06\/e-5-3.jpg?itok=smdrqwfH","field_image_credit":"Artwork in the public domain; photograph courtesy New York Public Library.","field_position_code":"e_5_3","field_artist":"Henry Inman","field_original_artist":"","field_artist_date":"1801\u20131846","field_current_owner":"Unknown","field_llg_info":"\u003Cp\u003E\u201cPainted to order in 1844.\u201d\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_medium":"Unknown","field_location":"east wall, middle","field_id":"87","field_description":"\u003Cp\u003EIn the early 1840s, Henry Inman, one of New York\u2019s foremost portrait and genre painters, was down on his luck. Lenox, whose mother had commissioned Inman to create a series of family miniatures, including one of James, came to the artist\u2019s aid and helped sponsor his trip to Europe.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EIn June 1844, he sailed to England with enough foreign orders to support himself and his family abroad for nearly a year. The previous year had been a low point in his career with regard to commissions, and Inman hoped the trip would better his economic prospects, ignite his creativity, and improve his health. He received orders from James Lenox, Edward L. Carey, James Mapes, Henry Reed, James Robb, and others to paint original portraits, copies, and landscapes.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EIn mid-July 1844, he journeyed from London to Edinburgh and completed Lenox\u2019s commission to paint a likeness of the great Scottish pastor, social reformer, educator, author, and scientist Dr. Thomas Chalmers. Chalmers was also one of the most influential leaders of the Scottish Church (Presbyterian), which would account for Lenox\u2019s interest in obtaining his portrait. The first sitting took place on July 26, followed by three or four additional sittings, which are documented in correspondence between Lenox and Dr. Chalmers (James Lenox Papers). Further testimony to Lenox\u2019s support of Chalmers was his contribution to the program established by the theologian to aid Edinburgh\u2019s urban poor. Author Stewart Jay Brown noted that Lenox donated 1,000 pounds to Chalmers\u2019s efforts, and that the American \u201chad never visited Scotland . . . his gifts were simply the outcome of his personal admiration for Chalmers\u201d (Brown 1982, 52).\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_nationality":"US","field_date":"1844","field_dimensions":"Unknown","field_bibliography":"\u003Cdiv class=\u0022WordSection1\u0022\u003E\n\u003Cp\u003EBrown, Stewart Jay. \u003Cem\u003EThomas Chalmers and the Godly Commonwealth in Scotland\u003C\/em\u003E. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1982.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EJames Lenox Papers. Manuscripts and Archives. New York Public Library, New York.\u003Cbr \/\u003E\n\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n\u003C\/div\u003E\n","field_desc_author":"BW","field_llg_number":"13, no. 76","field_alt_title":""},{"title":"Portrait of a Gentleman [Robert Lenox]","nid":"648","field_image":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_3d\/public\/paintings\/2018-06\/f_1_1_0.jpg?itok=WOz8uwMD","field_image_hd":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_hd\/public\/paintings\/2018-06\/f_1_1_0.jpg?itok=65YCWC2_","field_image_credit":"Artwork in the public domain; photograph courtesy New York Public Library. ","field_position_code":"f_1_1","field_artist":"John Wesley Jarvis","field_original_artist":"","field_artist_date":"1780\u20131840","field_current_owner":"New York Public Library, New York","field_llg_info":"\u003Cp\u003E\u201cPainted about 1830.\u201d\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_medium":"Oil on canvas","field_location":"south wall, east side","field_id":"88","field_description":"\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cspan\u003E\u003Cspan\u003EJohn Wesley Jarvis was the foremost portrait painter in New York during the first quarter of the nineteenth century. He emigrated from England to the United States in about 1785 and set up a studio in New York in 1801. Jarvis established his reputation as a major portraitist with the series of seven full-length likeness of the heroes of the War of 1812 that he painted for City Hall. In 1814, he took Henry Inman on as an apprentice. Inman assisted him in turning out as many as a half-dozen portraits a week. For over a decade, Jarvis remained in high regard and painted the leading members of the city\u2019s political, mercantile, and cultural elite. During the course of Jarvis\u2019s career, he also painted portraits throughout the American South.\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cspan\u003E\u003Cspan\u003EAccording to the Jarvis authority Harold Dickson, Jarvis\u2019s \u003Cem\u003EPortraits of a Gentleman\u003C\/em\u003E [Robert Lenox] dates from ca. 1809 (Dickson 1949, 356). With John Trumbull\u2019s departure for England in 1808, Jarvis faced little competition in New York for commissions from the upper echelons of the city. An unknown number of versions and copies of this likeness exist. Dickson concluded that this \u201cindicates that [the portrait] was well regarded in the Lenox family\u201d (Dickson 1949, 356). One copy, presented by Lenox to Princeton University in 1850, is by the New York portraitist Charles Loring Elliott. Another, presented to the New York Chamber of Commerce in 1865, is by Daniel Huntington. Jarvis\u2019s early portraits were admired for their vividness and subtle modeling of facial features, as well as for his intense concentration on the eyes of his sitters.\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cspan\u003E\u003Cspan\u003ERobert Lenox and his youngest brother James established the commercial house of Lenox \u0026amp; Maitland in New York in 1796. Robert went on to become one of the greatest merchants of his day. He traded extensively throughout the United States and abroad, including in the West Indies. An early history of the New York Chamber of Commerce relates that Robert Lenox \u201cwas one of the most extensive as well as successful merchants in the United States,\u201d and at his death, \u201can eminent merchant who for a period beyond the ordinary course of human life had been distinguished for great prudence, a clear and sound judgment and unblemished reputation\u201d (\u003Cem\u003EThe Charter and By-Laws \u003C\/em\u003E1855, 106).\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003E\u003Ca class=\u0022in_gallery\u0022 data-view=\u0022gallery\u0022 href=\u0022#\u0022 id=\u0022genre\u0022 target=\u0022Lenox Family\u0022\u003EThis portrait of Robert Lenox was one of seven family portraits placed on the east wall of the Lenox Library Picture Gallery adjacent or near to portraits of George Washington\u003C\/a\u003E. These were two portraits by Gilbert Stuart of his daughters, Isabella and Elizabeth; two portraits by John Trumbull of him and his wife Rachel; one other portrait by John Wesley Jarvis, a posthumous rendering of his daughter, Alethea; and a portrait of his son, James, by the Scottish painter Sir Francis Grant.\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_nationality":"US","field_date":"1809; ca. 1830 according to the LLG ","field_dimensions":"Unknown","field_bibliography":"\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cspan\u003E\u003Cspan\u003EDickson,\u003Ci\u003E \u003C\/i\u003EHarold. \u003Ci\u003EJohn Wesley Jarvis\u003C\/i\u003E;\u003Ci\u003E American Painter 1780\u20131840\u003C\/i\u003E,\u003Ci\u003E with a Checklist of His Works\u003C\/i\u003E.\u003Ci\u003E \u003C\/i\u003ENew York: The New-York Historical Society, 1949.\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cspan\u003E\u003Cspan\u003E\u003Ci\u003EThe\u003C\/i\u003E \u003Ci\u003ECharter and By-Laws\u003C\/i\u003E,\u003Ci\u003E with a History of the Chamber of Commerce of the State of New York\u003C\/i\u003E. New York: The Chamber, 1855. \u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_desc_author":"BW","field_llg_number":"14, no. 90","field_alt_title":""},{"title":"Portrait of Lady Frances Deering Wentworth","nid":"649","field_image":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_3d\/public\/paintings\/2018-08\/f.1.2_Copley.jpg?itok=cnHRUGeT","field_image_hd":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_hd\/public\/paintings\/2018-08\/f.1.2_Copley.jpg?itok=srP5eATM","field_image_credit":"Crystal Bridges Museum of American Art, Bentonville, Arkansas, 2005.24, Photography by Dwight Primiano.","field_position_code":"f_1_2","field_artist":"John Singleton Copley","field_original_artist":"","field_artist_date":"1738\u20131815","field_current_owner":"Unknown","field_llg_info":"\u003Cp\u003E\u201cWife of John Wentworth, the last Royal Governor of New Hampshire. In 1775 they went to England. He was created Baronet and appointed Governor of Nova Scotia. Lady Wentworth died in England, in 1813. Purchased in 1872.\u201d\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_medium":"Oil on canvas","field_location":"south wall, east side","field_id":"89","field_description":"\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cspan\u003E\u003Cspan\u003EJohn Singleton Copley was introduced to painting by his stepfather, the painter and engraver Peter Pelham. After Pelham died in 1751, the thirteen-year-old Copley continued working in his stepfather\u2019s studio. He furthered his artistic education by copying prints and copies of European works that were available in Boston. By 1753\u201354, the artist was accepting commissions and producing portraits that show the influence of the Colonial American portraitist Robert Feke. By the late 1750s, Copley had established a studio and was working in a consistent style of his own. With the departure of Joseph Blackburn from the colonies in 1762, Copley\u2019s standing as Boston\u2019s preeminent portraitist was secured.\u00a0\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cspan\u003E\u003Cspan\u003ECopley remained in Colonial America until 1774. His departure for England was prompted by his family\u2019s Loyalist sympathies and by his long-held desire to make the trip abroad. He married the daughter of a prominent Boston Loyalist, who was the Boston agent for the East India Tea Company and a major consignee of the tea that arrived from England and was destroyed by the Sons of Liberty in protest against the Tea Act enacted by the British Parliament\u2014a key event in the lead-up to the American Revolution. Copley remained in England for the rest of his life and established an international reputation.\u00a0\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cspan\u003E\u003Cspan\u003ECopley\u2019s \u003Cem\u003EPortrait of Lady Portrait of Lady Frances Deering Wentworth (Mrs. Theodore Atkinson, Jr.)\u003C\/em\u003E was painted in 1765 and depicts the beautiful and elegant young daughter of the prominent Boston merchant Samuel Wentworth, and wife and first cousin of Theodore Atkinson, Jr. The young woman is opulently dressed in satin and velvet and sits at a table playing with a pet squirrel on a chain. Shortly after the death of her husband from consumption on October 28, 1769, Frances married another first cousin, John Wentworth, who was then the governor of Massachusetts. She had previously been engaged to Wentworth but broke off their relationship following his decision to move to England for an extended period to establish family business contacts abroad. Her wedding to Wentworth on November 11, 1869, two weeks after Atkinson\u2019s death, was the subject of scandal both due to its timing and the fact that she was pregnant. Frances\u2019s life served as the basis for Thomas Head Raddall\u2019s novel \u003Cem\u003EThe Governor\u2019s Lady \u003C\/em\u003Eof 1960.\u00a0\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cspan\u003E\u003Cspan\u003EJames Lenox acquired the portrait of Mrs. Wentworth in 1872 with the aid of his agent and brother-in-law, John Fischer Sheafe. The purchase reflects Lenox\u2019s continued regard for the work of Copley; eight years earlier, in 1864, he had purchased Copley\u2019s portrait of the elderly \u003Ca class=\u0022in_gallery\u0022 href=\u0022#\u0022 target=\u0022111\u0022\u003EMrs. Robert Hooper\u003C\/a\u003E (\u003Cem\u003ELLG\u003C\/em\u003E 18, no. 115) from a granddaughter of the artist. He now possessed an outstanding pair of likenesses by one of the greatest artists in the United States, which reveal Copley\u2019s masterful ability to capture the personality and character of female sitters of dramatically different ages and physical appearances. Both portraits were painted before Copley left permanently for England in 1774.\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/span\u003E\u003Cbr \/\u003E\n\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_nationality":"US","field_date":"1765","field_dimensions":"51 x 40 in. (130 x 101.6 cm.)","field_bibliography":"\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cspan\u003E\u003Cspan\u003ERebora, Carrie, Paul Staiti, Erica E. Hirshler, Theodore Stebbins, Jr., and Carol Troyen. \u003Cem\u003EJohn Singleton Copley in America.\u003C\/em\u003E New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1995. Exhibition catalogue.\u00a0\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_desc_author":"BW","field_llg_number":"14, no. 91","field_alt_title":""},{"title":"Alexander Hamilton","nid":"650","field_image":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_3d\/public\/paintings\/2018-06\/f_2_1.jpg?itok=-uOsvr0G","field_image_hd":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_hd\/public\/paintings\/2018-06\/f_2_1.jpg?itok=zjBVDrTY","field_image_credit":"Artwork in the public domain; photograph courtesy New York Public Library. ","field_position_code":"f_2_1","field_artist":"Daniel Huntington","field_original_artist":"John Trumbull (1756\u20131843)","field_artist_date":"1816\u20131906","field_current_owner":"Unknown","field_llg_info":"\u003Cp\u003E\u201cPainted to order from the portrait by Trumbull, in 1852.\u201d\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_medium":"Oil on canvas","field_location":"south wall, east side","field_id":"90","field_description":"\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cspan\u003E\u003Cspan\u003EDaniel Huntington was a native of New York City. While attending Hamilton College in Clinton, New York, he met the portraitist Charles Loring Elliott, who provided early instruction. Huntington later went on to study variously with John Trumbull, Samuel F. B. Morse, and Henry Inman. Huntington was active as a portrait, landscape, genre, and history painter. A leading figure in the city\u2019s art circles, he served as a vice president and trustee of the Metropolitan Museum of Art and president of both the Century Association and the National Academy of Design. In 1870, he was appointed by Lenox to the Lenox Library\u2019s first board of directors.\u00a0\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cspan\u003E\u003Cspan\u003EWith regard to the original paining of Hamilton by Trumbull, it was in December 1791 that a group of five New York merchants commissioned him to paint a full-length likeness of the first secretary of the treasury. The painting ranks as one of the iconic portraits of the late eighteenth-century United States and commemorates the first secretary of the United States Treasury as a model of public and mercantile virtue. The canvas was originally displayed in the New York Chamber of Commerce and is now jointly owned by the Metropolitan Museum of Art and the Crystal Bridges Museum of American Art. In 1852, James Lenox hired Daniel Huntington to paint a reduced copy of Trumbull\u2019s likeness. The acquisition was in keeping with Lenox\u2019s great interest in the achievements and legacy of the country\u2019s founding fathers, both in his painting and book collections. In addition to acquiring George Washington\u2019s Farewell Address (which Hamilton amended and expanded), he acquired portraits of Washington by Gilbert Stuart, Rembrandt Peale, and James Peale.\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cspan\u003E\u003Cspan\u003EThis is \u003Ca class=\u0022in_gallery\u0022 data-view=\u0022grid\u0022 href=\u0022#\u0022 id=\u0022singleArtist\u0022 target=\u0022Huntington\u0022\u003Eone of three paintings by Huntington\u003C\/a\u003E in Lenox\u2019s collection. The other two are \u003Cem\u003EChristopher Columbus\u003C\/em\u003E (\u003Cem\u003ELLG\u003C\/em\u003E 15, no. 97) and \u003Cem\u003EFemale Head\u2014Melancholy \u003C\/em\u003E(\u003Cem\u003ELLG\u003C\/em\u003E 19, no. 123).\u00a0\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_nationality":"US","field_date":"1852; original 1792","field_dimensions":"44 x 34 in. (112 x 86 cm.)","field_bibliography":"\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cspan\u003E\u003Cspan\u003E\u003Cspan\u003EGreenhouse, W. \u201cHuntington, Daniel.\u201d The Grove Encyclopedia of American Art. Published 2011. Accessed September 8, 2018. \u003Ca href=\u0022http:\/\/www.oxfordreference.com\/view\/10.1093\/acref\/9780195335798.001.0001\/acref-9780195335798-e-985\u0022 target=\u0022new\u0022\u003Ehttp:\/\/www.oxfordreference.com\/view\/10.1093\/acref\/9780195335798.001.0001\/acref-9780195335798-e-985\u003C\/a\u003E.\u00a0\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_desc_author":"BW","field_llg_number":"14, no. 92","field_alt_title":""},{"title":"The Greek Girl","nid":"652","field_image":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_3d\/public\/paintings\/2018-08\/f.2.3_Newton.jpg?itok=pdrXe1j9","field_image_hd":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_hd\/public\/paintings\/2018-08\/f.2.3_Newton.jpg?itok=ZS45BWMk","field_image_credit":"Artwork in the public domain; photograph courtesy New York Public Library.","field_position_code":"f_2_3","field_artist":"Gilbert Stuart Newton","field_original_artist":"","field_artist_date":"1795\u20131835","field_current_owner":"Unknown","field_llg_info":"\u003Cp\u003E\u201cBought at the sale of Philip Hone, New York, April, 1852.\u201d\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_medium":"Unknown","field_location":"south wall, east side","field_id":"92","field_description":"\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cspan\u003E\u003Cspan\u003EGilbert Stuart Newton was born in Nova Scotia and lived his early years in Boston, where he studied with his uncle, Gilbert Stuart. He later went to Europe and after traveling on the continent he went to England, where he enrolled at the Royal Academy. He became an academician in 1832 but soon after was confined to an asylum. In London, he was part of a circle of friends that included the US writer Washington Irving and the US painter Washington Allston, as well as the British genre painter Charles Robert Leslie and the Scottish David Wilkie.\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cspan\u003E\u003Cspan\u003E\u003Cem\u003EThe Greek Girl \u003C\/em\u003Ewas reproduced in \u003Cem\u003EThe Gems of Stuart Newton \u003C\/em\u003E(Newton and Murray 1842, n.p.; engraving by George H. Phillips). In the text, the author states that this figure study was inspired by a poem by Byron. In 1842, the painting was in the collection of the Right Hon. Lord Ashburton. In addition to this small figure study, Lenox bought a second painting by \u003Ca class=\u0022in_gallery\u0022 href=\u0022#\u0022 target=\u0022101\u0022\u003ENewton, \u003Cem\u003EThe Dull Lecture\u003C\/em\u003E, from the Hone sale\u003C\/a\u003E (\u003Cem\u003ELLG \u003C\/em\u003E17, no. 105). The latter is a good example of Newton\u2019s sentimental genre scenes.\u00a0\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cspan\u003E\u003Cspan\u003EWilliam Dunlap, who considered Newton a US artist, as he did Newton\u2019s friend Charles Robert Leslie, mentioned\u003Cem\u003E The Greek Girl\u003C\/em\u003E in his listing of Philip Hone\u2019s collection. He described it as \u201ca beautiful little picture . . . full of expression, and coloured in his best style\u201d (Dunlap 1969, 2:463).\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/span\u003E\u003Cbr \/\u003E\n\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_nationality":"British","field_date":"1823","field_dimensions":"Unknown","field_bibliography":"\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cspan\u003E\u003Cspan\u003EDunlap, William. \u003Cem\u003EHistory of the Rise and Progress of the Arts of Design in the United States\u003C\/em\u003E. 2 vols. New York: G. P. Scott and Co., 1834; reprint ed. New York: Dover Publications, 1969.\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cspan\u003E\u003Cspan\u003ENewton, Gilbert Stuart, and Henry Murray. The Gems of Stuart Newton, R.A., \u003Cem\u003EWith a Brief Memoir, and Descriptive Notices\u003C\/em\u003E. London: H. Graves and Warmsley, 1842.\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/span\u003E\u003Cbr \/\u003E\n\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_desc_author":"SW","field_llg_number":"15, no. 95","field_alt_title":""},{"title":"Part of the Church of St. Jacques\u2014Dieppe","nid":"653","field_image":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_3d\/public\/paintings\/2018-10\/image_not_found_14.jpg?itok=kE8Qv3F0","field_image_hd":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_hd\/public\/paintings\/2018-10\/image_not_found_14.jpg?itok=I4cB2VJl","field_image_credit":"\u201cNumerous figures collected in groups before market stalls in the square, with the fa\u00e7ade of the Gothic cathedral reflecting the sunlight in the background. On board 12\/10 inches\u201d (Parke-Bernet Galleries 1943, 24).","field_position_code":"f_2_4","field_artist":"David Roberts","field_original_artist":"","field_artist_date":"1796\u20131864","field_current_owner":"Unknown","field_llg_info":"\u003Cp\u003E\u201cBought at Christie\u2019s, London, June 21, 1850, from the collection of Charles Meigh, Esq.\u201d\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_medium":"Unknown","field_location":"south wall, east side","field_id":"93","field_description":"\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cspan\u003E\u003Cspan\u003EDavid Roberts, who was born in Scotland (which would have endeared him to Lenox), came from a humble background and began his artistic career as a house painter and later as a scenic designer. He moved to London in the 1820s, when he began to exhibit paintings of churches in \u00a0Normandy, including this small painting of the town square in front of the Church of St. Jacques in Dieppe. Today, Roberts is best known for his watercolor studies of the Near East and dramatic oils of the temples of Egypt and desert vistas. Many of these were lithographed and published in albums.\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cspan\u003E\u003Cspan\u003EIn an early biography, Roberts is quoted as saying that in 1829 \u201c[I] fulfilled my promise and sent two pictures to the exhibitions in my native city\u2014a duplicate of the \u2018Chapel of St. Jacques at Dieppe\u2019 to the Scottish Academy\u201d (Ballantine 1866, 31). It is not known if Lenox\u2019s painting is the same one.\u00a0\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cspan\u003E\u003Cspan\u003EA catalogue of Charles Meigh\u2019s collection, published in 1843, described Roberts\u2019s painting as: \u201cA faithful representation of the subject, spiritedly and finely painted\u201d (\u003Cem\u003EA Critical and Descriptive Catalogue \u003C\/em\u003E1843, 23).\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/span\u003E\u003Cbr \/\u003E\n\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_nationality":"Scottish","field_date":"Unknown","field_dimensions":"12 x 10 in. (30.5 x 25.4 cm.)","field_bibliography":"\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cspan\u003E\u003Cspan\u003E\u003Cem\u003EA Critical and Descriptive Catalogue of a Collection of Pictures at Grove House, Shelton\u003C\/em\u003E. Hanley, UK: Thomas Allbut, 1843.\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cspan\u003E\u003Cspan\u003EBallantine, James. \u003Cem\u003EThe Life of David Roberts, R.A.: Compiled from His Journals and Other Source\u003C\/em\u003Es. Edinburgh: Adam and Charles Black, 1866.\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cspan\u003E\u003Cspan\u003ELlewellyn, B. \u201cRoberts, David.\u201d Grove Art Online. Published 2003. Accessed September 8, 2018. \u003Ca href=\u0022http:\/\/\/\/www.oxfordartonline.com\/groveart\/view\/10.1093\/gao\/9781884446054.001.0001\/oao-9781884446054-e-7000072403\u0022\u003Ehttp:\/\/\/\/www.oxfordartonline.com\/groveart\/view\/10.1093\/gao\/9781884446054.001.0001\/oao-9781884446054-e-7000072403\u003C\/a\u003E.\u00a0\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cspan\u003E\u003Cspan\u003EParke-Bernet Galleries, New York. \u003Cem\u003EEnglish and Continental Furniture, Paintings, Georgian Silver, Laces, Porcelains, Rugs.\u003C\/em\u003E New York: Parke-Bernet Galleries, 1943. Auction catalogue.\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/span\u003E\u003Cbr \/\u003E\n\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_desc_author":"SW","field_llg_number":"15, no. 94","field_alt_title":""},{"title":"Francesca\u2014From Dant\u00e9 ","nid":"654","field_image":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_3d\/public\/paintings\/2018-10\/image_not_found_15.jpg?itok=BXqbjQ2z","field_image_hd":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_hd\/public\/paintings\/2018-10\/image_not_found_15.jpg?itok=itK8KNZc","field_image_credit":"","field_position_code":"f_2_5","field_artist":"J. R. [John Rogers] Herbert","field_original_artist":"","field_artist_date":"1810\u201390","field_current_owner":"Unknown","field_llg_info":"\u003Cp\u003E\u201cBought at Christie\u2019s, London, June 21, 1850, from the collection of Charles Meigh, Esq.\u201d\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_medium":"Unknown","field_location":"south wall, east side","field_id":"94","field_description":"\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cspan\u003E\u003Cspan\u003EBorn in 1810 and briefly educated at the Royal Academy Schools, John Rogers Herbert was known for portraiture and book illustration until around 1838, when he converted to Roman Catholicism under the influence of architect A. W. N. Pugin. His conversion not only prompted him to turn his hand to religious subjects, but also caused him to develop an interest in medieval art. In 1850, Herbert received a government commission for a mural on the subject of\u00a0\u003Cem\u003ELear Disinheriting Cordelia\u003C\/em\u003E in the Palace of Westminster. As the style of the German Nazarenes was favored in England for mural decorations at the time, Herbert adopted it in his fresco. Cordelia was well received and Herbert subsequently was given a commission for nine wall paintings for \u00a0the Peers\u2019 Robing Room in Westminster Palace, which occupied him for several years. Also, as a result of \u003Cem\u003ECordelia\u003C\/em\u003E, Herbert became a\u003Cem\u003E trait-d\u2019union\u003C\/em\u003E between Nazarene and Pre-Raphaelite painting. The Pre-Raphaelites adopted him as something of a mentor and several members of the group were influenced by his work.\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cspan\u003E\u003Cspan\u003EHerbert\u2019s painting, which must predate 1843, as in that year it was already listed in the catalogue of the Charles Meigh collection, illustrates a scene from Dante\u2019s \u003Cem\u003EDivine Comedy \u003C\/em\u003Ebased on the real-life story of Francesca da Rimini (or Francesca da Polenta; 1255\u201385), the daughter of Guido da Polenta, lord of Ravenna. Francesca was married to a disabled man named Gianciotto Malatesta (called \u201cthe Lame\u201d) in a political alliance, but her husband murdered her and her lover, his brother Paolo (\u201cthe Fair\u201d), when he discovered the affair. The story of Francesca and Paolo\u2019s doomed romance was featured by Dante in the first volume of the \u003Cem\u003EDivine Comedy\u003C\/em\u003E; Dante and Virgil encounter the couple in the second circle of hell, reserved for the lustful. During the nineteenth century, many artists, playwrights, and musicians, including the French neoclassicist Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres, the British Pre-Raphaelite Dante Gabriel Rossetti, the French engraver Gustave Dor\u00e9, and the French academic painter Ary Scheffer, were inspired by this tragic tale.\u00a0\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cspan\u003E\u003Cspan\u003EA catalogue of Charles Meigh\u2019s collection published prior to the sale of this work describes Herbert\u2019s painting as \u201cA pleasing and interesting design, skillfully and gracefully managed.\u201d This listing was accompanied by the following phrase: \u201cPensive she sat, with one hand to turn o\u2019er The leaf to which her silent thoughts ran on before\u201d (\u003Cem\u003EA Critical and Descriptive Catalogue\u003C\/em\u003E 1843, 40). A note in the catalogue accompanying its sale at Christie\u2019s in London on June 21, 1850, describes it as \u201ca very graceful and admirably coloured work\u201d (\u003Cem\u003ECatalogue of the Very Important and Celebrated Collection\u003C\/em\u003E, 1850, 22).\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cspan\u003E\u003Cspan\u003ELenox was likely present for the purchase of this work, but his decision was probably aided by Charles Robert Leslie, who served as an advisor on several occasions (several of Leslie\u2019s own paintings also hung in this gallery). Before its arrival in the Lenox collection, this painting was owned by Meigh.\u003Ca class=\u0022in_gallery\u0022 data-view=\u0022grid\u0022 href=\u0022#\u0022 id=\u0022auction\u0022 target=\u0022Charles Meigh Auction\u0022\u003EIt was purchased along with several other works in the gallery\u003C\/a\u003E\u2014including Landseer\u2019s \u003Cem\u003EDog in a Stable \u003C\/em\u003E(\u003Cem\u003ELLG\u003C\/em\u003E 3, no. 2), Reynolds\u2019s \u003Cem\u003EPortrait of Edmund Burke\u003C\/em\u003E (\u003Cem\u003ELLG\u003C\/em\u003E 12, no. 64), and Wilkie\u2019s \u003Cem\u003EThe Crown of Scotland\u2014On a Cushion\u003C\/em\u003E (\u003Cem\u003ELLG\u003C\/em\u003E 17, no. 106)\u2014from the sale of Meigh\u2019s collection at Christie\u2019s in London on June 21, 1850.\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/span\u003E\u003Cbr \/\u003E\n\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003E\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_nationality":"British","field_date":"Unknown","field_dimensions":"Unknown","field_bibliography":"\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cspan\u003E\u003Cspan\u003E\u003Cspan\u003E\u003Cem\u003EA Critical and Descriptive Catalogue of a Collection of Pictures at Grove House, Shelton\u003C\/em\u003E. Hanley, UK: Thomas Allbut, 1843.\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cspan\u003E\u003Cspan\u003E\u003Cspan\u003E\u201cHerbert, John Rogers.\u201d Benezit Dictionary of Artists. Published 2011. Accessed September 8, 2018. \u003Ca href=\u0022http:\/\/www.oxfordartonline.com\/benezit\/view\/10.1093\/benz\/9780199773787.001.0001\/acref-9780199773787-e-00086363\u0022 target=\u0022new\u0022\u003Ehttp:\/\/www.oxfordartonline.com\/benezit\/view\/10.1093\/benz\/9780199773787.001.0001\/acref-9780199773787-e-00086363\u003C\/a\u003E.\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003ELangham Hooper, Nancy. \u201cA Brief Biography of J. R. Herbert.\u201d Accessed September 20, 2018.\u00a0\u003Cbr \/\u003E\u003Ca href=\u0022http:\/\/www.nancylanghamhooper.com\/john-rogers-herbert-r-a\/biography\/\u0022 target=\u0022new\u0022\u003Ehttp:\/\/www.nancylanghamhooper.com\/john-rogers-herbert-r-a\/biography\/\u003C\/a\u003E.\u003Cbr \/\u003E\n\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_desc_author":"CJ","field_llg_number":"15, no. 96","field_alt_title":""},{"title":"Christopher Columbus","nid":"655","field_image":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_3d\/public\/paintings\/2018-10\/f_3_1.jpg?itok=EnrWxAmX","field_image_hd":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_hd\/public\/paintings\/2018-10\/f_3_1.jpg?itok=-MVwlcLh","field_image_credit":"Artwork in the public domain; photograph courtesy Frick Art Reference Library. ","field_position_code":"f_3_1","field_artist":"Daniel Huntington","field_original_artist":"","field_artist_date":"1816\u20131906","field_current_owner":"Unknown","field_llg_info":"\u003Cp\u003E\u201cPainted to order in 1847.\u201d\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_medium":"Unknown","field_location":"south wall, east side","field_id":"95","field_description":"\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cspan\u003E\u003Cspan\u003EDaniel Huntington was a native of New York City. While attending Hamilton College in Clinton, New York, he met the portraitist Charles Loring Elliott, who provided early instruction. Huntington later went on to study with John Trumbull, Samuel F. B. Morse, and Henry Inman. He was active as a portrait, landscape, genre, and history painter. A leading figure in the city\u2019s art circles, he served as a vice president and trustee of the Metropolitan Museum of Art and president of both the Century Association and the National Academy of Design. In 1870, he was appointed by Lenox to the Lenox Library\u2019s first board of directors.\u00a0\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cspan\u003E\u003Cspan\u003E\u003Cem\u003EChristopher Columbus \u003C\/em\u003Ewas commissioned by James Lenox in 1847. Perhaps the order derived from the excitement surrounding John Vanderlyn\u2019s\u003Cem\u003E Landing of Columbus \u003C\/em\u003E(1846), which was installed that year in the rotunda of the United States Capitol. Lenox lent the painting to Huntington\u2019s solo exhibition in 1850 at the American Art Union in New York, where it was described as an \u201cideal portrait chiefly painted from a picture in possession of J. G. Chapman, N.A., assisted by the description in Irving\u201d (\u003Cem\u003EPaintings by Daniel Huntington\u003C\/em\u003E 1850, 36). The identity and authorship of the work in Chapman\u2019s possession is not clear. Perhaps the artist owned a portrait study of Columbus that Vanderlyn had undertaken in preparation for painting the \u003Cem\u003ELanding of Columbus\u003C\/em\u003E. Chapman could have acquired such a study while working between 1836 and 1840 on his own painting \u003Cem\u003EThe Baptism of Pocahontas\u003C\/em\u003E for the Capitol rotunda. For help with conceiving their pictures, Vanderlyn and Huntington availed themselves of Washington Irving\u2019s publications\u003Cem\u003E Life and Voyages of Christopher Columbus \u003C\/em\u003E(1828) and \u003Cem\u003EVoyages and Discoveries of the Companions of Columbus\u003C\/em\u003E (1831). The early volume was especially popular in the United States and in Europe and went through over 150 editions by the end of the century. Lenox also owned facsimiles of Columbus\u2019s archival material, and his collection of rare books was particularly strong in materials related to the Age of Discovery.\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/span\u003E\u003Cbr \/\u003E\n\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_nationality":"US","field_date":"1847","field_dimensions":"Unknown","field_bibliography":"\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cspan\u003E\u003Cspan\u003E\u003Cspan\u003EGreenhouse, W. \u201cHuntington, Daniel.\u201d The Grove Encyclopedia of American Art. Published 2011. Accessed September 8, 2018. \u003Ca href=\u0022http:\/\/www.oxfordreference.com\/view\/10.1093\/acref\/9780195335798.001.0001\/acref-9780195335798-e-985\u0022\u003Ehttp:\/\/www.oxfordreference.com\/view\/10.1093\/acref\/9780195335798.001.0001\/acref-9780195335798-e-985\u003C\/a\u003E.\u00a0\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cspan\u003E\u003Cspan\u003E\u003Cspan\u003E\u003Cem\u003EPaintings by Daniel Huntington\u003C\/em\u003E, N.A. New York: American Art Union, 1850.\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/span\u003E\u003Cbr \/\u003E\n\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_desc_author":"BW","field_llg_number":"15, no. 97","field_alt_title":""},{"title":"Portrait of Oliver Cromwell","nid":"656","field_image":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_3d\/public\/paintings\/2018-06\/Cromwell-sw-f-3-2-02.JPG?itok=zubZVnaT","field_image_hd":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_hd\/public\/paintings\/2018-06\/Cromwell-sw-f-3-2-02.JPG?itok=AeMOd1HI","field_image_credit":"Artwork in the public domain; photograph courtesy New York Public Library. ","field_position_code":"f_3_2","field_artist":"Unknown","field_original_artist":"Sir Peter Lely (Dutch, 1618\u201380)","field_artist_date":"dates unknown","field_current_owner":"New York Public Library, New York","field_llg_info":"\u003Cp\u003E\u201cCopy from the picture by Sir Peter Lely, in the Pitti Palace, Florence. Painted to order, February, 1857.\u201d\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_medium":"Oil on canvas","field_location":"south wall, east side","field_id":"96","field_description":"\u003Cp\u003ESir Peter Lely was a Dutch painter, draftsman, and collector who spent his career in England, where he became the leading portrait painter following the death of Anthony van Dyck in 1641. He enjoyed a successful career throughout the Civil War and Commonwealth (1649\u201360), painting a series of portraits of Cromwell\u2019s friend, Elizabeth Murray, Countess of Dysart. Although he proposed an ambitious decorative program featuring scenes from the Civil War for the Palace of Whitehall in 1653, Lely remained popular and was appointed principal painter to King Charles II in 1660.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EThis painting is a copy of a portrait painted by Lely. The\u003Cem\u003E LLG\u003C\/em\u003E indicates that this copy was made after the version of Lely\u2019s painting in the Pitti Palace in Florence. Lely\u2019s original painting of Cromwell, dating to 1653\u201354, is in the collection of the Birmingham Museums and Art Gallery, Birmingham, England (another version is in collection of the National Gallery of Ireland, Dublin). Lenox\u2019s copy depicts Oliver Cromwell (1599\u20131658) presumably after his installation as lord protector of the Commonwealth of England on December 16, 1653. Lely probably painted this image not from life, but rather from Samuel Cooper\u2019s miniature painting \u003Cem\u003EOliver Cromwell\u003C\/em\u003E of ca. 1650 (now in the collection of The Duke of Buccleuch and Queensberry), which featured the general with large, grotesque warts on his chin and brow. Cromwell had purportedly asked Cooper to paint him \u201cwarts and all,\u201d coining the now-famous phrase. Lely\u2019s three-quarter-length version, which softened these details (he turned the wart on Cromwell\u2019s forehead into a smudge), became Cromwell\u2019s semi-official image.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003ECromwell was best known as a military and political leader who, in the 1630s, joined the Puritans, known for their desire to rid the Church of England of its Catholic-inspired practices and to establish their own reformed churches. His fervent religious views guided his successful military campaigns against the monarchy, including his signing of Charles I\u2019s death warrant and the occupation of Ireland (1649\u201350). After he became lord protector, he took charge of the national assembly and foreign policy on behalf of England (including Wales), Ireland, and Scotland. He died of natural causes in 1658, but following the return of the Royalists in 1660, his body was dug up from Westminster Abbey, chained, and beheaded. He remains a controversial figure in the history of Britain to this day.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003ELenox commissioned this painting in February 1857. Although the copyist\u2019s identity is unknown, it is possible that Lenox commissioned this work because he was attracted by Lely\u2019s renown\u2014he was known as \u201cthe best artist in England\u201d at the time this work was originally created. He may have also felt a kinship with Cromwell, who shared his strict protestant beliefs.\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_nationality":"nationality unknown","field_date":"1857","field_dimensions":"30 x 24 in. (76.2 x 61 cm.)","field_bibliography":"\u003Cp\u003EMillar, Oliver. \u003Cem\u003ESir Peter Lely, 1618\u201380.\u003C\/em\u003E London: National Portrait Gallery, 1978.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EMillar, Oliver, Diana Dethloff and Lin Barton. \u201cLely, Sir Peter.\u201d Oxford Art Online. Grove Art Online. Published 2003. Updated September 22, 2015. \u003Ca href=\u0022http:\/\/\/\/www.oxfordartonline.com\/groveart\/view\/10.1093\/gao\/9781884446054.001.0001\/oao-9781884446054-e-7000050209\u0022 target=\u0022new\u0022\u003Ehttp:\/\/\/\/www.oxfordartonline.com\/groveart\/view\/10.1093\/gao\/9781884446054.001.0001\/oao-9781884446054-e-7000050209\u003C\/a\u003E.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003E\u201cPortrait of Oliver Cromwell.\u201d Web Gallery of Art. \u003Ca href=\u0022\u00a0https:\/\/www.wga.hu\/html_m\/l\/lely\/cromwell.html\u0022 target=\u0022new\u0022\u003E\u00a0https:\/\/www.wga.hu\/html_m\/l\/lely\/cromwell.html\u003C\/a\u003E.\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_desc_author":"CJ","field_llg_number":"16, no. 102","field_alt_title":""},{"title":"La Vivandi\u00e8re au Corps de Garde (A Female Provisioner at the Guardhouse)","nid":"657","field_image":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_3d\/public\/paintings\/2018-06\/f_3_3.jpg?itok=WKFKBo2S","field_image_hd":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_hd\/public\/paintings\/2018-06\/f_3_3.jpg?itok=9AKu5Tk5","field_image_credit":"Artwork in the public domain; photograph courtesy New York Public Library. ","field_position_code":"f_3_3","field_artist":"J. B. [Jean-Baptiste] Madou","field_original_artist":"","field_artist_date":"1796\u20131877","field_current_owner":"Unknown","field_llg_info":"\u003Cp\u003E\u201cPurchased from the artist by Mr. De Braekeleer, in 1853.\u201d\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_medium":"Oil on canvas","field_location":"south wall, east side","field_id":"97","field_description":"\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cspan\u003E\u003Cspan\u003E\u003Cspan\u003EJean-Baptiste Madou lived and worked in Brussels as an illustrator. In the early 1830s, he created a series of watercolors, \u003Cem\u003EOutskirts of Brussels\u003C\/em\u003E (1831), and translated them into the lithographic medium for which he is best known. This was followed by another series, \u003Cem\u003EThe Physiognomy of Society in Europe from 1400 to the Present Day\u003C\/em\u003E (1836). Like his colleague in Antwerp, Ferdinand De Braekeleer the Elder, Madou was drawn to reconstructions of scenes from the past, often in the form of humorous genre paintings. This painting, \u003Cem\u003ELa Vivandi\u00e8re au Corps de Garde\u003C\/em\u003E (A Female Provisioner at the Guardhouse), depicts a group of cavaliers from the time of Louis XIII who are shown at ease in a courtyard where a group sits around a table placed in the center and enjoys the repast provided by the \u003Cem\u003Evivandi\u00e8re\u003C\/em\u003E, who travelled with the troops and was responsible for feeding the soldiers, securing provisions and wine from the countryside.\u00a0\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cspan\u003E\u003Cspan\u003E\u003Cspan\u003EIn the 1943 Parke-Bernet catalogue, this work was illustrated and described as depicting \u201ca cobbled court of a fortress with cavaliers in Louis XIII costumes [early 17th c.] one with a scarlet coat, another with a cuirass, surrounding a table with refreshments, a peasant girl at the left carrying a basket with wine; behind them halberdiers and a drummer stand at the entrance to a passageway, other descend a flight of steps into the courtyard from the left: above the wall a view of trees and sky\u201d (Parke-Bernet Galleries 1943, 26).\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cspan\u003E\u003Cspan\u003E\u003Cspan\u003EMadou was one of four contemporary Belgian artists\u2014Ferdinand De Braekeeler, Eug\u00e8ne Verboeckhoven, and Constant Wauters\u2014whose work Lenox collected. As in the case of a number of other Belgian paintings, this work by Madou was bought for Lenox by De Braekeleer the Elder whose son, Ferdinand De Braekeleer the Younger, maintained a gallery of Belgian artists in New York in the early 1850s. Although evidence of his gallery is scarce, interest in contemporary Belgian art is further confirmed by an exhibition of Belgian and Rhenish painting held in 1853 at the National Academy of Design.\u00a0\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/span\u003E\u003Cbr \/\u003E\n\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003E.\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_nationality":"Belgian","field_date":"1851","field_dimensions":"23.5 x 31.75 in. (59.7 x 80.6 cm.)","field_bibliography":"\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cspan\u003E\u003Cspan\u003E\u003Cem\u003ECatalogue of a Collection of Oil Paintings by the Modern Belgian Masters in Possession of De Braekeleer.\u003C\/em\u003E New York, 1852.\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cspan\u003E\u003Cspan\u003EKerremans, R. \u201cMadou, Jean-Baptiste.\u201d Grove Art Online. Published 2003. Accessed September 8, 2018. \u003Ca href=\u0022http:\/\/\/\/www.oxfordartonline.com\/groveart\/view\/10.1093\/gao\/9781884446054.001.0001\/oao-9781884446054-e-7000052996\u0022\u003Ehttp:\/\/\/\/www.oxfordartonline.com\/groveart\/view\/10.1093\/gao\/9781884446054.001.0001\/oao-9781884446054-e-7000052996\u003C\/a\u003E.\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cspan\u003E\u003Cspan\u003EParke-Bernet Galleries, New York. \u003Cem\u003EEnglish and Continental Furniture, Paintings, Georgian Silver, Laces, Porcelains, Rugs\u003C\/em\u003E. New York: Parke-Bernet Galleries, 1943. Auction catalogue.\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/span\u003E\u003Cbr \/\u003E\n\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_desc_author":"SW","field_llg_number":"15, no. 98","field_alt_title":""},{"title":"Blind Milton Dictating Paradise Lost to His Daughters","nid":"658","field_image":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_3d\/public\/paintings\/2018-06\/14-11-01_ds.jpg?itok=HJ50hnL5","field_image_hd":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_hd\/public\/paintings\/2018-06\/14-11-01_ds.jpg?itok=xaYh33p8","field_image_credit":"Artwork in the public domain; photograph courtesy New York Public Library.","field_position_code":"f_4_1","field_artist":"Michael [Mih\u00e1ly] Munk\u00e1csy","field_original_artist":"","field_artist_date":"1844\u20131900","field_current_owner":"New York Public Library, New York","field_llg_info":"\u003Cp\u003E\u201cPresented by Robert Lenox Kennedy, 1879.\u201d\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_medium":"Unknown","field_location":"south wall, east side","field_id":"98","field_description":"\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cspan\u003E\u003Cspan\u003EA trained carpenter turned artist, Hungarian Mih\u00e1ly (Michael) Munk\u00e1csy studied painting at the Akademie der Bildenden K\u00fcnste in Vienna and the M\u00fcnchener Kunstakademie, as well as in the studios of Wilhelm Leibl and Ludwig Knaus in D\u00fcsseldorf in the late 1860s. The emotions displayed in his large-scale group portraits associate him with the D\u00fcsseldorf school of painters. His painting \u003Cem\u003EThe Last Day of a Condemned Man\u003C\/em\u003E (1869), which depicts a psychologically tortured prisoner, won a gold medal at the Paris Salon of 1870, making him an overnight star and prompting his permanent relocation to Paris the same year.\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cspan\u003E\u003Cspan\u003EIn 1878, Munk\u00e1csy painted Blind Milton \u003Cem\u003EDictating Paradise Lost to His Daughters\u003C\/em\u003E, which was bought by the art dealer Charles Sedelmeyer, who signed a ten-year contract with the artist and henceforth advised the artist on his choice of subject matter. With Sedelmeyer\u2019s help, Munk\u00e1csy became one of the leading painters of his time.\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cspan\u003E\u003Cspan\u003EThe theme of this work, declamation or reading out loud, appears in numerous forms throughout the Lenox gallery. In Munk\u00e1csy\u2019s painting, the \u201creader\u201d is a blind man, the seventeenth-century English poet John Milton (1608\u201374). Milton composed his epic poem \u003Cem\u003EParadise Lost\u003C\/em\u003E (1658\u201367) several years after he had gone completely blind, relying on the help of friends, relatives, and secretaries to take dictation. Written in blank verse, Paradise Lost concerns the biblical story of Satan\u2019s temptation of Adam and Eve and their subsequent expulsion from the Garden of Eden, which some scholars argue reflects his disappointment with the failure of the English Civil Wars (ca. 1640\u201360). The subject of Milton dictating this work to his daughters was also taken up by Henry Fuseli (1794; Art Institute of Chicago) and Eug\u00e8ne Delacroix (1826; Private collection).\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cspan\u003E\u003Cspan\u003EThis work was donated to the Lenox Library shortly before James Lenox died by his nephew, Robert Lenox Kennedy, who succeeded him as president of the board of trustees. It now hangs in the Salomon Room of the Stephen A. Schwarzman Building of the New York Public Library.\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/span\u003E\u003Cbr \/\u003E\n\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_nationality":"Hungarian","field_date":"1877?","field_dimensions":"84 x 119 in. (213.4 x 302.3 cm.)","field_bibliography":"\u003Cdiv class=\u0022WordSection1\u0022\u003E\n\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cspan\u003E\u003Cspan\u003E\u003Cspan\u003EAradi, N\u00f3ra. \u201cMunk\u00e1csy [Lieb], Mih\u00e1ly [Michael].\u201d Grove Art Online. Published 2003. Accessed April 3, 2018. \u003Ca href=\u0022http:\/\/www.oxfordartonline.com\/groveart\/view\/10.1093\/gao\/9781884446054.001.0001\/oao-9781884446054-e-7000060355\u0022\u003Ehttp:\/\/\/\/www.oxfordartonline.com\/groveart\/view\/10.1093\/gao\/9781884446054.001.0001\/oao-9781884446054-e-7000060355\u003C\/a\u003E.\u00a0\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/p\u003E\n\u003C\/div\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003E\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_desc_author":"CJ","field_llg_number":"22, no. 146","field_alt_title":""},{"title":"Portrait of Ram Dololl Day, of Calcutta","nid":"659","field_image":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_3d\/public\/paintings\/2018-06\/g-1-1.jpg?itok=a_580YB4","field_image_hd":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_hd\/public\/paintings\/2018-06\/g-1-1.jpg?itok=oW_G5B0z","field_image_credit":"Artwork in the public domain; photograph courtesy New York Public Library.","field_position_code":"g_1_1","field_artist":"Unknown","field_original_artist":"Thomas Hickey (Irish, 1741\u20131824)","field_artist_date":"","field_current_owner":"Unknown","field_llg_info":"\u003Cp\u003E\u201c\u2018A copy after Thomas Hickey\u2019\u2014about 1820.\u201d\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_medium":"Unknown","field_location":"south wall, west side","field_id":"99","field_description":"\u003Cp\u003EBorn in Dublin, Thomas Hickey was trained at the Royal Dublin Society schools under Robert West. He specialized in portraits and genre scenes. Most of his life was spent outside of Ireland, in continental Europe as well as Asia. During his first voyage to India, his ship was captured by French and Spanish fleets, and he was rerouted to Lisbon, where he remained for several years. He eventually made it to Bengal, where he lived from 1784 until 1791. He accompanied George Macartney to Peking, China, serving as the expedition\u2019s official portraitist in 1792\u201394, and in 1798 returned to India, where he served as portraitist during the Fourth Anglo-Mysore War (1798\u201399). During this time, he sketched numerous portraits of family members of Mysore\u2019s ruler, Tipu Sulton, in Srirangapatna and Vellore. Hickey lived in Madras until his death in 1824.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cbr \/\u003E\nThis three-quarter-length portrait is a copy by an unknown artist of a portrait by Hickey, \u00a0made in India. The sitter is Ramdulal Dey (or Ramdulolday, Ramdoolal; 1752\u20131825), a famous Calcutta merchant known for expanding maritime trade with the United States following the country\u2019s \u00a0independence from Britain by serving as a local commercial agent (called a\u003Cem\u003E banian\u003C\/em\u003E). He is said to have been the first self-made entrepreneur from Bengal to become a millionaire. While he was never able to travel to the United States, he was presented with a portrait of George Washington painted by William Winstanley, now in the collection of Washington and Lee University in Lexington, Virginia (Bean 2001, 72\u201373).\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003ERamdulal Dey is seen here wearing a simple garment tied at the waist with a sash and covered by a robe with an embroidered trim. His head is covered by an equally unadorned turban. A remarkably similar portrait, a copy of an unknown original by Srimati Mamata Deb from 1954, currently hangs in the palace built by Dey for his family in the eighteenth century. Along with life-size likenesses made of clay, such images were typically presented by elite Indian banians like Dey to their US counterparts as tokens of friendship and gratitude during the mid-nineteenth century (Bean 2001, 216).The reason for this painting\u2019s inclusion in Lenox\u2019s collection is unknown. Lenox may have inherited it from a relative. His father, Robert Lenox (1759\u20131839), one of New York\u2019s leading merchants, may have received the painting in the context of his trade with India in the early nineteenth century. He had a special ship built for travel in the Far East, the\u003Cem\u003E Galloway\u003C\/em\u003E, which was launched from Manhattan in March 1807 (Phelps Stokes 1915\u201328, 5:1456\u201357).\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_nationality":"","field_date":"ca. 1820","field_dimensions":"Unknown","field_bibliography":"\u003Cp\u003EBean, Susan S. \u003Cem\u003EYankee India American Commercial and Cultural Encounters with India in the Age of Sail, 1784\u20131860\u003C\/em\u003E. Salem, MA: Peabody Essex Museum, 2001.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EBreeze, George. \u201cThomas Hickey and Ireland.\u201d \u003Cem\u003EStudies: An Irish Quarterly Review 72\u003C\/em\u003E, no. 286 (1983): 156\u201369. \u003Ca href=\u0022http:\/\/www.jstor.org\/stable\/30090511\u0022\u003Ehttp:\/\/www.jstor.org\/stable\/30090511\u003C\/a\u003E.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EPhelps Stokes, I. N. \u003Cem\u003EThe Iconography of Manhattan Island\u003C\/em\u003E. 6 vols. New York: R. H. Dodd, 1915\u201328.\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_desc_author":"CJ","field_llg_number":"16, no. 104","field_alt_title":""},{"title":"Portrait of John Milton","nid":"660","field_image":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_3d\/public\/paintings\/2018-06\/milton-g-1-2-02.JPG?itok=Vl9VsWV-","field_image_hd":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_hd\/public\/paintings\/2018-06\/milton-g-1-2-02.JPG?itok=mBvWhH4B","field_image_credit":"Artwork in the public domain; photograph courtesy New York Public Library. ","field_position_code":"g_1_2","field_artist":"Unknown","field_original_artist":"","field_artist_date":"dates unknown","field_current_owner":"New York Public Library, New York","field_llg_info":"\u003Cp\u003E\u201cFormerly in the possession of Charles Lamb. Presented by Robert Lenox Kennedy, 1881.\u201d\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_medium":"Unknown","field_location":"south wall, west side","field_id":"100","field_description":"\u003Cp\u003EThis portrait of the seventeenth-century English poet John Milton was made by an unknown artist. It was presented to the Lenox Library by Robert Lenox Kennedy, James Lenox\u2019s nephew, who succeeded Lenox as president of the board of trustees after his death in 1880. According to the \u003Cem\u003ELLG\u003C\/em\u003E, the painting was formerly owned by the English poet Charles Lamb (1175\u20131834), whose social circle was shared by Lenox\u2019s friend and agent, artist Charles Robert Leslie. Lamb\u2019s Milton portrait was willed to him by his brother John, who had purchased it in 1815. Charles Lamb then used the portrait as a dowry for his adopted daughter, Emma Isola, upon her marriage to poet Edward Moxon in 1833 (Lucas 1905, 77).\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EIt has been suggested that this portrait of John Milton was accidentally purchased by John Lamb, who may not have realized its value as an early, possibly original, portrait of the poet (\u003Cem\u003ETransactions \u003C\/em\u003E1860, 186). Milton (1608\u201374) was one of the best-known poets of the seventeenth century and a civil servant under the English revolutionary Oliver Cromwell (\u003Ca class=\u0022in_gallery\u0022 href=\u0022#\u0022 target=\u002296\u0022\u003ELenox also owned a portrait of Cromwell, \u003Cem\u003ELLG\u003C\/em\u003E 16, no. 102\u003C\/a\u003E). A picture of Milton dictating his epic poem \u003Cem\u003EParadise Lost\u003C\/em\u003E to his daughters by the Hungarian painter Mih\u00e1ly Munk\u00e1csy\u003Ca class=\u0022in_gallery\u0022 href=\u0022#\u0022 target=\u002298\u0022\u003E hangs on the adjacent wall (\u003Cem\u003ELLG\u003C\/em\u003E 22, no. 146)\u003C\/a\u003E. It was also donated to the library by Robert Lenox Kennedy.\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_nationality":"nationality unknown","field_date":"Unknown","field_dimensions":"Unknown","field_bibliography":"\u003Cp\u003ELucas, E. V. \u003Cem\u003EThe Life of Charles Lamb: 1818\u20131834, Appendices: I. Portraits of Lamb. II. Lamb\u2019s Commonplace Books\u003C\/em\u003E. London: Methuen \u0026amp; Co., 1905.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cem\u003ETransactions of the Historic Society of Lancashire and Cheshire\u003C\/em\u003E. Vol. 12, 1859\u20131860. Liverpool: Adam Holden, 1860.\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_desc_author":"CJ","field_llg_number":"22, no. 147","field_alt_title":""},{"title":"The Dull Lecture","nid":"661","field_image":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_3d\/public\/paintings\/2018-10\/g_1_3.jpg?itok=iKDzwaKc","field_image_hd":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_hd\/public\/paintings\/2018-10\/g_1_3.jpg?itok=28SURMCI","field_image_credit":"Artwork in the public domain; photograph courtesy Frick Art Reference Library. ","field_position_code":"g_1_3","field_artist":"Gilbert Stuart Newton","field_original_artist":"","field_artist_date":"1795\u20131835","field_current_owner":"Unknown","field_llg_info":"\u003Cp\u003E\u201cBought at the sale of Philip Hone, New York, April, 1852.\u201d\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_medium":"Unknown","field_location":"south wall, west side","field_id":"101","field_description":"\u003Cp\u003EGilbert Stuart Newton was born in Nova Scotia and lived his early years in Boston, where he studied with his uncle, Gilbert Stuart. He later went to Europe and after traveling on the continent he went to England, where he enrolled at the Royal Academy. He became an academician in 1832 but soon after was confined to an asylum. In London, he was part of a circle of friends that included the US writer Washington Irving and the US painter Washington Allston, as well as the British genre painter Charles Robert Leslie and the Scottish David Wilkie.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cem\u003EThe Dull Lecture\u003C\/em\u003E is a good example of Newton\u2019s sentimental genre scenes. It depicts an elderly gentleman sitting at a table and reading from a large tome to a young lady, who sleeps peacefully in a large chair next to an open window. New York author Washington Irving wrote the following description of this work at the artist\u2019s request: \u201cFrostie age, frostie age; Vain all your learning!; Drowsie page, drowsie page; Evermore turning!; Young head no lore will heed; Young heart\u2019s a reckless rover; Young beautie, while you read; Sleeping, dreams of absent lover\u201d (\u003Cem\u003ELLG\u003C\/em\u003E 17, no. 5).\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EIn addition to The Dull Lecture, Lenox bought a \u003Ca class=\u0022in_gallery\u0022 href=\u0022#\u0022 target=\u002292\u0022\u003Esmall figure study by Newton, The Greek Girl (\u003Cem\u003ELLG\u003C\/em\u003E 15, no. 95)\u003C\/a\u003E, from the Philip Hone sale in 1852.\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_nationality":"British","field_date":"ca. 1828","field_dimensions":"25 x 30 in. (63.5 x 76.2 cm.)","field_bibliography":"\u003Cp\u003EAllwood, R. \u201cNewton, Gilbert Stuart.\u201d Grove Art Online. Published 2001. Accessed September 8, 2018. \u003Ca href=\u0022http:\/\/\/\/www.oxfordartonline.com\/groveart\/view\/10.1093\/gao\/9781884446054.001.0001\/oao-9781884446054-e-7000062168\u0022 target=\u0022new\u0022\u003Ehttp:\/\/\/\/www.oxfordartonline.com\/groveart\/view\/10.1093\/gao\/9781884446054.001.0001\/oao-9781884446054-e-7000062168\u003C\/a\u003E.\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_desc_author":"CJ","field_llg_number":"17, no. 105","field_alt_title":""},{"title":"The Crown of Scotland\u2014On a Cushion","nid":"662","field_image":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_3d\/public\/paintings\/2018-06\/g-2-1.jpg?itok=GC0mEDnJ","field_image_hd":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_hd\/public\/paintings\/2018-06\/g-2-1.jpg?itok=wzVeJzJy","field_image_credit":"Artwork in the public domain; photograph courtesy New York Public Library. ","field_position_code":"g_2_1","field_artist":"Sir David\u00a0Wilkie","field_original_artist":"","field_artist_date":"1785\u20131841","field_current_owner":"Unknown","field_llg_info":"\u003Cp\u003E\u201cWhen sold at Wilkie\u2019s sale, this picture was on a large canvas, which has since been reduced. Bought at Christie\u2019s, London, June 21, 1850, from the collection of Charles Meigh, Esq.\u201d\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_medium":"Unknown","field_location":"south wall, west side","field_id":"102","field_description":"\u003Cp\u003ESir David Wilkie was a Scottish painter who received widespread acclaim for his genre pictures during the Regency period (1811\u201320) in Britain. Trained at the Trustees Academy in Edinburgh, Wilkie moved to London in 1805. His scenes of peasant life, derived from his close study of seventeenth-century genre painting, garnered him much success. Wilkie was elected a full member of the Royal Academy in 1811, when he began to receive his first royal commissions. Prince Regent George IV commissioned him to paint \u003Cem\u003EBlindman\u2019s Buff \u003C\/em\u003E(1813; Royal College of Art, London), an original sketch for which Lenox \u003Ca class=\u0022in_gallery\u0022 href=\u0022#\u0022 target=\u0022106\u0022\u003Ehung on the south wall of his gallery (\u003Cem\u003ELLG\u003C\/em\u003E 18, no. 110)\u003C\/a\u003E. In 1823, Wilkie succeeded Sir Henry Raeburn as limner, or official portrait painter, to King George IV for Scotland, and in 1830 he became principal painter in ordinary to King William IV, a position he held until his death.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EThis painting depicts the crown and regalia that were used in the coronation of Scottish monarchs. Although the original crown dates from 1503, it was remade for King James V of Scotland in 1540, which makes it the oldest one in the United Kingdom. The crown and regalia were first put on public display in the Crown Room of Edinburgh Castle in 1819 and soon thereafter presented to King George IV at the Palace of Holyrood House in August 1822. During the highly choreographed ceremony, the crown was \u201chidden\u201d in a locked room only to be \u201crediscovered\u201d by the king.\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EWilkie attended the event and recorded it in\u003Cem\u003E George IV Received by the Nobles and People of Scotland at Holyrood House\u003C\/em\u003E (1830; Royal Collection), a tableau vivant that features the Stuart Regalia at the center of the composition. According to his friend Charles Robert Leslie, he was in Edinburgh in autumn 1824 with the purpose of painting the Scottish regalia (Leslie 1860, 65). The crown is also featured in Wilkie\u2019s portrait, \u003Cem\u003EGeorge IV in the Highland Dress of the Royal Tartan \u003C\/em\u003E(dated 1829), where it is used in the king\u2019s reinvention of royal ceremonial Highland dress.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EA catalogue of Charles Meigh\u2019s collection that was published in 1843 had a note that stated that Wilkie\u2019s painting of the Scottish crown was \u201cpurchased at the sale of Sir David Wilkie\u2019s pictures.\u2014See Catalogue, No. 627\u201d (\u003Cem\u003EA Critical and Descriptive Catalogu\u003C\/em\u003Ee 1843,14).\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003ELeslie and Wilkie had become great friends and admirers of each other\u2019s work following Leslie\u2019s nomination as an associate at the Royal Academy in 1821. \u003Cem\u003EThe Crown of Scotland\u2014On a Cushion \u003C\/em\u003Emay have held special appeal for Lenox because of his own Scottish heritage. Lenox\u2019s father, Robert Lenox (1759\u20131839), was born in Kirkcudbright, Scotland, and emigrated to New York in 1783. Painted by one of Scotland\u2019s most renowned artists, the painting\u2019s royal subject matter may have elicited Lenox\u2019s ancestral pride.\u003Ca class=\u0022in_gallery\u0022 data-view=\u0022grid\u0022 href=\u0022#\u0022 id=\u0022singleArtist\u0022 target=\u0022Wilkie\u0022\u003E Lenox owned a number of Wilkie\u2019s paintings\u003C\/a\u003E, including a framed suite of drawings (\u003Cem\u003ELLG\u003C\/em\u003E 9, nos. 43\u201347) and a sketch of his painting\u003Cem\u003E Blind-Man\u2019s Buff \u003C\/em\u003E(\u003Cem\u003ELLG\u003C\/em\u003E 110).\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_nationality":"Scottish","field_date":"Unknown","field_dimensions":"Unknown","field_bibliography":"\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cem\u003EA Critical and Descriptive Catalogue of a Collection of Pictures at Grove House\u003C\/em\u003E, Shelton Hanley, UK: Thomas Allbut, 1843.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EChiego, W., ed. \u003Cem\u003ESir David Wilkie of Scotland (1785\u20131841)\u003C\/em\u003E. New Haven: Yale Center for British Art, 1987. Exhibition catalogue.\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003ELeslie, Charles Robert. \u003Cem\u003EAutobiographical Recollections\u003C\/em\u003E. Edited by Tom Taylor. London: J. Murray, 1860.\u003Cbr \/\u003E\n\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_desc_author":"CJ","field_llg_number":"17, no. 106","field_alt_title":""},{"title":"Le March\u00e9 aux poissons, au clair de lune (The Fish Market, by Moonlight)","nid":"663","field_image":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_3d\/public\/paintings\/2018-06\/g-2-2.jpg?itok=BxmAasAJ","field_image_hd":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/index.php\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_hd\/public\/paintings\/2018-06\/g-2-2.jpg?itok=74tPmAG1","field_image_credit":"Artwork in the public domain; photograph courtesy New York Public Library. ","field_position_code":"g_2_2","field_artist":"Pierre [Petrus] van Schendel","field_original_artist":"","field_artist_date":"1806\u201370","field_current_owner":"Unknown","field_llg_info":"\u003Cp\u003E\u201cPurchased to order by Mr. De Braekeleer.\u201d\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_medium":"Unknown","field_location":"south wall, west side","field_id":"103","field_description":"\u003Cp\u003EPetrus van Schendel was born near Breda in Holland and studied painting in Antwerp. After completing his studies, he lived in Amsterdam, Antwerp, and Brussels, where he was associated with the artists in the circle of Ferdinand De Braekeleer the Elder, who ordered this painting from Van Schendel for Lenox.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003ELike many of his contemporaries, he was influenced by seventeenth-century Dutch genre painting. Judging by its title and description, \u003Cem\u003ELe March\u00e9 aux poissons, au clair de lune\u003C\/em\u003E must have been typical of Van Schendel\u2019s work. The artist made a specialty of nighttime scenes illuminated by moon and\/or candle light.\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EIn the twentieth century, the painting was described as follows: \u201cAn old peasant woman seated beside her fish stall, wearing sabots with one foot resting on a charcoal burner; before her a young lady in green and red silk gown purchasing fish in the candlelight; other figures in the background. High roofs and chimneys of surrounding buildings seen in the light of a full moon breaking through the clouds\u201d (Parke-Bernet Galleries 1943, 86). There is a signed MS Affidavit by the artist sealed on back of panel which is signed and dated 1852.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cem\u003ELe March\u00e9 aux poissons, au clair de lune\u003C\/em\u003E is a companion to van Schendel\u2019s \u003Ca class=\u0022in_gallery\u0022 href=\u0022#\u0022 target=\u0022127\u0022\u003E\u003Cem\u003ELe March\u00e9 aux l\u00e9gumes au clair de lune\u003C\/em\u003E (The Vegetable Market by Moonlight; LLG 19, no. 121)\u003C\/a\u003E.\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_nationality":"Dutch","field_date":"1852","field_dimensions":"25.25 x 19.5 in. (64 x 49.5 cm.)","field_bibliography":"\u003Cp\u003ELoos, W. \u201cSchendel, Petrus van.\u201d Grove Art Online. Published 2003. Accessed September 8, 2018. \u003Ca href=\u0022http:\/\/\/\/www.oxfordartonline.com\/groveart\/view\/10.1093\/gao\/9781884446054.001.0001\/oao-9781884446054-e-7000076494\u0022\u003Ehttp:\/\/\/\/www.oxfordartonline.com\/groveart\/view\/10.1093\/gao\/9781884446054.001.0001\/oao-9781884446054-e-7000076494\u003C\/a\u003E.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EParke-Bernet Galleries. \u003Cem\u003EEnglish and Continental Furniture, Paintings, Georgian Silver, Laces, Porcelains, Rugs\u003C\/em\u003E. New York: Parke-Bernet Galleries, 1943. Auction catalogue.\u003C\/p\u003E","field_desc_author":"SW","field_llg_number":"17, no. 107","field_alt_title":""},{"title":"La Balan\u00e7oire (The See-Saw)","nid":"664","field_image":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_3d\/public\/paintings\/2018-06\/g-2-3.jpg?itok=nW8FAFRu","field_image_hd":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_hd\/public\/paintings\/2018-06\/g-2-3.jpg?itok=WNv15SQa","field_image_credit":"Artwork in the public domain; photograph courtesy New York Public Library.","field_position_code":"g_2_3","field_artist":"Ferdinand De Braekeleer the Elder","field_original_artist":"","field_artist_date":"1792\u20131883","field_current_owner":"Unknown","field_llg_info":"\u003Cp\u003E\u201cPainted to order, 15 Nov., 1852.\u201d\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_medium":"Unknown","field_location":"south wall, west side","field_id":"104","field_description":"\u003Cp\u003EFerdinand De Braekeleer the Elder, orphaned at a young age, was admitted to the art school for orphans of Mathieu Ignace van Br\u00e9e in Antwerp. In his mid-teens, he became a student at the Royal Academy of Antwerp. By his early twenties, his success was such that his work \u003Cem\u003EAeneas Saving Anchises from the Fire of Troy\u003C\/em\u003E (present location unknown) was accepted at the Paris Salon of 1813. After travels throughout Europe and an extended stay in Rome, De Braekeleer returned to Antwerp, where he taught a number of Belgian painters including his two sons, Ferdinand the Younger (1828\u201357) and Henri De Braekeleer (1840\u201388).\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EFerdinand the Elder aspired to be a history painter, yet he is best known for his humorous genre scenes of contemporary Belgian life. This painting, one of five that Lenox bought in the early 1850s, is typical of the comic, everyday scenes that characterized the painter\u2019s work.\u003Cbr \/\u003E\nAs described in the auction catalogue, this scene includes an old man and young woman on a see-saw located indoors. On the right-hand side guests laugh at the playful sight.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EDe Braekeleer was one of four contemporary Belgian artists\u2014J. B. Madou, Eug\u00e8ne Verboeckhoven, and Constant Wauters\u2014whose work Lenox collected. His son, Ferdinand De Braekeleer the Younger, maintained a gallery of Belgian artists in New York in the early 1850s. With the exception of the \u003Cem\u003ECatalogue of a Collection of Oil Paintings by the Modern Belgian Masters in Possession of De Braekeleer\u003C\/em\u003E (1852), evidence of his gallery is scarce. At the same time, there was also an exhibition of Belgian and Rhenish paintings held in 1853 at the National Academy of Design, which helps confirm New Yorkers\u2019 knowledge of contemporary Belgian painting.\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_nationality":"Belgian","field_date":"1852","field_dimensions":"19.75 x 15.5 in. (50.2 x 39.4 cm.)","field_bibliography":"\u003Cp\u003EFerdinand De Braekeleer Correspondence. James Lenox Papers. Box 2, Manuscripts and Archives Division. New York Public Library, New York.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EParke-Bernet Galleries, New York. \u003Cem\u003EEnglish and Continental Furniture, Paintings, Georgian Silver, Laces, Porcelains, Rugs\u003C\/em\u003E. New York: Parke-Bernet Galleries, 1943. Auction catalogue.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EVautier, D. \u201cDe Braekeleer Family.\u201d Grove Art Online. Published 2003. Accessed September 8, 2018.\u003Ca href=\u0022http:\/\/\/\/www.oxfordartonline.com\/groveart\/view\/10.1093\/gao\/9781884446054.001.0001\/oao-9781884446054-e-7000021696\u0022\u003E http:\/\/\/\/www.oxfordartonline.com\/groveart\/view\/10.1093\/gao\/9781884446054.001.0001\/oao-9781884446054-e-7000021696\u003C\/a\u003E.\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_desc_author":"SW","field_llg_number":"17, no. 108","field_alt_title":"The See-Saw"},{"title":"Original sketch of part of the Blind-Man\u2019s Buff","nid":"665","field_image":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_3d\/public\/paintings\/2018-10\/image_not_found_16.jpg?itok=eVSLW66h","field_image_hd":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_hd\/public\/paintings\/2018-10\/image_not_found_16.jpg?itok=qBpUWBVw","field_image_credit":"","field_position_code":"g_2_5","field_artist":"Sir David\u00a0Wilkie","field_original_artist":"","field_artist_date":"1785\u20131841","field_current_owner":"Unknown","field_llg_info":"\u003Cp\u003E\u201cBought of Colnaghi \u0026amp; Co., London, 8 July, 1850.\u201d\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_medium":"Unknown","field_location":"south wall, west side","field_id":"106","field_description":"\u003Cp\u003ESir David Wilkie was a Scottish painter who received widespread acclaim for his genre pictures during the Regency period (1811\u201320) in Britain. Trained at the Trustees Academy in Edinburgh, young Wilkie was known to haunt local fairs and marketplaces, where he sketched the numerous figures and scenes that made their way into his early works. He moved to London in 1805, from which point forward his celebratory scenes of peasant life, derived from his close study of seventeenth-century genre painting, garnered him much success.\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EFollowing his election to full membership of the Royal Academy (1811), Wilkie began to receive his first royal commissions. This sketch was created for\u003Cem\u003E Blind-Man\u2019s Buff\u003C\/em\u003E (1812; Royal Collection Trust, London), a painting commissioned in 1811 by Prince Regent George IV. Although the final painting was dated 1812, Wilkie was known to have reworked sections as late as 1813. Numerous studies exist for its composition and individual elements are held by the Royal Collections Trust, London. It should be noted that Lenox owned a number of engravings by Wilkie, including \u003Cem\u003EBlind-Man\u2019s Buff \u003C\/em\u003E(see Appendix 3, portfolio no. 3, 36).\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cem\u003EBlind-Man\u2019s Buff\u003C\/em\u003E was intended as a companion piece to Edward Bird\u2019s \u003Cem\u003EVillage Choristers Rehearsing an Anthem for Sunday \u003C\/em\u003E(1810), both of which were initially hung in Carlton House, London. A second painting by Wilkie, \u003Cem\u003EThe Penny Wedding\u003C\/em\u003E (1818), was later added as an alternative companion. The painting was moved to the King\u2019s Lodge (later Royal Lodge) in Windsor Park in 1823, the same year that Wilkie became limner (official portraitist) to the king in Scotland.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EThe original depicts a group of young men and women in a tavern playing a game called \u201cblind man\u2019s buff\u201d (or \u201cbluff\u201d). The blindfolded young man just right of the center of the composition gropes around the scene in search of his playmates, who cower from his reach or tease him from behind. The other players, huddled in groups toward the front of the picture plane, clutch to whatever they find nearest: walls, furniture, and even each other\u2019s waists. Given the poor condition of our images of Lenox\u2019s version, it is difficult to determine which detail of the original work his painting represented.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EWilkie\u2019s imperial favor was well known in the United States by the 1830s, and the simplicity of his subject and style was often compared to painter Charles Robert Leslie (Dunlap 1969, 3:12). Lenox was likely present for the purchase of this work, but his decision was probably aided by Leslie, who served as an advisor on several occasions (several of Leslie\u2019s own paintings also hung in this gallery). Leslie and Wilkie had become great friends and admirers of each other\u2019s work in London following Leslie\u2019s nomination as an associate at the Royal Academy in 1821. Lenox owned a number of \u003Ca class=\u0022in_gallery\u0022 data-view=\u0022grid\u0022 href=\u0022#\u0022 id=\u0022singleArtist\u0022 target=\u0022Wilkie\u0022\u003EWilkie\u2019s paintings, including a framed suite of drawings (LLG 9, nos. 43\u201347) and a sketch of his painting \u003Cem\u003EThe Crown of Scotland\u2014On a Cushion\u003C\/em\u003E (LLG 17, no. 106)\u003C\/a\u003E.\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_nationality":"Scottish","field_date":"ca. 1811","field_dimensions":"Unknown","field_bibliography":"\u003Cp\u003E\u201cBlind-Man\u2019s Buff.\u201d Royal Collections Trust. Accessed January 26, 2018. \u003Ca href=\u0022https:\/\/www.royalcollection.org.uk\/collection\/405537\/blind-mans-buff\u0022 target=\u0022new\u0022\u003Ehttps:\/\/www.royalcollection.org.uk\/collection\/405537\/blind-mans-buff\u003C\/a\u003E.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EChiego, W., ed.\u003Cem\u003E Sir David Wilkie of Scotland\u003C\/em\u003E (1785\u20131841). New Haven: Yale Center for British Art, 1987. Exhibition catalogue.\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EDunlap, William. \u003Cem\u003EHistory of the Rise and Progress of the Arts of Design in the United States\u003C\/em\u003E. 2 vols. New York: G. P. Scott and Co., 1834; reprint ed. New York: Dover Publications, 1969.\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_desc_author":"CJ","field_llg_number":"18, no. 110","field_alt_title":""},{"title":"The Mother of the Demoniac Boy. From the Transfiguration","nid":"666","field_image":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_3d\/public\/paintings\/2018-06\/g-3-1.jpg?itok=emayYilt","field_image_hd":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_hd\/public\/paintings\/2018-06\/g-3-1.jpg?itok=kdSbrvD8","field_image_credit":"Artwork in the public domain; photograph courtesy New York Public Library. ","field_position_code":"g_3_1","field_artist":"John\u00a0Vanderlyn","field_original_artist":"","field_artist_date":"1775\u20131852","field_current_owner":"Unknown","field_llg_info":"\u003Cp\u003E\u201cBought at the sale of Philip Hone, New York, April, 1852.\u201d\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_medium":"Unknown","field_location":"south wall, west side","field_id":"107","field_description":"\u003Cp\u003EJohn Vanderlyn was the grandson of Hudson Valley portraitist Pieter Vanderlyn (1687\u20131778). He moved to New York in his youth and eventually gained the attention of Gilbert Stuart, with whom he worked in Philadelphia. In 1796, Vanderlyn became the first US painter to study in Paris, where he learned to paint in a neoclassical style. His works range from history painting and portraits to mythological subjects, including his famous \u003Cem\u003EAriadne Asleep and Abandoned by Theseus on the Island of Naxos\u003C\/em\u003E (1812; Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts, Philadelphia), the first monumental female recumbent nude painted by a US-born artist. He was also commissioned to paint a portrait of George Washington for the House of Representatives (1796; jointly owned by the National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC, and the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston) and \u003Cem\u003ELanding of Columbus\u003C\/em\u003E for the rotunda of the US Capitol in Washington, DC.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EThis painting is a copy by Vanderlyn of a detail of \u003Cem\u003EThe Transfiguration\u003C\/em\u003E, the final work painted by the Italian High Renaissance master Raphael in 1516\u201320. Commissioned by Cardinal Giulio de Medici, the later Pope Clement VII (1523\u201334), and conceived as an altarpiece for the Narbonne Cathedral in France, the original work now resides in the Pinacoteca Vaticana in Vatican City. The detail selected by Vanderlyn is found in the lower register of the Raphael painting, which is a compilation of two narratives from the Bible in the books of Matthew and Mark in which the Apostles fail to cure a boy from demons and await the return of Christ (Matthew 17:14\u201321; Mark 9:14).\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EVanderlyn\u2019s copy was probably undertaken after 1803, when the artist was commissioned by Edward and Robert Livingston to create copies of old master paintings in Europe to install in the newly formed New York Academy of Fine Arts (later the American Academy of the Fine Arts). During the Napoleonic Wars, in 1797, troops of the emperor had brought Raphael\u2019s painting from Rome to the Louvre, where it remained until the Treaty of Paris in 1815. For reasons that are not known, the academy canceled its relationship with the painter in 1804. Vanderlyn, however, had other patrons desirous of copies of old masters, and in 1805 he traveled to Rome, where he created replicas of works by Raphael, Rubens, and others. There is a copy by Vanderlyn of Correggio\u2019s \u003Cem\u003EAntiope\u003C\/em\u003E (1809) at the Century Association, New York.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EThe woman shown in this image is the mother of a possessed child, who is held in front of the Apostles and the transfigured Christ by his father and brother. The mother gestures toward her child from a kneeling position and looks in the direction of the Disciples. Garbed in a pink tunic and matching hair band with a blue shawl draped over her right shoulder, the mother\u2019s\u003Cbr \/\u003E\npose is rendered in dynamic contrapposto reminiscent of Michelangelo\u2019s figures from the Sistine Chapel.\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EThis work was purchased at the sale of Philip Hone, a wealthy merchant who served as mayor of New York from 1826 to 1827. He was an active member of New York society, and his friends included prominent figures from politics, the arts, and sciences, including Washington Irving, Samuel Morse, Daniel Webster, and John Quincy Adams. Hone\u2019s diary records that on December 7, 1828, he dined with Robert Lenox, James Lenox\u2019s father, who was also a merchant in the 1820s (Hone 1889, 1:7).\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_nationality":"US","field_date":"Unknown","field_dimensions":"Unknown","field_bibliography":"\u003Cp\u003EHone, Philip. \u003Cem\u003EThe Diary of Philip Hone, 1828\u20131851\u003C\/em\u003E. 2 vols. New York: Dodd, Mead, ca. 1889. \u003Ca href=\u0022http:\/\/ebooks.library.cornell.edu\/cgi\/t\/text\/text-idx?c=moamono;idno=hone0024\u0022 target=\u0022new\u0022\u003Ehttp:\/\/ebooks.library.cornell.edu\/cgi\/t\/text\/text-idx?c=moamono;idno=hone0024.\u003C\/a\u003E\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003ELindsay, K. \u201cVanderlyn, John.\u201d The Grove Encyclopedia of American Art. Published 2011. Accessed September 8, 2018.\u003Cbr \/\u003E\u003Ca href=\u0022http:\/\/www.oxfordreference.com\/view\/10.1093\/acref\/9780195335798.001.0001\/acref-9780195335798-e-2126\u0022 target=\u0022new\u0022\u003Ehttp:\/\/www.oxfordreference.com\/view\/10.1093\/acref\/9780195335798.001.0001\/acref-9780195335798-e-2126\u003C\/a\u003E.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cem\u003E\u201cRaffaello Sanzio, The Transfiguration.\u201d\u003C\/em\u003E Musei Vaticani. Accessed September 8, 2018. \u003Ca href=\u0022http:\/\/www.museivaticani.va\/content\/museivaticani\/en\/collezioni\/musei\/la-pinacoteca\/sala-viii---secolo-xvi\/raffaello-sanzio--trasfigurazione.html#\u0026amp;gid=1\u0026amp;pid=1\u0022 target=\u0022new\u0022\u003Ehttp:\/\/www.museivaticani.va\/content\/museivaticani\/en\/collezioni\/musei\/la-pinacoteca\/sala-viii---secolo-xvi\/raffaello-sanzio--trasfigurazione.html#\u0026amp;gid=1\u0026amp;pid=1\u003C\/a\u003E.\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_desc_author":"CJ","field_llg_number":"18, no. 111","field_alt_title":""},{"title":"Portrait of David Garrick\u00a0","nid":"667","field_image":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_3d\/public\/paintings\/2018-06\/g-3-2.jpg?itok=rh4oA0-i","field_image_hd":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_hd\/public\/paintings\/2018-06\/g-3-2.jpg?itok=DJlCEnoF","field_image_credit":"Artwork in the public domain; photograph courtesy New York Public Library. ","field_position_code":"g_3_2","field_artist":"Robert Edge Pine","field_original_artist":"","field_artist_date":"1730\u201388","field_current_owner":"Unknown","field_llg_info":"\u003Cp\u003E\u201cBought at the sale of A. M. Cozzens, New York, May 22, 1868.\u201d\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_medium":"Oil on canvas","field_location":"south wall, west side","field_id":"108","field_description":"\u003Cp\u003ERobert Edge Pine was an English portrait and history painter who spent the last four years of his life in the United States. He was born in London around 1730, the son of the engraver and designer John Pine, with whom he probably trained. He regularly exhibited portraits and scenes drawn from Shakespeare at the Society of Artists and the Free Society of Artists from 1763 until 1772, and then moved to Bath for eight years. There, he met George William Fairfax, a close friend and neighbor of George Washington. Another patron was Samuel Vaughan, a London merchant and friend of Benjamin Franklin, who commissioned Pine to paint portraits of his children and later became the owner of an important early portrait of Washington by Gilbert Stuart.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EAt the end of the American Revolution, Pine travelled to the United States. He settled in Philadelphia, where he was active as a portraitist and obtained permission to use a room in the State House (Independence Hall) as an exhibition space and painting room for a projected series of paintings of the events of the Revolution. Only one painting from the projected series, \u003Cem\u003ECongress Voting Independence\u003C\/em\u003E, was completed (it was later destroyed with many of his other works in a fire in 1803). His sitters included George Washington, Charles Carroll, Robert Morris, George Read, and Thomas Stone. Following Pine\u2019s death, the works in his studio were purchased by wax modeler Daniel Bowen, who exhibited them in Philadelphia, New York, and Boston.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cem\u003EPortrait of David Garrick \u003C\/em\u003Edates from about 1776\u201379. Garrick is pictured on stage in the act of making his retirement speech from the theater and is dressed in the costume of Don Felix in the play \u003Cem\u003EThe Wonder: A Woman Keeps a Secret\u003C\/em\u003E by Susanna Centlivre. The portrait is one of four likenesses of Garrick by Pine. It was first owned by the US actor Joseph Tyler. From him, it passed into the collections of Philip Hone and Abraham M. Cozzens. The picture initially may have caught Lenox\u2019s eye when it was on loan by Cozzens to the Metropolitan Fair of 1860. He may have been aware at the time of the writer, politician, and lawyer Gulian C. Verplanck\u2019s lengthy discussion of the picture in the March 1857 issue of \u003Cem\u003EThe Crayon\u003C\/em\u003E, and of his follow up book \u003Cem\u003EGarrick: His Portrait in New York, Its Artist, and History\u003C\/em\u003E. By the time James Lenox purchased the painting out of the Abraham M. Cozzens auction sale of May 22, 1868, it had accrued a colorful history. Lenox was probably most excited by the prospect of including a portrait of the great Shakespearean actor in his library along with his collection of rare books by the English poet and playwright, but he also may have been intrigued by Pine\u2019s engaging characterization of Garrick and the portrait\u2019s history.\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_nationality":"British","field_date":"1776\u201379","field_dimensions":"24 x 20 in. (61 x 50.8 cm.)","field_bibliography":"\u003Cp\u003ESloan, K. \u201cPine, Robert Edge.\u201d Grove Art Online. Published 2003. Accessed September 9, 2018. \u003Ca href=\u0022http:\/\/\/\/www.oxfordartonline.com\/groveart\/view\/10.1093\/gao\/9781884446054.001.0001\/oao-9781884446054-e-7000067707\u0022\u003Ehttp:\/\/\/\/www.oxfordartonline.com\/groveart\/view\/10.1093\/gao\/9781884446054.001.0001\/oao-9781884446054-e-7000067707\u003C\/a\u003E.\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_desc_author":"BW","field_llg_number":"18, no. 112","field_alt_title":""},{"title":"Portrait of John Calvin","nid":"669","field_image":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_3d\/public\/paintings\/2018-06\/g-4-1.jpg?itok=72d7k1Z6","field_image_hd":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_hd\/public\/paintings\/2018-06\/g-4-1.jpg?itok=SXVQ3zOg","field_image_credit":"Artwork in the public domain; photograph courtesy New York Public Library. ","field_position_code":"g_4_1","field_artist":"Unknown","field_original_artist":"unknown Holbein","field_artist_date":"dates unknown","field_current_owner":"Unknown","field_llg_info":"\u003Cp\u003E\u201cCopy from the picture by Holbein, in the Corsini Palace, Florence\u2014probably the portrait of an Italian ecclesiastic. Painted to order, February, 1857.\u201d\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_medium":"Unknown","field_location":"south wall, west side","field_id":"110","field_description":"\u003Cp\u003EAn unknown copyist created this portrait of John Calvin to order for James Lenox in 1857. According to the \u003Cem\u003ELLG\u003C\/em\u003E, the original work, a portrait of an Italian ecclesiastic by Hans Holbein the Younger, was in the collection of the Corsini Palace, Florence. However, the collection of the \u00a0Galleria Nazionale d\u2019Arte Antica currently housed in the Corsini Palace does not contain a similar work by Holbein, and the known portraits of Calvin by Holbein do not resemble this picture. Nor do the features of the sitter appear to conform to other portraits of Calvin. It must be concluded that the Lenox painting was not a copy of a Holbein painting and that the sitter was not Calvin.\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_nationality":"nationality unknown","field_date":"Unknown","field_dimensions":"Unknown","field_bibliography":"","field_desc_author":"CJ","field_llg_number":"18, no. 114","field_alt_title":""},{"title":"Portrait of Mrs. Robert Hooper (\u201cKing Hooper\u201d), of Marblehead, Mass. [Hannah White Cowell]","nid":"670","field_image":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_3d\/public\/paintings\/2018-09\/g-4-2_0.Jpeg?itok=6ZBgqa9s","field_image_hd":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_hd\/public\/paintings\/2018-09\/g-4-2_0.Jpeg?itok=wiJ7YzXC","field_image_credit":"Art work in the public domain; photograph courtesy Artnet.","field_position_code":"g_4_2","field_artist":"John Singleton Copley","field_original_artist":"","field_artist_date":"1738\u20131815","field_current_owner":"Unknown","field_llg_info":"\u003Cp\u003E\u201cBought December 7,1864, from a grand-daughter of the artist.\u201d\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_medium":"Oil on canvas","field_location":"south wall, west side","field_id":"111","field_description":"\u003Cp\u003EJohn Singleton Copley was introduced to painting through his stepfather, the painter and engraver Peter Pelham. After Pelham died in 1751, the thirteen-year-old Copley continued working in his stepfather\u2019s studio. He furthered his artistic education by copying prints and copies of European works that were available in Boston. By 1753\u201354, the artist was accepting commissions and producing portraits that show the influence of the Colonial American portraitist Robert Feke. By the late 1750s, Copley had established a studio and was working in a consistent style of his own. With the departure of Joseph Blackburn from the colonies in 1762, Copley\u2019s standing as Boston\u2019s preeminent portraitist was secured.\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003ECopley remained in Colonial America until 1775. His departure for England was prompted by his family\u2019s Loyalist sympathies and by his long-held desire to make the trip abroad. He married the daughter of a prominent Boston Loyalist, who was the Boston agent for the East India Tea Company and a major consignee of the tea that arrived from England and was destroyed by the Sons of Liberty in protest against the Tea Act enacted by the British Parliament\u2014a key event in the lead-up to the American Revolution. Copley remained in England for the rest of his life and established an international reputation.\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cem\u003EPortrait of Mrs. Robert Hooper\u003C\/em\u003E was painted in 1767. Hannah White Cowell Hooper was the third wife of Robert Hooper (\u201cKing Hooper\u201d) of Marblehead, Massachusetts, who was one of the leaders of the local fishing industry. He was nicknamed King Hooper because of his wealth, and for his generosity toward the sailors who worked for him. He was widely admired for his philanthropic activities, including his establishment of a school for impoverished children. Copley also painted portraits of the couple\u2019s daughter, Alice Hooper (1763; Private collection), her husband Robert Hooper (1767; Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, Philadelphia), and Robert\u2019s brother-in-law and his wife, Mr. and Mrs. Jeremiah Lee (both 1769; Wadsworth Atheneum, Hartford). The likeness of Alice was commissioned in honor of her 1763 marriage to Colonel Jacob Fowle, Jr. This commission was an important one, as it introduced Copley to a wealthy Marblehead mercantile community that provided further lucrative commissions.\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EAccording to the entry for the painting in the LLG, James Lenox acquired Copley\u2019s portrait of Mrs. Robert Hooper from a granddaughter of the artist on December 7, 1864. Eight years later, he purchased the artist\u2019s\u003Cem\u003E \u003Ca class=\u0022in_gallery\u0022 href=\u0022#\u0022 target=\u002289\u0022\u003EPortrait of Lady Frances Deering Wentworth\u003C\/a\u003E\u003C\/em\u003E(\u003Cem\u003ELLG\u003C\/em\u003E 14, no. 91) with the aid of his agent and brother-in-law John Fischer Sheafe. Lenox\u2019s enthusiasm for Copley portraits was in keeping with the high regard that the artist\u2019s achievements were held in in the United States at this time. At mid-century, Copley was championed by US artists and art writers as one of the greatest portrait painters of his era. For example, portraitist George Peter Alexander Healy considered him \u201cthe greatest portrait painter of the last century\u201d (Bigot 1915, 52). In \u003Cem\u003EBook of the Artists\u003C\/em\u003E of 1867, author Henry T. Tuckerman treated all the leading early Colonial American portrait paintings in a single chapter save for Copley, whose career and achievement was the subject of a chapter of its own. Tuckerman advocated for the painter\u2019s genius and helped buttress Copley\u2019s reputation at the end of the nineteenth century. The author singled out the portrait of Mrs. Robert Hooper as one of the \u201cgood specimens of his skill and style\u201d and noted its ownership by Lenox (Tuckerman 1867, 72).\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EIn \u003Cem\u003EBook of the Artists\u003C\/em\u003E, Tuckerman praised Copley\u2019s Colonial American likenesses for their \u201cwant of ease and nature [which is] as authentic as their costume. They are generally dignified, elaborate, and more or less ostentatious, and somewhat mechanical, but we recognize in these very traits the best evidence of their correctness. They illustrate the men and women of their day when pride, decorum, and an elegance, sometimes ungraceful but always impressive, marked the dress and air of the higher classes . . . They look like incarnations of self-respect\u2014people born to command-men whose families were regulated with the reserve of state police, and women who were models of virtue and propriety\u201d (Tuckerman 1867, 75\u201376). Tuckerman further remarked that the acquisition of a portrait by Copley \u201cis an American\u2019s best title of nobility,\u201d and rhapsodized how the era of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth century was an era when \u201cthe distinction of gentle blood was cherished . . . [and] the patrician element still carried honorable sway in the New World\u201d (Tuckerman 1867, 76).\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_nationality":"US","field_date":"ca. 1767","field_dimensions":"50 x 39.5 in. (127 x 100.3 cm.)","field_bibliography":"\u003Cp\u003ELetter from George Peter Alexander Healy to his wife, Louisa Phipps Healy, September 3, 1845, quoted in Bigot, Mary Healy. \u003Cem\u003ELife of George P. A. Healy\u003C\/em\u003E. Chicago: n.p., 1915.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003ERebora, Carrie, Paul Staiti, Erica E. Hirshler, Theodore Stebbins, Jr., and Carol Troyen. \u003Cem\u003EJohn Singleton Copley in America\u003C\/em\u003E. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1995. Exhibition catalogue.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003ETuckerman, Henry T. \u003Cem\u003EBook of the Artists\u003C\/em\u003E. New York: G. P. Putnam, 1867; second ed. 1870; reprint ed. New York: James F. Carr, 1967.\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_desc_author":"BW","field_llg_number":"18, no. 115","field_alt_title":""},{"title":"View on the North River, near Newburgh","nid":"671","field_image":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_3d\/public\/paintings\/2018-06\/h-1-1.jpg?itok=zECxjgmn","field_image_hd":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_hd\/public\/paintings\/2018-06\/h-1-1.jpg?itok=fg46bXtk","field_image_credit":"Artwork in the public domain; photograph courtesy New York Public Library.","field_position_code":"h_1_1","field_artist":"Jesse Talbot","field_original_artist":"","field_artist_date":"1806\u201379","field_current_owner":"Unknown","field_llg_info":"\u003Cp\u003E\u201cPainted to order, about 1843.\u201d\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_medium":"Unknown","field_location":"east wall, north side","field_id":"112","field_description":"\u003Cp\u003EJesse Talbot was a painter who specialized in literary themes and landscapes in the tradition of the Hudson River School. From 1840 to 1843, the year this work was painted, he had a studio in the New York University Building, the most prominent studio building downtown at that time. Talbot gained some success during this period for his historical landscapes from the Hudson River Valley, Adirondacks, the Lake Champlain region in New York and Vermont, the White Mountains of New Hampshire, eastern Pennsylvania and the Cumberland Valley in Virginia. He was also known to paint literary themes, including several featuring Native Americans.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003ETalbot\u2019s works regularly appeared in the National Academy of Design\u2019s annual exhibitions from 1838 until 1860; he was elected a member in 1845. Many of the works he exhibited at the academy and in art unions, were on loan, suggesting that he did not lack patronage.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EHe was a friend of writer Walt Whitman, who owned a copy of the etching made from Talbot\u2019s \u003Cem\u003EChristian and the Cross, Pilgrim\u2019s Progress\u003C\/em\u003E (1847) for the American Art-Union. By the 1850s, Whitman and Talbot had regular visits to the latter\u2019s studio, where according to Whitman\u2019s daughter they had \u201clong and instructive chats over good coffee and paintings\u201d (Bohan 2006, 17).\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cbr \/\u003E\nThis painting was commissioned by James Lenox at a point in Talbot\u2019s career when his star was rising. Characteristic of Talbot\u2019s work during this period, it depicts the Hudson River (called the \u201cNorth River\u201d by the Dutch colonists) near the city of Newburgh, approximately 60 miles north of New York City. Although the image is unclear, one sees a tree on the right bisecting the horizon line, a framing device commonly seen in Talbot\u2019s works. Talbot often included humans or other signs of civilization in his paintings in accordance with conventions used by other Hudson River School painters such as Thomas Cole and Frederic Edwin Church, but in this picture no figures are visible.\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_nationality":"US","field_date":"Unknown","field_dimensions":"Unknown","field_bibliography":"\u003Cp\u003EBohan, Ruth.\u003Cem\u003E Looking into Walt Whitman: American Art, 1850\u20131920\u003C\/em\u003E. University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press, 2006.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EDearinger, David B. \u003Cem\u003EPaintings \u0026amp; Sculpture at the National Academy of Design\u003C\/em\u003E, Vol. 1: 1826\u20131925. New York: Hudson Hills, 2004.\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_desc_author":"CJ","field_llg_number":"11, no. 58","field_alt_title":""},{"title":"Chinese Painting (Pair)","nid":"672","field_image":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_3d\/public\/paintings\/2018-06\/h-1-3.jpg?itok=Fb4-eIaI","field_image_hd":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_hd\/public\/paintings\/2018-06\/h-1-3.jpg?itok=3Tauq9yz","field_image_credit":"Artwork in the public domain; photograph courtesy New York Public Library.","field_position_code":"h_1_3","field_artist":"Unknown","field_original_artist":"","field_artist_date":"dates unknown","field_current_owner":"Unknown","field_llg_info":"\u003Cp\u003ENone\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_medium":"Unknown","field_location":"east wall, north side","field_id":"114","field_description":"\u003Cp\u003ENothing is known about \u003Ca class=\u0022in_gallery\u0022 href=\u0022#\u0022 id=\u0022genre\u0022 target=\u0022Chinese\u0022\u003Ethese two paintings. (\u003Cem\u003ELLG\u003C\/em\u003E 10, no. 54)\u003C\/a\u003E. They may have been belonged to James\u2019s father, Robert Lenox, who may have acquired them from a Chinese trading partner.\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_nationality":"nationality unknown","field_date":"Unknown","field_dimensions":"Unknown","field_bibliography":"","field_desc_author":"SW","field_llg_number":"10, no. 53\u00a0and 54 (listed together)","field_alt_title":""},{"title":"The Siege of Saragossa","nid":"673","field_image":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_3d\/public\/paintings\/2018-06\/h-1-4.jpg?itok=NpXWGKUA","field_image_hd":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_hd\/public\/paintings\/2018-06\/h-1-4.jpg?itok=6LTitO1K","field_image_credit":"Artwork in the public domain; photography courtesy of Sotheby\u2019s Inc.","field_position_code":"h_1_4","field_artist":"[\u00c9mile Jean-] Horace Vernet","field_original_artist":"","field_artist_date":"1789\u20131863","field_current_owner":"Unknown","field_llg_info":"\u003Cp\u003E\u201cBought at the sale of Mr. W. W. Hope, Paris, June, 1855. It was purchased by Mr. Hope at the Vente Thevenin.\u201d\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_medium":"Oil on canvas","field_location":"east wall, north side","field_id":"115","field_description":"\u003Cp\u003EHorace Vernet was born into a family of artists. Both his father, Carle, and grandfather, Claude Joseph, were accomplished eighteenth-century painters. Vernet was one of the most famous and successful painters of his time, known especially for his battle paintings and those made for Louis-Philippe\u2019s museum in Versailles. At the time of this important early work, Vernet was a close friend of Th\u00e9odore G\u00e9ricault and was influenced by the drama of Romanticism. This painting depicts the French Army\u2019s siege of the Spanish city of Saragossa in summer 1808 during the Peninsular War (1807\u201314). With the help of Polish reinforcements, the French troops, led by General Lefebvre-Desnouettes, repeatedly stormed and bombarded the walled city, and after two months of fighting were forced to retreat. Diaries of the soldiers recount that many of the Spanish fighters were civilians, including women and clergy, such as the priest Santiago Sas y Casayau (1774\u20131809), who emerged as a leader.\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EVernet has included an unlikely group of citizen defenders: at right stands an aristocrat, probably Don Jos\u00e9 Palafox, with Santiago Sas, who brandishes a cross, with a group of monks supporting him. The French soldier seen at bottom left behind dungeon bars evokes an emotional appeal to the French losses in the attack. However, as Adina Gordon has argued, the theme of this painting, which emphasizes Spanish courage, appears at odds with Vernet\u2019s own nationalist views (Gordon 1980, 123). She points out that this event likely occurred in 1809, when the wall broke and the city was taken by the French.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EIn later years Vernet became best known for his military paintings that included a series of battle paintings for the duc d\u2019Orl\u00e9ans (later King Louis-Philippe) who remained a supportive patron. Even after the king\u2019s ouster following the Revolution of 1848, Vernet became a favorite of the Emperor Napoleon III.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EThis painting may have appeared in the Salon of 1819, but its initial sale is unknown. It was purchased by W. William Hope in 1851, and James Lenox bought it four years later at the sale of Hope\u2019s collection in 1855 while he was in Paris, At the same sale Lenox also bought\u003Cem\u003E \u003Ca class=\u0022in_gallery\u0022 href=\u0022#\u0022 target=\u002265\u0022\u003EThe Field of Battle \u003C\/a\u003E\u003C\/em\u003E\u003Ca href=\u0022#\u0022\u003Eby Paul Delaroche (\u003Cem\u003ELLG\u003C\/em\u003E 11, no. 57)\u003C\/a\u003E.\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_nationality":"French","field_date":"1819","field_dimensions":"58 x 45 in. (147.3 x 114.3 cm.)","field_bibliography":"\u003Cp\u003EGordon, Adina E. \u201cHorace Vernet\u2019s \u2018Siege of Saragossa, 1808\u2019: Identified and Rediscovered.\u201d Arts (September 1980): 122\u201324.\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_desc_author":"CJ","field_llg_number":"10, no. 55","field_alt_title":""},{"title":"A Storm off the Island of Capri, in the Mediterranean","nid":"674","field_image":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_3d\/public\/paintings\/2018-06\/h-2-1.jpg?itok=kH3qBGZE","field_image_hd":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_hd\/public\/paintings\/2018-06\/h-2-1.jpg?itok=hdIxB_MB","field_image_credit":"Artwork in the public domain; photograph courtesy New York Public Library.","field_position_code":"h_2_1","field_artist":"G. F. Hamilton","field_original_artist":"","field_artist_date":"dates unknown","field_current_owner":"Unknown","field_llg_info":"\u003Cp\u003E\u201cPresented by John Fisher Sheafe, 1877.\u201d\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_medium":"Unknown","field_location":"east wall, north side\u00ca","field_id":"116","field_description":"\u003Cp\u003EThe artist G. F. Hamilton is unknown. The only possible match for this name is the British neoclassical painter Gavin Hamilton, but he died before this work was undertaken. The painting depicts the rocky coastline of Capri, a small island in the Bay of Naples. Judging by the gallery photograph, the artist painted a scene of a storm-tossed landscape with large waves crashing against tall mountainous cliffs that dot the shore. This is one of four paintings given to the Lenox Library by John Fisher Shaefe, husband of James\u2019s sister, Mary, who lived next door to James on Fifth Avenue, south of Union Square. All four are views in southern Europe\u2014Capri, Tivoli\u2014and southern Switzerland, suggesting that they were bought by Shaefe as souvenirs of an undocumented European trip.\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EIn the early years of the nineteenth century, control of Capri shifted between Napoleonic troops and the British Navy, who built a short-lived base there between 1806 and 1808. The French regained control in 1808 and stayed until the island was returned to Ferdinand I of the Bourbon ruling house of Naples. Capri quickly became a popular destination for Romantic-era artists, writers, and celebrities from England, France, and Germany, who were inspired by painter and writer August Kopisch\u2019s 1838 memoire, \u003Cem\u003EEntdeckung der Blauen Grotte auf der Insel Capri \u003C\/em\u003E(Discovery of the Blue Grotto on the Isle of Capri).\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EAll four Shaefe paintings were deaccessioned by the Lenox Library in 1889, which leads one to believe that they were not of great value or importance.\u00a0\u003Cbr \/\u003E\n\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_nationality":"nationality unknown","field_date":"1830\u00a0","field_dimensions":"Unknown","field_bibliography":"\u003Cp\u003E\u201cEighth Annual Report of the Trustees of the Lenox Library for the Year 1877, Transmitted to the Legislature January 30, 1878.\u201d In \u003Cem\u003EAnnual Report\u003C\/em\u003E, vols. 1\u201325. New York: Jerome B. Parmenter, State Printer, 1878. \u003Ca href=\u0022https:\/\/books.google.com\/books? id=ozJFAQAAMAAJ\u0022\u003Ehttps:\/\/books.google.com\/books? id=ozJFAQAAMAAJ\u003C\/a\u003E.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EKopisch, August and Dieter Richter, ed. \u003Cem\u003EEntdeckung der blauen Grotte auf der Insel Capri\u003C\/em\u003E. Berlin: Wagenbach Verlag, 1997.\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_desc_author":"CJ","field_llg_number":"21, no. 139","field_alt_title":""},{"title":"View of Tivoli, the Villa of M\u00e6cenas and the Campagna","nid":"675","field_image":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_3d\/public\/paintings\/2018-06\/h-2-2.jpg?itok=sjBYushQ","field_image_hd":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_hd\/public\/paintings\/2018-06\/h-2-2.jpg?itok=Doe6zsOg","field_image_credit":"Artwork in the public domain; photograph courtesy New York Public Library.","field_position_code":"h_2_2","field_artist":"C. Laval\u00e9","field_original_artist":"","field_artist_date":"dates unknown","field_current_owner":"Unknown","field_llg_info":"\u003Cp\u003E\u201cPresented by John Fisher Sheafe, 1877.\u201d\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_medium":"Unknown","field_location":"east wall, north side\u00ca","field_id":"117","field_description":"\u003Cp\u003EThe artist is unknown. Like the other four paintings given to the Lenox Library by Lenox\u2019s brother-in-law, John Fisher Shaefe, this is an undistinguished painting (see LLG 21, 139\u201342). All were deaccessioned in 1889. The subjects of all the paintings are views of Italy\u2014Capri and Tivoli\u2014and southern Switzerland, suggesting that Shaefe may have taken a European trip and bought these paintings back as souvenirs. \u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_nationality":"nationality unknown","field_date":"Unknown","field_dimensions":"Unknown","field_bibliography":"","field_desc_author":"SW","field_llg_number":"21, no. 140","field_alt_title":""},{"title":"A Boy in a Red Velvet Dress Leaning Forwards on a Green Cushion, Holding Pen and Paper in His Hand ","nid":"676","field_image":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_3d\/public\/paintings\/2018-06\/h_2_3.jpg?itok=Rp8zwvQA","field_image_hd":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_hd\/public\/paintings\/2018-06\/h_2_3.jpg?itok=BEhFrMC3","field_image_credit":"Artwork in the public domain; photograph courtesy New York Public Library.","field_position_code":"h_2_3","field_artist":"Sir Joshua Reynolds","field_original_artist":"","field_artist_date":"1723\u201392","field_current_owner":"Private collection, South Africa","field_llg_info":"\u003Cp\u003E\u201cBought at Christie\u2019s, London, June 15, 1850, from the collection of Philip Metcalfe, Esq., the friend, fellow traveller, and executor of Sir Joshua Reynolds. Probably the picture selected by Mr. Metcalfe under Sir Joshua\u2019s will.\u201d\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_medium":"Oil on canvas","field_location":"east wall, north side","field_id":"118","field_description":"\u003Cp\u003EIn the nineteenth century, Sir Joshua Reynolds was renowned in the United States, particularly among artists, for the quality and accuracy of his portraiture and for a series of lectures he gave to the graduates of the Royal Academy (of which he was president) in 1769\u201370, entitled \u003Cem\u003EDiscourses on Art\u003C\/em\u003E. His promotion of classical ideals was even referenced by Samuel F. B. Morse in the founding documents for the National Academy of Design in 1826. British-US artist Charles Robert Leslie, a member of both academies and a friend of Lenox, published a biography entitled \u003Cem\u003EThe Life and Times of Sir Joshua Reynolds\u003C\/em\u003E in 1865. Reference to Reynolds\u2019s biography was made in the \u003Cem\u003ELLG\u003C\/em\u003E entry for the artist\u2019s portrait \u003Ca class=\u0022in_gallery\u0022 href=\u0022#\u0022 target=\u0022119\u0022\u003E\u003Cem\u003EMrs. Billington as Saint Cecilia\u003C\/em\u003E (\u003Cem\u003ELLG\u003C\/em\u003E 16, no. 101)\u003C\/a\u003E, a painting adjacent to a Boy in Red. A number of Leslie\u2019s own works hung alongside this Reynolds in the Lenox Library, which opened just five years following the publication of Leslie\u2019s book.\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EThis painting by Reynolds depicts an unknown boy engaged in a lesson. In a twentieth-century auction catalogue, it is described as a \u201chalf-length figure of an auburn-haired youth, leaning over a green cushion and holding a sheet of paper and quill in his hands; he is wearing a red velvet jacket, trimmer with gold buttons, and a white shirt with an open collar. In a painted oval\u201d (\u003Cem\u003ENotable Paintings \u003C\/em\u003E1956, 24). The boy, who stares intently at a piece of paper that he has plucked from the pile that lies before him, holds a quill pen as if contemplating the words he has just written or is about to put down on the paper.\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EThe original owner of this painting was Philip Metcalfe (1733\u20131818), a politician and malt distiller from Yorkshire. He used the financial success of his business to become a passionate art collector and patron. He was considered a friend to several known artists of his time, including Reynolds. Metcalf travelled with Reynolds on a two-month tour of Belgium, Holland, and Germany in 1781 and became the executor of Reynolds\u2019s will upon his death in 1792. It is thought that this painting may have been selected by Metcalf under the terms of the will (Graves 1899\u20131901, 3:1114). The painting was then passed on to Metcalf\u2019s great-nephew, Henry Metcalf, following whose death it was purchased by Lenox at auction in 1850.\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_nationality":"British","field_date":"1784","field_dimensions":"30 x 25 in. (76.2 x 63.5 cm.)","field_bibliography":"\u003Cp\u003EGraves, Algernon. \u003Cem\u003EA History of the Works of Sir Joshua Reynolds\u003C\/em\u003E. 4 vols. London: H. Graves, 1899\u20131901.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003ELeslie, Charles Robert, and Tom Taylor. \u003Cem\u003ELife and Times of Sir Joshua Reynolds: With Notices of Some of His Cotemporaries [sic]. Commenced by Charles Robert Leslie, R. A. Continued and Concluded by Tom Taylor, M. A. In Two Volumes\u003C\/em\u003E. \u003Cem\u003EWith Portraits and Illustrations\u003C\/em\u003E. 2 vols. London: J. Murray, 1865.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EParke-Bernet Galleries, New York. \u003Cem\u003ENotable Paintings All from Institutional Private Owners Including Paintings from the Collection of the New York Public Library\u003C\/em\u003E . . . New York: Parke-Bernet Galleries, 1956. Auction catalogue.\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_desc_author":"CJ","field_llg_number":"16, no. 103","field_alt_title":"A Boy Holding a Pen, Studious Boy"},{"title":"Mrs.\u00a0Billington\u00a0as Saint Cecilia\u00a0","nid":"677","field_image":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_3d\/public\/paintings\/2018-10\/1959_179_R2.jpg?itok=u7RV2vjb","field_image_hd":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_hd\/public\/paintings\/2018-10\/1959_179_R2.jpg?itok=Pb84wnoQ","field_image_credit":"Beaverbrook Art Gallery, Fredericton, New Brunswick, Canada.","field_position_code":"h_3_1","field_artist":"Sir Joshua Reynolds","field_original_artist":"","field_artist_date":"1723\u201392","field_current_owner":"Beaverbrook Art Gallery, Fredericton, New Brunswick, Canada","field_llg_info":"\u003Cp\u003E\u201cBought by Mr. Grant (now Sir Francis Grant, P.R.A.) for Mr. Lenox, June, 1848. \u2018The full length of Mrs.\u00a0Billington\u00a0as Saint Cecilia, with a choir of angels fluttering round and making music to her voice, is now in New York, in the gallery of Mr. Lenox.\u2019--Life and Times of Reynolds, by C. R. Leslie and Tom Taylor, Vol. II., 529\u201d\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_medium":"Oil on canvas","field_location":"east wall, north side","field_id":"119","field_description":"\u003Cp\u003EIn the nineteenth century, Sir Joshua Reynolds was renowned in the United States, particularly among artists, for the quality and accuracy of his portraiture and for a series of lectures he gave to the graduates of the Royal Academy (of which he was president) in 1769\u201370, entitled \u003Cem\u003EDiscourses on Art\u003C\/em\u003E. His promotion of classical ideals was even referenced by Samuel F. B. Morse in the founding documents for the National Academy of Design in 1826. British-US artist Charles Robert Leslie, a member of both academies and a friend of Lenox, published a biography entitled\u003Cem\u003E The Life and Times of Sir Joshua Reynolds\u003C\/em\u003E in 1865. A number of Leslie\u2019s own works hung alongside this Reynolds in the Lenox Library, which opened twelve years following the publication of Leslie\u2019s book.\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EThis full-length portrait depicts Elizabeth Billington (n\u00e9e Weichsel), a British opera singer of German heritage, who lived from 1765 to 1818. The child of a vocalist and oboist of some distinction, Billington was trained in music from an early age and married one of her instructors, James Billington, a double-bass player. No stranger to scandal, Billington was forced to retire to the Continent following the publication of her private letters in 1792. Shortly thereafter, her husband died and she married a Frenchman known for criminal activities. Critically celebrated for her acting and singing abilities, Billington appeared in numerous roles at the Haymarket Theater, Covent Garden, and King\u2019s Theater, in addition to engagements in Ireland, Germany, and Italy.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EThis painting by Reynolds represents Billington as St. Cecilia, patroness of musicians. Billington wears a billowing white gown trimmed with gold and a purple sash around her waist. Her saintliness (ironic in the context of her scandalous life) is magnified by a ray of light illuminating her from above and the bank of clouds upon which she stands. Although she holds sheet music for Handel\u2019s \u003Cem\u003EHallelujah\u003C\/em\u003E chorus in her hands, she is not pictured exercising the craft for which she was so well known; instead, she listens to the quartet of cherubs seen above her shoulder, while a fifth anoints her with a crown of flowers. Critics of the time noted that the fanciful mixture of sacred and profane in the image was a distraction from her likeness (Graves 1899\u20131901, 82\u201384).\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003ELenox acquired this painting through the good offices of the Scottish portrait artist Sir Francis Grant, who painted Lenox\u2019s portrait (\u003Ca class=\u0022in_gallery\u0022 href=\u0022#\u0022 target=\u002274\u0022\u003ELLG 12, no. 66\u003C\/a\u003E) the same year as this acquisition.\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_nationality":"British","field_date":"1786\u201389","field_dimensions":"94 x 58 in. (238.8 x 147.3 cm.)","field_bibliography":"\u003Cp\u003EGraves, Algernon. \u003Cem\u003EA History of the Works of Sir Joshua Reynolds\u003C\/em\u003E. 4 vols. London: H. Graves, 1899\u20131901.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003ELeslie, Charles Robert, and Tom Taylor. \u003Cem\u003ELife and Times of Sir Joshua Reynolds: With Notices of Some of His Cotemporaries [sic]. Commenced by Charles Robert Leslie, R. A. Continued and Concluded by Tom Taylor, M.A. In Two Volumes. With Portraits and Illustrations\u003C\/em\u003E. 2 vols. London: J. Murray, 1865.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EMannings, D. \u201cReynolds, Sir Joshua.\u201d Grove Art Online. Published 2003. Accessed September 9, 2018.\u003Ca href=\u0022http:\/\/\/\/www.oxfordartonline.com\/groveart\/view\/10.1093\/gao\/9781884446054.001.0001\/oao-9781884446054-e-7000071710\u0022 target=\u0022new\u0022\u003E http:\/\/\/\/www.oxfordartonline.com\/groveart\/view\/10.1093\/gao\/9781884446054.001.0001\/oao-9781884446054-e-7000071710\u003C\/a\u003E.\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_desc_author":"CJ","field_llg_number":"16, no. 101","field_alt_title":""},{"title":"Portrait of Lady Belhaven","nid":"678","field_image":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_3d\/public\/paintings\/2018-06\/h_4_1_0.jpg?itok=VpaPezTN","field_image_hd":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_hd\/public\/paintings\/2018-06\/h_4_1_0.jpg?itok=xqKIGqXp","field_image_credit":"Artwork in the public domain; photograph courtesy New York Public Library.","field_position_code":"h_4_1","field_artist":"Sir Henry Raeburn","field_original_artist":"","field_artist_date":"1756\u20131823","field_current_owner":"New York Public Library, New York","field_llg_info":"\u003Cp\u003ENone\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_medium":"Unknown","field_location":"east wall, north side","field_id":"120","field_description":"\u003Cp\u003ESir Henry Raeburn is perhaps the best-known Scottish painter from the second half of the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. He worked almost exclusively as a portrait painter of Scottish society from his base in Edinburgh. In his early twenties, he gained a vast fortune when he married a young widow, with whom he went on a journey to London and Rome in 1784. While in London, he met Sir Joshua Reynolds, who greatly influenced his later work. He returned after two years to great success and eventually became the official portrait painter to King George IV in Scotland.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EThis portrait depicts Penelope Macdonald Hamilton, wife of William Hamilton, 7th Lord of Belhaven and Stenton, who assumed his title in the 1790s after the House of Lords voted his relative\u2019s lineage invalid. Not much is known of Lady Belhaven (d. 1816), other than she was the youngest daughter of Ronald Macdonald of Clanronald in Inverness-shire, and that she had two sons and five daughters.\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EIt is unknown how this painting was acquired by Lenox; a possible motivation for its purchase is Raeburn\u2019s nationality. Also, Raeburn was already quite famous in the United States by the 1830s, as evidenced in William Dunlap\u2019s book on US artists from 1834 (Dunlap 1969, 1:396).\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EA copy of this work is held in the collection of the Philadelphia Museum of Art; an engraving can be found in the Library of Congress in Washington, DC.\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_nationality":"Scottish","field_date":"Unknown","field_dimensions":"36 x 28 in. (91.4 x 71.1 cm.)","field_bibliography":"\u003Cp\u003EDunlap, William. History of the Rise and Progress of the Arts of Design in the United States. 2 vols. New York: G. P. Scott and Co., 1834; reprint ed. New York: Dover Publications, 1969.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EThomson, Duncan. Raeburn, Sir Henry. Grove Art Online. Published 2003. Accessed September 9, 2018. \u003Ca href=\u0022http:\/\/\/\/www.oxfordartonline.com\/groveart\/view\/10.1093\/gao\/9781884446054.001.0001\/oao-9781884446054-e-7000070538\u0022\u003Ehttp:\/\/\/\/www.oxfordartonline.com\/groveart\/view\/10.1093\/gao\/9781884446054.001.0001\/oao-9781884446054-e-7000070538\u003C\/a\u003E.\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_desc_author":"CJ","field_llg_number":"21, no. 143","field_alt_title":""},{"title":"Portrait of Miss Kitty Fisher\u2014With Doves","nid":"679","field_image":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_3d\/public\/paintings\/2018-06\/h_4_2.jpg?itok=-M9Fa1i5","field_image_hd":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_hd\/public\/paintings\/2018-06\/h_4_2.jpg?itok=fb3dn8pv","field_image_credit":"Artwork in the public domain; photograph courtesy New York Public Library.","field_position_code":"h_4_2","field_artist":"Sir Joshua Reynolds","field_original_artist":"","field_artist_date":"1723\u201392","field_current_owner":" New York Public Library, New York","field_llg_info":"\u003Cp\u003E\u201cBought by Mr. C. R. Leslie for Mr. Lenox, of Colnaghi \u0026amp; Co., London, June, 1848. \u2018Repetitions of this picture are in the possession of Mr. Munro, and at Lansdowne House.\u2019\u2013\u2013\u003Cem\u003ECotton\u2019s Catalogue of Reynolds\u2019 Portraits\u003C\/em\u003E, 1857.\u201d\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_medium":"Unknown","field_location":"east wall, north side","field_id":"121","field_description":"\u003Cp\u003EIn the nineteenth century, Sir Joshua Reynolds was renowned in the United States, particularly among artists, for the quality and accuracy of his portraiture and for a series of lectures he gave to the graduates of the Royal Academy (of which he was president) in 1769\u201370, entitled \u003Cem\u003EDiscourses on Art\u003C\/em\u003E. His promotion of classical ideals was even referenced by Samuel F. B. Morse in the founding documents for the National Academy of Design in 1826. British-US artist Charles Robert Leslie, a member of both academies and a friend of Lenox, published a biography entitled\u003Cem\u003E The Life and Times of Sir Joshua Reynolds \u003C\/em\u003Ein 1865. A number of Leslie\u2019s own works hung alongside this Reynolds in the Lenox Library, which opened twelve years following the publication of Leslie\u2019s book.\u00a0\u003Cbr \/\u003E\nThis three-quarter-length portrait is a likeness of Kitty (born Catherine Marie) Fisher (1741\u201367), a British courtesan known for her affairs with the British elite. One of the world\u2019s first celebrities famous not for her talents or royal pedigree but for her charms, Fisher carefully developed her public image through newspaper and magazine articles, as well as painted portraits like this one by Sir Joshua Reynolds. Reynolds, then the most prominent painter in England, captured her likeness in numerous paintings, including one for which she posed as Cleopatra. Engraved prints of these paintings were sold to her adoring public as keepsakes.\u003Cbr \/\u003E\nFisher is immortalized in the nursery rhyme \u201cLucy Locket\u201d:\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp style=\u0022margin-left: 2em; font-style: italic;\u0022\u003ELucy Locket lost her pocket,\u003Cbr \/\u003E\nKitty Fisher found it;\u003Cbr \/\u003E\nBut ne\u2019er a penny was there in\u2019t\u003Cbr \/\u003E\nExcept the binding round it.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EFisher is seen here seated on a green velvet settee with brass nails. She is pictured with two doves\u2014one cradled in her lap and the other perched behind her on the sofa\u2014a common allusion to love or innocence, although given the nature of Fisher\u2019s activities, they may reference the former rather than the latter. Known for an impeccable fashion sense and luxurious accoutrements, Fisher wears a white dress and fur-trimmed cloak, with a locket suspended from her neck featuring a miniature portrait of actor and playwright David Garrick (1717\u201379)\u2014Reynolds\u2019s dear friend. Lenox also owned a \u003Ca class=\u0022in_gallery\u0022 href=\u0022#\u0022 target=\u0022108\u0022\u003Eportrait of Garrick by Robert Edge Pine (\u003Cem\u003ELLG\u003C\/em\u003E 18, no. 112)\u003C\/a\u003E. It is unclear whether the two were personally linked, although both were the subject of numerous paintings by Reynolds\u2014he painted each seven times (Sime 1906, 69\u201372).\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EThe portrait was painted for an unknown patron and was later purchased by a collector named Slatter; it was auctioned at Christie\u2019s in 1845 and then purchased by Charles Robert Leslie for Lenox in 1848. According to the \u003Cem\u003ELLG\u003C\/em\u003E, as of 1882 copies of this work could also be found in the collection of Mr. Munro (probably Hugh Andrew Johnstone Munro of Novar [1797\u20131864], who owned other works by Reynolds, and in the collection at Lansdowne House in London.\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_nationality":"British","field_date":"Unknown","field_dimensions":"36 x 28 in. (91.4 x 71.1 cm.)","field_bibliography":"\u003Cp\u003ESime, John. \u003Cem\u003ESir Joshua Reynolds\u003C\/em\u003E. London: Meuthen \u0026amp; Co., 1906. \u003Ca href=\u0022https:\/\/books.google.com\/books?id=wdqfAAAAMAAJ\u0022 target=\u0022new\u0022\u003Ehttps:\/\/books.google.com\/books?id=wdqfAAAAMAAJ\u003C\/a\u003E.\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_desc_author":"CJ","field_llg_number":"16, no. 100","field_alt_title":""},{"title":"Portrait of a Gentleman [James Lenox]","nid":"680","field_image":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_3d\/public\/paintings\/2018-06\/e_2_2.jpg?itok=X02zR18Y","field_image_hd":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_hd\/public\/paintings\/2018-06\/e_2_2.jpg?itok=PL35GzAA","field_image_credit":"Artwork in the public domain; photograph courtesy New York Public Library.","field_position_code":"e_2_2","field_artist":"Sir Francis Grant","field_original_artist":"","field_artist_date":"1803\u20131878","field_current_owner":"New York Public Library, New York","field_llg_info":"\u003Cp\u003E\u201cPainted in 1848.\u201d\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_medium":"Unknown","field_location":"east wall, middle","field_id":"74","field_description":"\u003Cp\u003ESir Francis Grant was a Scottish painter known for painting portraits of the British aristocracy and political figures. Following the death of his father in 1818, Grant squandered his inheritance on collecting paintings and fox hunting. Although Grant originally intended to become a lawyer, he began making paintings to earn back his fortune. Largely self-taught by copying the works of old masters like V\u00e9lasquez, Grant was encouraged into the profession by Sir Walter Scott and the Earl of Elgin (known for the so-called Elgin Marbles at the British Museum). He began to gain recognition in the 1830s and 1840s with his equestrian pictures and portraits, beginning with \u003Cem\u003EMelton Breakfast\u003C\/em\u003E (1834; Belvoir Castle, Leicestershire) and \u003Cem\u003EQueen Victoria Riding Out\u003C\/em\u003E (1840; Royal Collection), an image of the queen with Lord Melbourne that propelled his fame as a portraitist. His sitters included Prince Albert, Sir Walter Scott, Thomas Babington Macaulay, Viscount Palmerston, and Benjamin Disraeli. Appointed to the Royal Academy as an associate in 1842 and elected a full member in 1851, Grant was the only Scottish president, succeeding Charles Eastlake in 1866.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EWhile his earlier work was generally small scale and decoratively colored, this portrait of James Lenox by Grant is in keeping with the artist\u2019s later style, which was larger in size and more direct in approach. The somber tone of this work is enhanced by the muted colors. Nonetheless, Grant has incorporated broad paintwork into the background of the composition.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003ELenox, who was in his late forties when this painting was made, is depicted in the prime of his life as a man of charm and grace. This rendering stands in sharp contrast to Lenox\u2019s later portraits, particularly a singular photograph in which he is shown as a stern elderly man. It is not known how Lenox came to know Grant, but the same year this portrait was painted, Grant also obtained for Lenox Sir Joshua Reynolds\u2019s \u003Ca class=\u0022in_gallery\u0022 href=\u0022#\u0022 target=\u0022119\u0022\u003E\u003Cem\u003EMrs. Billington as Saint Cecilia\u003C\/em\u003E\u003C\/a\u003E (LLG 16, no. 102). He may have also been drawn to Grant because of his own Scottish heritage.\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EThis portrait of James Lenox was \u003Ca class=\u0022in_gallery\u0022 data-view=\u0022gallery\u0022 href=\u0022#\u0022 id=\u0022genre\u0022 target=\u0022Lenox Family\u0022\u003Eone of seven family portraits placed on the east wall of the Lenox Library Picture Gallery\u003C\/a\u003E adjacent or near to portraits of George Washington. These were two portraits by Gilbert Stuart of his sisters, Isabella and Elizabeth; two portraits by John Trumbull of his father, Robert, and his mother, Rachel; and two portraits by John Wesley Jarvis of Robert and a posthumous rendering of his sister, Alethea. Collectively, they imply the family\u2019s patriotism and admiration, if not devotion, to the founding father of the United States.\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_nationality":"Scottish","field_date":"1848","field_dimensions":"Unknown","field_bibliography":"\u003Cdiv class=\u0022WordSection1\u0022\u003E\n\u003Cp style=\u0022margin-top:0in; margin-right:12.0pt; margin-bottom:.0001pt; margin-left:-.25in; margin:0in 0in 0.0001pt\u0022\u003EWills, Catherine. High Society: \u003Cem\u003EThe Life and Art of Sir Francis Grant\u003C\/em\u003E, 1803\u20131878.\u003Cbr \/\u003E\nEdinburgh: National Galleries of Scotland, 2003. Exhibition catalogue.\u003Cbr \/\u003E\n\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n\u003C\/div\u003E\n","field_desc_author":"CJ","field_llg_number":"12, no. 66","field_alt_title":""},{"title":"Market Scene in Holland","nid":"681","field_image":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_3d\/public\/paintings\/2018-08\/I.1.2%20PLACEHOLDER.jpg?itok=1vI2VS6a","field_image_hd":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_hd\/public\/paintings\/2018-08\/I.1.2%20PLACEHOLDER.jpg?itok=0upsdWDu","field_image_credit":"Artwork in the public domain; photograph courtesy Staatliche Kunstsammlungen, Dresden.","field_position_code":"i_1_2","field_artist":"Unknown","field_original_artist":"G. [Gabriel] Metzu (Dutch, 1629\u201367)","field_artist_date":"dates unknown","field_current_owner":"Unknown","field_llg_info":"\u003Cp\u003E\u201cCopy, bought at the sale of J. P. Beaumont, New York, April, 1850.\u201d\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_medium":"Unknown","field_location":"west wall, south side","field_id":"123","field_description":"\u003Cp\u003EThe Dutch painter Gabriel Metsu was born in Leiden and possibly trained in Utrecht. He briefly joined the Leiden painters\u2019 guild in 1648 before moving to Amsterdam in 1655. A specialist in genre painting, especially domestic interiors and market squares, Metsu was influenced by the so-called Leiden \u003Cem\u003Efijnschilders\u003C\/em\u003E, known for the meticulous finish of their paintings. He died at the age of thirty-eight.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EThe original of the Lenox painting is in Dresden. Copies of Metsu and other Dutch genre painters were popular with US collectors in antebellum New York; at the time, Metsu was more widely admired than Vermeer. This painting, in which a young woman presents a dead rabbit for sale or barter to an elderly woman and seller of chickens, is typical of Metsu\u2019s work.\u00a0\u003Cbr \/\u003E\nThere is a note in the Lenox Library archives attached to a bill of sale from the US auctioneer Henry H. Leeds, dated April 3, 1850, which, it is assumed, was excerpted from the Beaumont catalogue as follows: \u201cThis picture is so finished as to bear a microscopic examination\u201d (Lenox Library Board of Trustees).\u003Cbr \/\u003E\n\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_nationality":"nationality unknown","field_date":"Unknown","field_dimensions":"19.75 x 15 in. (50.2 x 38.1 cm.)","field_bibliography":"\u003Cp\u003ELenox Library Board of Trustees. R. G. 2, box 5, folder \u201cArt Collections, Misc.\u201d New York Public Library Archives, New York.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EParke-Bernet Galleries, New York. \u003Cem\u003EEnglish and Continental Furniture, Paintings, Georgian Silver, Laces, Porcelains, Rugs.\u003C\/em\u003E New York: Parke-Bernet Galleries, 1943. Auction catalogue.\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_desc_author":"SW","field_llg_number":"18, no. 117","field_alt_title":""},{"title":"The Parrot Dealer, at the Ch\u00e2teau of Blois, in the Time of Louis XIII ","nid":"682","field_image":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_3d\/public\/paintings\/2018-10\/image_not_found_18.jpg?itok=MHCaTaG9","field_image_hd":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_hd\/public\/paintings\/2018-10\/image_not_found_18.jpg?itok=YCyQ-SiZ","field_image_credit":"","field_position_code":"i_1_3","field_artist":"[Ignacio de] Leon y Escosura","field_original_artist":"","field_artist_date":"1834\u20131901","field_current_owner":"Unknown","field_llg_info":"\u003Cp\u003E\u201cPurchased in 1876, from S. P. Avery.\u201d\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_medium":"Unknown","field_location":"west wall, south side","field_id":"124","field_description":"\u003Cp\u003EThis work was made by Spanish painter Ignacio de Leon y Escosura, who was best known as the court painter to King Carlos III and Isabella, and the Spanish delegate to the World\u2019s Columbian Exposition in Chicago in 1893. Leon y Escosura trained in Madrid before moving to Paris in 1859 to study at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts under Hippolyte Lazerges and in the studios of Jean-L\u00e9on G\u00e9r\u00f4me and Jean-Louis Ernest Meissonier, whose styles he often emulated. He was known for his extremely detailed interior and garden scenes with historical figures in seventeenth- or eighteenth-century costume. The artist was quite successful in England, particularly after he won a medal at the Universal Exhibition in London in 1874.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EIt is nearly impossible to decipher the subject of this image since there is no image available and because of the low quality of the photograph of the painting on the wall. However, the year after this painting was produced, Leon y Escosura made another painting with a similar theme, \u003Cem\u003EThe Rude Parrot\u003C\/em\u003E (1876; sold at Sotheby\u2019s in 2013), which depicts a parrot dealer showing a bright red Macaw to a group of elegantly dressed courtly men and women seated in an opulent palace with gold-trimmed mirrors and painted walls and ceilings.\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003ELenox\u2019s painting depicts the Ch\u00e2teau de Blois, a historic royal residence in the Loire Valley that was given by King Louis XIII (1601\u201343) to his brother, Gaston duc d\u2019Orl\u00e9ans, as a wedding gift in 1626 (he used it until his death in 1660). Constructed between the thirteenth and seventeenth centuries, the ch\u00e2teau contains rooms in various styles, from medieval stonework to Renaissance-period carved wall paneling. The palace fell into neglect until the mid-nineteenth century, when it was restored and turned into a museum.\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003ELenox purchased this work from Samuel Putnam Avery (1822\u20131904), an influential US art dealer and print collector and one of the few dealers Lenox consulted. His print collection was given to New York Public Library in 1900 and housed in the Lenox Library. It was the foundational collection of the library\u2019s print collection. Avery was also known for his role in founding the Metropolitan Museum of Art; his art book collection was used to build the museum\u2019s library. He also underwrote Columbia University\u2019s art and art collection made in the name of his deceased son, Charles Avery.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EAt the time this work was purchased, in 1876, the artist was relatively unknown in the United States, but he gained wide popularity with US collectors in the late nineteenth century. This was true as well for works by the \u003Ca class=\u0022in_gallery\u0022 href=\u0022#\u0022 id=\u0022nationality\u0022 target=\u0022Contemporary Spanish artists\u0022\u003Etwo other Spanish artists Lenox from Avery: Jos\u00e9 Jimenez y Aranda\u2019s\u003Cem\u003E A Spanish Caf\u00e9\u003C\/em\u003E (\u003Cem\u003ELLG \u003C\/em\u003E12, no. 137) and Edouard Zamacois\u2019s \u003Cem\u003EThe Court Fool. Portrait of the Painter\u003C\/em\u003E (\u003Cem\u003ELLG\u003C\/em\u003E 20, no. 133).\u00a0\u003C\/a\u003E\u003Cbr \/\u003E\n\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_nationality":"Spanish","field_date":"Signed and dated 1875","field_dimensions":"18 x 14.5 in. (45.7 x 36.8 cm.)","field_bibliography":"","field_desc_author":"CJ","field_llg_number":"19, no. 118","field_alt_title":""},{"title":"Portrait of a Gentleman [David Sproat]","nid":"683","field_image":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_3d\/public\/paintings\/2018-06\/Sproat-i--2-1-02.JPG?itok=sgdkBNsg","field_image_hd":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_hd\/public\/paintings\/2018-06\/Sproat-i--2-1-02.JPG?itok=8AZNs9Jg","field_image_credit":"Artwork in public domain; photography courtesy New York Public Library.","field_position_code":"i_2_1","field_artist":"Unknown","field_original_artist":"","field_artist_date":"dates unknown","field_current_owner":"New York Public Library, New York","field_llg_info":"\u003Cp\u003E\u201cPainted in 1788.\u201d\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_medium":"Unknown","field_location":"west wall, south side","field_id":"125","field_description":"\u003Cp\u003EThis oval-shaped portrait represents David Sproat (1734\u201399), the uncle of Robert Lenox, James Lenox\u2019s father. Sproat came to Colonial America from Scotland before the Revolutionary War, \u00a0around 1760, establishing himself first in Philadelphia as a merchant before arriving in New York during British occupation (1777\u201379) to join the British Army.\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003ESproat was probably unidentified in the \u003Cem\u003ELLG \u003C\/em\u003Ebecause he was a Loyalist and served as the commissary general of naval prisoners of war for the British. He was in charge of maintaining British prison ships and exchanging American seamen for British soldiers. Conditions on these ships were deplorable and as many as 11,500 prisoners died aboard the sixteen ships docked in New York Harbor. The Prison Ship Martyrs\u2019 Monument in Brooklyn\u2019s Fort Greene Park (dedicated 1908) contains, in the crypt below the base, the remains of some of those who perished.\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EFollowing the conclusion of the war and return of all the prisoners, Sproat returned to England in December 1783 and the following year joined the town council of his hometown of Kirkcudbright, Scotland (Banks 1909, 26). In 1909, James Lenox\u2019s nephew, James Lenox Banks (1861\u20131950), attempted to clear Sproat\u2019s name with the publication of a small booklet that justifies his activities during the war and counters the charges against British troops animated by the recent erection of the monument in Brooklyn.\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EThis work was executed by an unknown artist in Scotland or England in 1788, following Sproat\u2019s return to Scotland. It is still owned by the New York Public Library. The collection of the New-York Historical Society contains a copy of this painting executed by John Trumbull in 1806\u00a0\u003Cbr \/\u003E\n\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_nationality":"nationality unknown","field_date":"1788","field_dimensions":"Unknown","field_bibliography":"\u003Cp\u003EBanks, David Lenox. \u003Cem\u003EDavid Sproat and Naval Prisoners in the War of the Revolution\u003C\/em\u003E. New York: Knickerbocker Press, 1909.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003E\u201cDavid Sproat (1734\u20131799).\u201d New-York Historical Society. Accessed April 6, 2018. \u003Ca href=\u0022http:\/\/www.nyhistory.org\/exhibit\/david-sproat-1734\u20131799\u0022\u003Ehttp:\/\/www.nyhistory.org\/exhibit\/david-sproat-1734\u20131799\u003C\/a\u003E.\u003Cbr \/\u003E\n\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_desc_author":"CJ","field_llg_number":"19, no. 119","field_alt_title":""},{"title":"The Turn of the Leaf ","nid":"684","field_image":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_3d\/public\/paintings\/2018-08\/i.2.2_color%20placeholder%20from%20long%20island%20museum.jpg?itok=pZpzuYD5","field_image_hd":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_hd\/public\/paintings\/2018-08\/i.2.2_color%20placeholder%20from%20long%20island%20museum.jpg?itok=qat5NtDI","field_image_credit":"Artwork in the public domain; photograph courtesy Long Island Museum, Stonybrook, NY.","field_position_code":"i_2_2","field_artist":"William S. [Sidney] Mount","field_original_artist":"","field_artist_date":"1807\u201368","field_current_owner":"Unknown","field_llg_info":"\u003Cp\u003E\u201cPainted to order, 1849.\u201d\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_medium":"Unknown","field_location":"west wall, south side","field_id":"126","field_description":"\u003Cp\u003EWilliam Sidney Mount was born in Setauket on Long Island, New York. In 1815, he resided for a year in New York with his uncle, Micah Hawkins, who fostered his interest in music and theater. Mount began his artistic training in 1824, when he started an apprenticeship with his older brother, the sign painter Henry Smith Mount. From 1826 to 1827, Mount attended classes at the National Academy of Design and the next year worked briefly in Henry Inman\u2019s studio. In 1830, the exhibition of \u003Cem\u003ERustic Dance after a Sleigh Ride\u003C\/em\u003E (Museum of Fine Arts, Boston) led him to focus on painting rural scenes of US life, and he went on to become one of the foremost genre painters in the country.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cem\u003EThe Turn of the Leaf (Turning the Leaf, Surprise with Admiration)\u003C\/em\u003E dates from late 1848. In the painting, a girl turns over a burdock leaf and discovers ten white eggs. At her right, a boy stares at the treasure and ponders the possibilities of what he can do with them. Painted on commission for James Lenox, the work is one of a stream of commissions for genre paintings that Mount received from the mid-1830s through the early 1850s, when he was at the height of his popularity as a genre specialist. He had difficulty keeping up with all the orders for pictures.\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EThe \u003Cem\u003ELLG\u003C\/em\u003E lists the work as \u201cPainted to order, 1849.\u201d The painting, however, is dated 1848, and Mount recorded his application of finishing touches in a diary entry in December of that year. Presumably the canvas was ordered and completed in 1848, but not delivered until the new year. The picture was shown at the 1849 annual exhibition of the National Academy of Design, and his patron\u2019s name is listed as the lender. Lenox evidently was one of the burgeoning group of collectors of the time who admired Mount\u2019s genre paintings for their beauty, design, finish, technical accomplishment, and comic expression.\u00a0\u003Cbr \/\u003E\n\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_nationality":"US","field_date":"Unknown","field_dimensions":"15.75 x 13 in. (40 x 33 cm.)","field_bibliography":"\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cem\u003ECatalogue of an Exhibition of Drawings and Paintings by William Sidney Mount\u003C\/em\u003E. Brooklyn: Brooklyn Museum Press, 1942.\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EParke-Bernet Galleries, New York. \u003Cem\u003EEnglish and Continental Furniture, Paintings, Georgian Silver, Laces, Porcelains, Rugs.\u003C\/em\u003E New York: Parke-Bernet Galleries, 1943. Auction catalogue.\u003Cbr \/\u003E\n\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_desc_author":"BW","field_llg_number":"19, no. 120","field_alt_title":"Turning the Leaf"},{"title":"Le March\u00e9 aux l\u00e9gumes au clair de lune (The Vegetable Market by Moonlight) ","nid":"685","field_image":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_3d\/public\/paintings\/2018-10\/image_not_found_19.jpg?itok=KtvFUiPh","field_image_hd":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_hd\/public\/paintings\/2018-10\/image_not_found_19.jpg?itok=0mo3YOFX","field_image_credit":"","field_position_code":"i_2_3","field_artist":"Pierre [Petrus] van Schendel","field_original_artist":"","field_artist_date":"1806\u201370","field_current_owner":"Unknown","field_llg_info":"\u003Cp\u003E\u201cPainted to order, 19 March, 1853.\u201d\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_medium":"Unknown","field_location":"west wall, south side","field_id":"127","field_description":"\u003Cp\u003EPetrus van Schendel was born near Breda in Holland and studied painting in Antwerp. As an adult, Van Schendel travelled and lived in Amsterdam, Antwerp, and Brussels, where he was associated with the artists in the circle of Ferdinand De Braekeleer the Elder.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003ELike many of his contemporaries he was influenced by seventeenth-century Dutch genre painting. Judging by its title and description, \u003Cem\u003ELe March\u00e9 aux l\u00e9gumes au clair de lune\u003C\/em\u003E (The Vegetable Market by Moonlight) must have been typical of Van Schendel\u2019s work. The artist made a specialty of nighttime scenes illuminated by moon and\/or candle light.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EThis painting is a companion of \u003Ca class=\u0022in_gallery\u0022 href=\u0022#\u0022 target=\u0022103\u0022\u003E\u003Cem\u003ELe March\u00e9 aux poissons, au clair de lune\u003C\/em\u003E (The Fish Market, by Moonlight; \u003Cem\u003ELLG\u003C\/em\u003E 17, no. 107)\u003C\/a\u003E. Both paintings are of the same size and have similar frames.\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_nationality":"Dutch-Belgian","field_date":"Unknown","field_dimensions":"15.75 x 13 in. (40 x 33 cm.)","field_bibliography":"","field_desc_author":"SW","field_llg_number":"19, no. 121","field_alt_title":""},{"title":"Picador in a Spanish Wine Shop","nid":"686","field_image":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_3d\/public\/paintings\/2018-10\/image_not_found_20.jpg?itok=tD6QMAAs","field_image_hd":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_hd\/public\/paintings\/2018-10\/image_not_found_20.jpg?itok=5XX75uBc","field_image_credit":"","field_position_code":"i_2_4","field_artist":"Pedro de Vega [Pedro Vega y Mu\u00f1oz]","field_original_artist":"","field_artist_date":"1840\u201368","field_current_owner":"Unknown","field_llg_info":"\u003Cp\u003E\u201cBought at Charles F. Haseltine\u2019s sale, April, 1874.\u201d\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_medium":"Unknown","field_location":"west wall, south side","field_id":"128","field_description":"\u003Cp\u003EPedro Vega y Mu\u00f1oz was a Spanish painter active in Seville in the second half of the nineteenth century who was known for history painting, portraiture, genre scenes, and landscapes. He studied at the Academia de Bellas Artes in Seville and exhibited there between 1866 and 1882.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EVega y Mu\u00f1oz painted numerous images of life around Seville, including busy markets, picnics outdoors, and entertainment in city squares. Although it is impossible to make out the painting\u2019s subject in the wall photograph, the title indicates that it depicted a picador in a wine shop. Spanish picadors ride horseback in pairs during the first stage of a bullfight, jabbing the bull in its neck with lances in order to weaken the animal for the matador (bullfighter).\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EThis painting was purchased from Charles F. Haseltine, brother of the artist William Haseltine, a well-known art dealer and critic from Philadelphia who held auctions in New York in the 1870s. Lenox\u2019s motivations for purchasing it are unknown, as its subject is unlike the others in his collection.\u003Cbr \/\u003E\n\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_nationality":"Spanish","field_date":"Unknown","field_dimensions":"Unknown","field_bibliography":"\u003Cp\u003E\u201cVega y Munoz, Pedro.\u201d Benezit Dictionary of Artists. Published 2011. Accessed September 13, 2018. \u003Ca href=\u0022http:\/\/\/\/www.oxfordartonline.com\/benezit\/view\/10.1093\/benz\/9780199773787.001.0001\/acref-9780199773787-e-00189135\u0022\u003Ehttp:\/\/\/\/www.oxfordartonline.com\/benezit\/view\/10.1093\/benz\/9780199773787.001.0001\/acref-9780199773787-e-00189135\u003C\/a\u003E.\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_desc_author":"CJ","field_llg_number":"19, no. 122","field_alt_title":""},{"title":"Female Head\u2014Melancholy","nid":"687","field_image":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_3d\/public\/paintings\/2018-06\/i-3-1.jpg?itok=R5Pce8xX","field_image_hd":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_hd\/public\/paintings\/2018-06\/i-3-1.jpg?itok=7R00BGzh","field_image_credit":"Artwork in the public domain; photograph courtesy New York Public Library.","field_position_code":"i_3_1","field_artist":"Daniel Huntington","field_original_artist":"","field_artist_date":"1816\u20131906","field_current_owner":"Unknown","field_llg_info":"\u003Cp\u003E\u201cPainted to order, 1849.\u201d\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_medium":"Unknown","field_location":"west wall, south side","field_id":"129","field_description":"\u003Cp\u003EDaniel Huntington was a native of New York City. While attending Hamilton College, he met the portraitist Charles Loring Elliott, who provided early instruction. He would later go on to study with John Trumbull, Samuel F. B. Morse, and Henry Inman. Huntington was active as a portrait, landscape, genre, and history painter. A leading figure in the city\u2019s art circles, he served as a vice president and trustee of The Metropolitan Museum of Art and president of both the Century Association and the National Academy of Design. In 1870 he was appointed by Lenox to the Library\u2019s first board of directors.\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cem\u003EFemale Head\u2014Melancholy\u003C\/em\u003E was painted to order in 1849 for James Lenox. It was the second work by Daniel Huntington to enter his collection\u2014in 1847 he commissioned Huntington to paint \u003Ca class=\u0022in_gallery\u0022 href=\u0022#\u0022 target=\u002295\u0022\u003EChristopher Columbus (\u003Cem\u003ELLG\u003C\/em\u003E 15, no. 97)\u003C\/a\u003E. By this time, the artist had established a great reputation and was on the brink of having a major solo exhibition of his paintings at the American Art-Union in New York. During his prolific career, Huntington created over 1,000 works (including an undetermined number of portraits of James Lenox). His paintings of women were regarded as his most successful. Evidently Lenox admired his distinctive way of painting women, which combines the beauty and idealization of form seen in the work of such old masters as Correggio, Guido Reni, and Lucca Giordano with a warm Victorian sentiment. His female heads were especially admired for their charming expression and graceful contours.\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EThe art writer Henry T. Tuckerman observed that \u201c[Huntington\u2019s] figures generally have the roundness which distinguishes several of the best Italian masters, and his tints are subdued and harmonized like many of the favorite pictures both of the Roman and Tuscan schools. Another incidental analogy may be found in the circumstances that in several of his pictures the same female physiognomy is discoverable. He eye is gratified, without being perplexed, by a chaste tone and judicious combination of hues. His draperies do not take the place of, but only cover the forms. We recognize the bosom under the tunic and the arm within the sleeve\u201d (Tuckerman 1867, 331).\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_nationality":"US","field_date":"Unknown","field_dimensions":"Unknown","field_bibliography":"\u003Cp\u003ETuckerman, Henry T.\u003Cem\u003E Book of the Artists\u003C\/em\u003E. New York: G. P. Putnam, 1867; second ed. 1870; reprint ed. New York: James F. Carr, 1967.\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_desc_author":"BW","field_llg_number":"19, no. 123","field_alt_title":""},{"title":"The Mother\u0026#039;s Return to her Child\u00a0","nid":"688","field_image":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_3d\/public\/paintings\/2018-06\/i_3_2.jpg?itok=j_R8tUoD","field_image_hd":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_hd\/public\/paintings\/2018-06\/i_3_2.jpg?itok=6aUP2Tor","field_image_credit":"Artwork in public domain; photograph courtesy Frick Art Reference Library.","field_position_code":"i_3_2","field_artist":"Charles R. [Robert] Leslie","field_original_artist":"","field_artist_date":"1794\u20131859","field_current_owner":"Unknown","field_llg_info":"\u003Cp\u003E\u201cPainted to order, February, 1849. Varied from the picture painted for Mr. Gibbons.\u201d\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_medium":"Unknown","field_location":"west wall, south side","field_id":"130","field_description":"\u003Cp\u003ECharles Robert Leslie, a London-born artist whose parents were American, spent his early years in Philadelphia, where he apprenticed as a bookseller before turning to art. His paintings impressed several US patrons, who financed his return to England in 1811 and provided him with introductions to influential people in London, including the US painter Washington Allston, poet Samuel Coleridge, and author Washington Irving. His friendship with writers influenced his interest in literary themes and by the 1820s he was well known as a painter of this genre. Although Leslie is regarded today as a British artist, as he spent the most part of his life in England, at the time he was lauded as a US artist, including by his friend William Dunlap, who included him in his 1834 biographical compendium of US artists (Dunlap 1969, 2:239\u201340).\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EThis painting shows a tender scene between a mother who has just returned from an evening out and her small infant. The mother, dressed for a special occasion, wears an elegant olive-green and red silk dress and silver and white fur-trimmed slippers. Her dark brown hair is secured in a chignon with a black and silver bandeau. She sits on a wooden high-backed chair in front of a small bed with red curtains and bends over to embrace her child, who, resting somewhat uncomfortably on her lap, reaches up to touch her face.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EThis painting is a copy of a picture that was originally commissioned in 1846 by John Gibbons (1777\u20131851), an ironmaster and arts patron, who kept a gallery of paintings specially built for his home at 16 Hanover Terrace in Regent\u2019s Park, London. Lenox ordered Leslie to paint a variation of this work for his own collection a few years later in February 1849.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003ELenox bought a number of Leslie\u2019s paintings, beginning with \u003Ca class=\u0022in_gallery\u0022 href=\u0022#\u0022 target=\u002276\u0022\u003E\u003Cem\u003EPortrait of a Lady\u003C\/em\u003E from 1824 (\u003Cem\u003ELLG\u003C\/em\u003E 12, no. 68)\u003C\/a\u003E, which was probably purchased during Lenox\u2019s first European trip (1824\u201325). Lenox also sought his assistance in purchases from other artists including, most famously, J. M. W. Turner\u2019s \u003Ca class=\u0022in_gallery\u0022 href=\u0022#\u0022 target=\u002237\u0022\u003EStaffa, \u003Cem\u003EFingal\u2019s Cave\u003C\/em\u003E (\u003Cem\u003ELLG\u003C\/em\u003E 8, no. 34)\u003C\/a\u003E, which was the first Turner painting to enter a US collection. Leslie is also the artist most frequently represented in Lenox\u2019s collection\u2014a total of eight paintings and a number of engravings (see Appendix 3).\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EThis painting was lent by Lenox to \u003Cem\u003EThe Washington Exhibition\u003C\/em\u003E in aid of the New-York Gallery of the Fine Arts in New York in May 1854.\u003Cbr \/\u003E\n\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_nationality":"British","field_date":"1849","field_dimensions":"Unknown","field_bibliography":"\u003Cp\u003EDunlap, William. \u003Cem\u003EHistory of the Rise and Progress of the Arts of Design in the United States\u003C\/em\u003E. 2 vols. New York: G. P. Scott and Co., 1834; reprint ed. New York: Dover Publications, 1969.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003ELeslie, Charles Robert. \u003Cem\u003EAutobiographical Recollections\u003C\/em\u003E. Edited by Tom Taylor. London: J. Murray, 1860.\u003Cbr \/\u003E\n\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_desc_author":"CJ","field_llg_number":"19, no. 124","field_alt_title":""},{"title":"The Pharisee and the Publican ","nid":"689","field_image":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_3d\/public\/paintings\/2018-06\/i_3_3.jpg?itok=dAAVPvVJ","field_image_hd":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_hd\/public\/paintings\/2018-06\/i_3_3.jpg?itok=jeeovzjA","field_image_credit":"Artwork in the public domain; photograph courtesy Frick Art Reference Library.","field_position_code":"i_3_3","field_artist":"Charles R. [Robert] Leslie","field_original_artist":"","field_artist_date":"1794\u20131859","field_current_owner":"Unknown","field_llg_info":"\u003Cp\u003E\u201cPainted to order, August, 1847.\u201d\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_medium":"Unknown","field_location":"west wall, south side","field_id":"131","field_description":"\u003Cp\u003ECharles Robert Leslie, a London-born artist whose parents were American, spent his early years in Philadelphia, where he apprenticed as a bookseller before turning to art. His paintings impressed several US patrons, who financed his return to England in 1811 and provided him with introductions to influential people in London, including the US painter Washington Allston, poet Samuel Coleridge, and author Washington Irving. His friendship with writers influenced his interest in literary themes and by the 1820s he was well known as a painter of this genre. Although Leslie is regarded today as a British artist, as he spent the most part of his life in England, at the time he was lauded as a US artist, including by his friend William Dunlap, who included him in his 1834 biographical compendium of US artists (Dunlap 1969, 2:239\u201340).\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EThis painting is based on the following Bible verse from Luke 18:13: \u201cAnd the publican, standing afar off, would not lift up so much as his eyes unto heaven, but smote upon his breast, saying, God be merciful to me, a sinner.\u201d\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EThis dimly lit interior scene shows the parable of the Pharisee, a holy man of the Jewish faith who is obsessed by his own moral virtue, and the publican, or tax collector, who humbly prays to God for his forgiveness. The two men stand at the entrance to the ritual space of a sparsely decorated temple, illuminated by several suspended flaming lamps. The tax collector, in a simple white tunic and brown robe, stands in front of a column in the foreground at left. His one hand rests on his heart and the other is held upright, while his eyes are closed in introspection. This gesture is nearly mirrored by the Pharisee, found in the middle ground in the dark cloak and turban of a holy man, whose gaze and gesture are more alert. In the background, at the top of an arched stairway, several figures kneel in prayer before an altar, from which billows a pillar of smoke.\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003ELenox bought a number of Leslie\u2019s paintings, beginning with \u003Ca class=\u0022in_gallery\u0022 href=\u0022#\u0022 target=\u002276\u0022\u003E\u003Cem\u003EPortrait of a Lady\u003C\/em\u003E from 1824 (\u003Cem\u003ELLG\u003C\/em\u003E 12, no. 68)\u003C\/a\u003E, which was probably purchased during Lenox\u2019s first European trip (1824\u201325). Lenox also sought his assistance in purchases from other artists including, most famously, J. M. W. Turner\u2019s \u003Ca class=\u0022in_gallery\u0022 href=\u0022#\u0022 target=\u002237\u0022\u003EStaffa, \u003Cem\u003EFingal\u2019s Cave\u003C\/em\u003E (\u003Cem\u003ELLG\u003C\/em\u003E 8, no. 34)\u003C\/a\u003E, which was the first Turner painting to enter a US collection. Leslie is also the artist most frequently represented in Lenox\u2019s collection\u2014a total of eight paintings and a number of engravings (see Appendix 3).\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EBefore it was presented to Lenox, \u003Cem\u003EThe Pharisee and the Publican\u003C\/em\u003E was shown in the Royal Academy in 1847 alongside \u003Ca class=\u0022in_class\u0022 href=\u0022#\u0022 target=\u0022139\u0022\u003E\u003Cem\u003EMartha and Mary\u003C\/em\u003E (\u003Cem\u003ELLG\u003C\/em\u003E 20, no. 130)\u003C\/a\u003E, another painting in this gallery (Leslie 1860, 335).\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_nationality":"British","field_date":"Unknown","field_dimensions":"Unknown","field_bibliography":"\u003Cp\u003EDunlap, William.\u003Cem\u003E History of the Rise and Progress of the Arts of Design in the United States\u003C\/em\u003E. 2 vols. New York: G. P. Scott and Co., 1834; reprint ed. New York: Dover Publications, 1969.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003ELeslie, Charles Robert. \u003Cem\u003EAutobiographical Recollections.\u003C\/em\u003E Edited by Tom Taylor. London: J. Murray, 1860.\u003Cbr \/\u003E\n\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_desc_author":"CJ","field_llg_number":"19, no. 125","field_alt_title":""},{"title":"Copy of the Madonna della Seggiola (Madonna of the Chair)","nid":"690","field_image":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_3d\/public\/paintings\/2018-08\/I.4.1_PEALE%20COLOR%20FROM%20NJ%20CHURCH.jpg?itok=5UkNUKDd","field_image_hd":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_hd\/public\/paintings\/2018-08\/I.4.1_PEALE%20COLOR%20FROM%20NJ%20CHURCH.jpg?itok=Hud7kT6n","field_image_credit":"Artwork in the public domain, photograph courtesy St. Rose of Lima Catholic Church, Short Hills, New Jersey. (Cannot confirm that this is Lenox\u2019s copy.)","field_position_code":"i_4_1","field_artist":"Rembrandt Peale","field_original_artist":"","field_artist_date":"1778\u20131860","field_current_owner":"St. Rose of Lima Catholic Church, Short Hills, New Jersey","field_llg_info":"\u003Cp\u003E\u201cPainted to order, November, 1853. \u201d\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_medium":"Unknown","field_location":"west wall, south side","field_id":"132","field_description":"\u003Cp\u003ERembrandt Peale was born in a family of artists and was trained by his father, Charles Willson Peale, of Bucks County, Pennsylvania, before studying with Benjamin West at the Royal Academy in London in 1802\u20133. He began painting at an early age and was known as a prolific portraitist, having painted a well-received image of George Washington at age seventeen. His portrait of Washington, \u003Cem\u003EPatriae Pater\u003C\/em\u003E, completed in 1824 after Peale\u2019s move to New York, became the former president\u2019s standard likeness (it now hangs in the Old Senate Chamber). Peale was also known for building the first museum in the United States in Baltimore in 1814 and for helping to found the National Academy of Design in New York in 1826.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EThis is a copy by Peale of Raphael\u2019s \u003Cem\u003EMadonna della Seggiola\u003C\/em\u003E (1514\u201315) in the Palazzo Pitti in Florence, Italy. It depicts the Virgin Mary wearing a green and red dress with a full blue skirt and a neutral-colored headdress seated in a high-backed chair with a sculpted stile and a woven leather splat. She embraces Christ, in a golden tunic, while John the Baptist looks on. Legend has it that Raphael was inspired to paint this work by a small family group that he came across while outside of his studio. The circular form supposedly came from the top of a cask, which he used to sketch his subjects. Perhaps owing to this story, the \u003Cem\u003EMadonna of the Chair\u003C\/em\u003E became an extremely popular work, even among other artists; Ingres included it in the background of a number of his own paintings. Lenox also owned an engraving of the painting (Appendix 3).\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EIt is one of several copies of old master paintings that Peale made in the Pitti Palace during his trip to Italy in 1829\u201330. The others include Cristofono Allori\u2019s \u003Cem\u003EJudith and the Head of Holofernes\u003C\/em\u003E (1613), Rubens\u2019s \u003Cem\u003EHoly Family\u003C\/em\u003E (1614\u201315), and Guido Reni\u2019s \u003Cem\u003ECleopatra\u003C\/em\u003E (1635\u201340). Art historian Carol Eaton Hevner has noted that for Peale making copies \u201creflected a desire to assist fellow-artists, more broadly educate the general public, enhance his skills, and realize a profit through related commissions and a long-term exhibition\u201d (Hevner 1989, 18, 20). She further relates that copies of the work of the old masters were commonly sought at the time by \u201cmany educated and upwardly mobile individuals eager to possess their own \u2018Raphael\u2019 or \u2018Guido\u2019\u201d (Hevner 1989, 20). Peale had hopes of creating an Italian gallery to house his copies. In addition to this work, Lenox owned copies after works by Gilbert Stuart, Sir Joshua Reynolds, Hans Holbein, Paulus Potter, Sir Peter Lely, Guercino, John Trumbull, and Balthasar Denner, among others.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EThis copy was commissioned by Lenox in 1853, toward the end of Peale\u2019s career (Peale died in 1860). However, it was based on a copy made by Peale during his trip to Italy with his son Angelo in 1829\u201330. He recorded the trip in his \u003Cem\u003ENotes on Italy\u003C\/em\u003E (1831). Several copies of old master works like this one had already been commissioned prior to the trip, but Peale also decided to form a permanent collection of copies, entitled \u201cPeale\u2019s Italian Gallery\u201d (Jaffe 1989, 14). A\u003Cem\u003E copy of Madonna della Seggiola \u003C\/em\u003Ewas seen in two exhibitions of Peale\u2019s Italian pictures in Philadelphia in 1831 and 1837.\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EThe work was deaccessioned by the New York Public Library in 1943 and was purchased by Henry Brauer and later the Msgr. John Ryan of St. Rose of Lima Catholic Church, Short Hills, New Jersey. The painting is still owned by the church.\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EThis painting was placed on southwest wall of the Lenox Library Picture Gallery above Charles Robert Leslie\u2019s \u003Cem\u003EOur Savior Teaching his Disciples a Lesson of Humility\u003C\/em\u003E (\u003Cem\u003ELLG\u003C\/em\u003E 20, no. 127).\u003Ca class=\u0022in_gallery\u0022 href=\u0022#\u0022 id=\u0022genre\u0022 target=\u0022Religious piety\u0022\u003E This pairing, along with other nearby paintings, is representative of contemporary religious Protestant teachings that emphasized the mother\u2019s role in the religious education of the child.\u003C\/a\u003E\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_nationality":"US","field_date":"1853","field_dimensions":"Unknown","field_bibliography":"\u003Cp\u003EHevner, Carol Eaton. \u201cRembarndt Peale\u2019s Dream and Experience of Italy.\u201d In \u003Cem\u003EThe Italian Presence in American Art\u003C\/em\u003E, 9\u201325. Edited by Irma B. Jaffe. New York: Fordham University Press, 1989.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EPeale, Rembrandt. Notes on Italy. Philadelphia: Carey and Lea, 1831.\u003Cbr \/\u003E\u003Ca href=\u0022https:\/\/archive.org\/details\/notesonitaly00pealgoog\u0022 target=\u0022new\u0022\u003Ehttps:\/\/archive.org\/details\/notesonitaly00pealgoog\u003C\/a\u003E.\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_desc_author":"BW and CJ","field_llg_number":"19, no. 126","field_alt_title":""},{"title":"Our Savior Teaching His Disciples a Lesson of Humility ","nid":"691","field_image":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_3d\/public\/paintings\/2018-06\/i-4-2.jpg?itok=GbrsJars","field_image_hd":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_hd\/public\/paintings\/2018-06\/i-4-2.jpg?itok=VLi32nKn","field_image_credit":"Artwork in the public domain; photograph courtesy New York Public Library.","field_position_code":"i_4_2","field_artist":"Charles R. [Robert] Leslie","field_original_artist":"","field_artist_date":"1794\u20131859","field_current_owner":"Unknown","field_llg_info":"\u003Cp\u003E\u201cPainted to order, October, 1844.\u201d\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_medium":"Unknown","field_location":"west wall, south side","field_id":"133","field_description":"\u003Cp\u003ECharles Robert Leslie, a London-born artist whose parents were American, spent his early years in Philadelphia, where he apprenticed as a bookseller before turning to art. His paintings impressed several US patrons, who financed his return to England in 1811 and provided him with introductions to influential people in London, including the US painter Washington Allston, poet Samuel Coleridge, and author Washington Irving. His friendship with writers influenced his interest in literary themes, and by the 1820s he was well known as a painter of this genre. Although Leslie is regarded today as a British artist, as he spent the most part of his life in England, at the time he was lauded as a US artist. His friend William Dunlap included him in his 1834 biographical compendium of US artists (Dunlap 1969, 2:239\u201340).\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EIn this relatively large painting, Christ, at center right, is seated among his Disciples in a sparsely decorated interior space. His outstretched hand extends toward a child in a white robe at left. The tile work floor mimics that of Leslie\u2019s other biblical paintings hung nearby, \u003Ca class=\u0022in_gallery\u0022 href=\u0022#\u0022 id=\u0022genre\u0022 target=\u0022Leslie (Biblical)\u0022\u003E\u003Cem\u003EMartha and Mary \u003C\/em\u003E(1849; \u003Cem\u003ELLG\u003C\/em\u003E 20, no. 130) and \u003Cem\u003EThe Pharisee and the Publican\u003C\/em\u003E (1847; \u003Cem\u003ELLG\u003C\/em\u003E 19, no. 125)\u003C\/a\u003E. The distant depth of field also echoes that of the latter, evidenced by the barrel-vaulted corridor in the far left of this painting.\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003ELenox bought a number of Leslie\u2019s paintings, beginning with \u003Ca class=\u0022in_gallery\u0022 href=\u0022#\u0022 target=\u002276\u0022\u003E\u003Cem\u003EPortrait of a Lady\u003C\/em\u003E from 1824 (\u003Cem\u003ELLG\u003C\/em\u003E 12, no. 68)\u003C\/a\u003E, which was probably purchased during Lenox\u2019s first European trip (1824\u201325). Lenox also sought his assistance in purchases from other artists including, most famously, J. M. W. Turner\u2019s \u003Ca class=\u0022in_gallery\u0022 href=\u0022#\u0022 target=\u002237\u0022\u003E\u003Cem\u003EStaffa, Fingal\u2019s Cave\u003C\/em\u003E (\u003Cem\u003ELLG\u003C\/em\u003E 8, no. 34)\u003C\/a\u003E, which was the first Turner painting to enter a collection in the United States. Leslie is also the artist most frequently represented in Lenox\u2019s collection\u2014a total of eight paintings and a number of engravings (see Appendix 3).\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003E\u003Ca class=\u0022in_gallery\u0022 href=\u0022#\u0022 target=\u0022132\u0022\u003EThis painting was placed on southwest wall of the Lenox Library Picture Gallery below Rembrandt Peale\u2019s copy of Raphael\u2019s \u003Cem\u003EMadonna of the Chair\u003C\/em\u003E (\u003Cem\u003ELLG\u003C\/em\u003E 19, no. 126). This pairing, along with other nearby paintings, is representative of contemporary Protestant teachings that emphasized the mother\u2019s role in the religious education of the child\u003C\/a\u003E.\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_nationality":"British","field_date":"Unknown","field_dimensions":"Unknown","field_bibliography":"\u003Cp\u003EDunlap, William. \u003Cem\u003EHistory of the Rise and Progress of the Arts of Design in the United States\u003C\/em\u003E. 2 vols. New York: G. P. Scott and Co., 1834; reprint ed. New York: Dover Publications, 1969.\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_desc_author":"CJ","field_llg_number":"20, no. 127","field_alt_title":""},{"title":"The Race","nid":"692","field_image":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_3d\/public\/paintings\/2018-10\/image_not_found_21.jpg?itok=uuphHXPv","field_image_hd":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_hd\/public\/paintings\/2018-10\/image_not_found_21.jpg?itok=SLlUjiGy","field_image_credit":"","field_position_code":"i_4_3","field_artist":"Thomas\u00a0Webster","field_original_artist":"","field_artist_date":"1800\u201386","field_current_owner":"Unknown","field_llg_info":"\u003Cp\u003E\u201cFinished sketch. Bought at Christie\u2019s, in London, June 5, 1857.\u201d\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_medium":"Unknown","field_location":"west wall, south side","field_id":"134","field_description":"\u003Cp\u003EThomas Webster, originally from London, began studying painting at the Royal Academy in 1821. He exhibited there in 1824 and won first prize in the school of painting the following year. He was best known for his genre scenes featuring families and children, often depicting their daily lives in a lighthearted or humorous way. His paintings were quite popular and many were later turned into etchings and prints. In 1840, he was elected an associate member of the Royal Academy for his painting \u003Cem\u003EPunch \u003C\/em\u003E(1840); he became a full member in 1846. From the mid-1850s until the end of his life, Webster lived in an artists\u2019 colony in Cranbrook, Kent, alongside other artists who were inspired by seventeenth-century Dutch and Flemish painting, including his student Frederick Daniel Hardy and George Bernard O\u2019Neill.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EThis painting is a sketch by Webster for the painting \u003Cem\u003EThe Race\u003C\/em\u003E (whereabouts of the original is unknown). The painting appears to have depicted an outdoor scene with a small structure, possibly a house or school, situated between a forest and a wide, open field. Given Webster\u2019s renown for painting scenes of childhood and the title, it may have also shown youths at play.\u00a0This study was acquired with another by Webster, \u003Ca class=\u0022in_gallery\u0022 href=\u0022#\u0022 target=\u0022135\u0022\u003E\u003Cem\u003EThe Return from the Fair\u003C\/em\u003E (\u003Cem\u003ELLG\u003C\/em\u003E 14, no. 88)\u003C\/a\u003E. The latter was made for a painting, \u003Cem\u003EReturning from the Fair\u003C\/em\u003E, which was shown in an exhibition at the Royal Academy in 1855, just two years before Lenox purchased these studies at auction in 1857. There is no documented link between Lenox and Webster, but his purchase of these paintings is in keeping with his taste for genre scenes.\u00a0\u003Cbr \/\u003E\n\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_nationality":"British","field_date":"Unknown","field_dimensions":"Unknown","field_bibliography":"\u003Cp\u003ERosenthal, M. \u201cWebster, Thomas.\u201d Grove Art Online. Published 2003. Accessed September 14, 2018. \u003Ca href=\u0022http:\/\/\/\/www.oxfordartonline.com\/groveart\/view\/10.1093\/gao\/9781884446054.001.0001\/oao-9781884446054-e-7000090934\u0022 target=\u0022new\u0022\u003Ehttp:\/\/\/\/www.oxfordartonline.com\/groveart\/view\/10.1093\/gao\/9781884446054.001.0001\/oao-9781884446054-e-7000090934\u003C\/a\u003E.\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_desc_author":"CJ","field_llg_number":"14, no. 87","field_alt_title":""},{"title":"The Return from the Fair","nid":"693","field_image":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_3d\/public\/paintings\/2018-10\/image_not_found_22.jpg?itok=R5NWaC9z","field_image_hd":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_hd\/public\/paintings\/2018-10\/image_not_found_22.jpg?itok=asjBxBeQ","field_image_credit":"","field_position_code":"i_4_4","field_artist":"Thomas\u00a0Webster","field_original_artist":"","field_artist_date":"1800\u201386","field_current_owner":"Unknown","field_llg_info":"\u003Cp\u003E\u201cFinished sketch for the picture exhibited in the Royal Academy, in 1855. Bought at Christie\u2019s, in London, June 5, 1857.\u201d\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_medium":"Unknown","field_location":"west wall, south side","field_id":"135","field_description":"\u003Cp\u003EThomas Webster, originally from London, began studying painting at the Royal Academy in 1821. He later exhibited there in 1824 and won first prize in the school of painting the following year. He was best known for his genre scenes featuring families and children as subjects, often depicting their daily lives in a lighthearted or humorous way. His paintings were quite popular, and many were later turned into etchings and prints. In 1840, he was elected an associate member of the Royal Academy for his painting Punch (1840); he became a full member in 1846. From the mid-1850s until the end of his life, Webster lived in an artists\u2019 colony in Cranbrook, Kent, alongside other artists who were inspired by seventeenth-century Dutch and Flemish painting, including his student Frederick Daniel Hardy and George Bernard O\u2019Neill.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EThis painting is a sketch by Webster for the painting \u003Cem\u003EReturning from the Fair\u003C\/em\u003E. The original painting and its pendant, \u003Cem\u003EGoing to the Fair\u003C\/em\u003E (both are now in the collection of the Victoria \u0026amp; Albert Museum, London) were completed in 1837. The two paintings show the same family before and after attending a fair, seen in the far left of this piece. The idea for such a pair was not new\u2014artist William Hogarth is known to have found inspiration in French paintings of this genre in the 1730s\u2014however, with increased interest in genre painting both in England and the United States, such pairings were popular by the mid-nineteenth century. Webster gives each family member its own character, which is contrasted in the two pieces.\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EWebster\u2019s completed painting was shown in an exhibition at the Royal Academy in 1855, just two years before Lenox purchased this study at auction in 1857. It was acquired with another study by Webster, \u003Ca class=\u0022in_gallery\u0022 href=\u0022#\u0022 target=\u0022134\u0022\u003E\u003Cem\u003EThe Race\u003C\/em\u003E (\u003Cem\u003ELLG \u003C\/em\u003E14, no. 87)\u003C\/a\u003E. There is no documented link between Lenox and Webster but his purchase of these paintings is in keeping with his taste for genre painting.\u003Cbr \/\u003E\n\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_nationality":"British","field_date":"1837","field_dimensions":"Unknown","field_bibliography":"\u003Cp\u003E\u201cReturning from the Fair.\u201d Victoria \u0026amp; Albert Museum. Accessed January 30, 2018. \u003Ca href=\u0022http:\/\/collections.vam.ac.uk\/item\/O15096\/returning-from-the-fair-oil-painting-webster-thomas-ra\/\u0022 target=\u0022new\u0022\u003Ehttp:\/\/collections.vam.ac.uk\/item\/O15096\/returning-from-the-fair-oil-painting-webster-thomas-ra\/\u003C\/a\u003E.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003ERosenthal, M. \u201cWebster, Thomas.\u201d Grove Art Online. Published 2003. Accessed September 14, 2018. \u003Ca href=\u0022http:\/\/www.oxfordartonline.com\/groveart\/view\/10.1093\/gao\/9781884446054.001.0001\/oao-97\u0022 target=\u0022new\u0022\u003Ehttp:\/\/www.oxfordartonline.com\/groveart\/view\/10.1093\/gao\/9781884446054.001.0001\/oao-97\u003C\/a\u003E.\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_desc_author":"CJ","field_llg_number":"14, no. 88","field_alt_title":""},{"title":"Lesson in Anatomy","nid":"694","field_image":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_3d\/public\/paintings\/2018-10\/image_not_found_23.jpg?itok=h6qS4tbK","field_image_hd":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_hd\/public\/paintings\/2018-10\/image_not_found_23.jpg?itok=6Eva9_vU","field_image_credit":"","field_position_code":"i_4_5","field_artist":"David Blas [Probably David Bles, a painter from The Hague]","field_original_artist":"","field_artist_date":"1821\u201399","field_current_owner":"Unknown","field_llg_info":"\u003Cp\u003E\u201cAfter Rembrandt\u2014Cabinet size. Bought at the Hague, 1850.\u201d\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_medium":"Unknown","field_location":"west wall, south side","field_id":"136","field_description":"\u003Cp\u003ELenox\u2019s copy of one of Rembrandt\u2019s most famous paintings, \u003Cem\u003EThe Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Nicolaes Tulp\u003C\/em\u003E (1632), is a cabinet-size reduction of the Dutch artist\u2019s group portrait now in the Mauritshuis in The Hague. The copyist may be identified with David Bles (1821\u201399), a Dutch painter who lived in The Hague, where Lenox bought this painting in November 1850.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003ERembrandt\u2019s group portrait was made for the Amsterdam Guild of Surgeons, and shows a public dissection performed by Dr. Tulp, the city anatomist. A group of finely dressed men, each of whom paid to have his likeness depicted, crowd around as Tulp explains the musculature inside the arm of a recently executed criminal. There are other known copies of this work, including an 1856 version by \u00c9douard Manet (collection unknown) and another by an unknown artist in the University of Edinburgh Fine Art Collection.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EThough by the mid- nineteenth century every major collection in Europe and the United States contained at least one of Rembrandt\u2019s works, private collectors in the United States did not begin to acquire them until the late nineteenth century, when a decline in the European economy led aristocrats there to sell off their collections to industrialists like Henry Clay Frick, J. Pierpont Morgan, and Benjamin Altman. Lenox\u2019s ownership of a copy of a Rembrandt in the 1850s therefore demonstrates the artist\u2019s growing popularity at the time, while also showing the value of owning a copy of his work in lieu of an original.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003ELenox also owned an etching after Rembrandt\u2019s\u003Cem\u003E Anatomy Lesson\u003C\/em\u003E, which is now housed in the New York Public Library Archives. (see Appendix).\u003Cbr \/\u003E\n\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_nationality":"Dutch","field_date":"Unknown","field_dimensions":"9 x 11.5 in. (22.9 x 29.2 cm.)","field_bibliography":"","field_desc_author":"CJ","field_llg_number":"14, no. 89","field_alt_title":""},{"title":"Heads of Children. Altered from Reynolds","nid":"695","field_image":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_3d\/public\/paintings\/2018-08\/I.5.1_REYNOLDS%20TATE%20IMAGE.jpg?itok=PYWzSKA4","field_image_hd":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_hd\/public\/paintings\/2018-08\/I.5.1_REYNOLDS%20TATE%20IMAGE.jpg?itok=IMM-z7F4","field_image_credit":"Original painting in the public domain; Digital Image \u00a9 Tate, London.","field_position_code":"i_5_1","field_artist":"Henry Inman","field_original_artist":"","field_artist_date":"1801\u201346","field_current_owner":"Unknown","field_llg_info":"\u003Cp\u003E\u201cPainted to order, 1843.\u201d\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_medium":"Unknown","field_location":"west wall, south side","field_id":"137","field_description":"\u003Cp\u003EHenry Inman was the leading portrait painter in New York from about 1830 until his death in 1846. A native of Utica, New York, he moved with his family to New York City about 1812. He served a seven-year apprenticeship with John Wesley Jarvis and in 1820 started to paint professionally. In the late 1830s, he began to receive important portrait commissions for City Hall, including likenesses of four of the city\u2019s mayors. His portraits are distinguished by their vigorous paint handling, dramatic chiaroscuro effects, and his ability to convey a beaming sense of self-assuredness and well-being in his sitters.\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cem\u003EHeads of Children. Altered from Reynolds\u003C\/em\u003E was commissioned by James Lenox in 1843. The work is a variation on Sir Joshua Reynolds\u2019s \u003Cem\u003EA Child\u2019s Portrait in Different Views: \u201cAngels Heads\u201d \u003C\/em\u003E(1786\u201387; Tate, London). The English artist\u2019s picture depicts five studies of the head of Frances Isabel Keir Gordon from different angles. For his composition Reynolds was inspired by a red chalk drawing of four cherubs\u2019 heads by the Italian seventeenth-century artist Carlo Maratta, which Reynolds acquired in 1779 at the studio sale of his master Thomas Hudson and which is now in the collection of the British Museum.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EThe sitter\u2019s mother bequeathed the picture to the National Gallery in London in 1841 (later transferred to the Tate Britain), and it quickly became of popular interest. It was extensively copied\u2014registers of copies kept by the National Gallery from 1846 to 1895 indicate that the portrait was the subject of 314 full-size copies in oil. Inman\u2019s picture was probably painted following a visit to London in 1844. Perhaps Lenox (who had not been to London since 1824), was familiar with Jean Pierre Simon\u2019s 1885 engraving of the picture or had seen a copy of the picture in New York.\u003Cbr \/\u003E\n\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_nationality":"US","field_date":"1843; original 1786\u201387","field_dimensions":"Unknown","field_bibliography":"","field_desc_author":"BW","field_llg_number":"20, no. 128","field_alt_title":""},{"title":"The Reading Lesson. From an Etching by Raffaelle [Raphael]","nid":"696","field_image":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_3d\/public\/paintings\/2018-08\/i.5.2_Leslie%20.jpg?itok=wp2sxV2g","field_image_hd":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_hd\/public\/paintings\/2018-08\/i.5.2_Leslie%20.jpg?itok=7P715rQN","field_image_credit":"Artwork in the public domain; photograph courtesy Frick Art Reference Library.","field_position_code":"i_5_2","field_artist":"Charles R. [Robert] Leslie","field_original_artist":"","field_artist_date":"1794\u20131859","field_current_owner":"Unknown","field_llg_info":"\u003Cp\u003E\u201cPainted to order, December, 1848. Varied from the picture painted for Mr. Rogers.\u201d\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_medium":"Unknown","field_location":"west wall, south side","field_id":"138","field_description":"\u003Cp\u003ECharles Robert Leslie, a London-born artist whose parents were American, spent his early years in Philadelphia, where he apprenticed as a bookseller before turning to art. His paintings impressed several US patrons, who financed his return to England in 1811 and provided him with introductions to influential people in London, including the US painter Washington Allston, poet Samuel Coleridge, and author Washington Irving. His friendship with writers influenced his interest in literary themes and by the 1820s he was well known as a painter of this genre. Although Leslie is regarded today as a British artist, as he spent the most part of his life in England, at the time he was lauded as a US artist, including by his friend William Dunlap, who included him in his 1834 biographical compendium of US artists (Dunlap 1969, 2:239\u201340).\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cem\u003EThe Reading Lesson\u003C\/em\u003E is based on an etching that Leslie made of a drawing by Raphael, S\u003Cem\u003Eeated\u00a0\u003Cbr \/\u003E\nWoman Reading with Child\u003C\/em\u003E (ca. 1512\u201314), from the collection of the 2nd Duke of Devonshire at Chatsworth House in Bakewell, Derbyshire. Since Charles Robert Leslie did not copy the original Raphael drawing for this painting but rather based it on an etching of the Raphael, the final Leslie painting is reversed. This scene depicts a child in the arms of a young woman, possibly his mother or governess, who reads to him from a small book in her hands. The child has lost interest in the lesson and twists away from the woman to gaze toward the viewer, who has interrupted their intimate moment.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003ELenox bought a number of Leslie\u2019s paintings, beginning with \u003Ca class=\u0022in_gallery\u0022 href=\u0022#\u0022 target=\u002276\u0022\u003E\u003Cem\u003EPortrait of a Lady\u003C\/em\u003E from 1824 (\u003Cem\u003ELLG\u003C\/em\u003E 12, no. 68)\u003C\/a\u003E, which was probably purchased during Lenox\u2019s first European trip (1824\u201325). Lenox also sought his assistance in purchases from other artists including, most famously, J. M. W. Turner\u2019s \u003Ca class=\u0022in_gallery\u0022 href=\u0022#\u0022 target=\u002237\u0022\u003EStaffa, \u003Cem\u003EFingal\u2019s Cave\u003C\/em\u003E (\u003Cem\u003ELLG\u003C\/em\u003E 8, no. 34)\u003C\/a\u003E, which was the first Turner painting to enter a US collection. Leslie is also the artist most frequently represented in Lenox\u2019s collection\u2014a total of eight paintings and a number of engravings (see Appendix 3).\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EAnother variation of this work was owned by banker and celebrated poet Samuel Rogers (1763\u20131855), who frequented London\u2019s literary and artistic circles in addition to purchasing his friend Leslie\u2019s works.\u003Cbr \/\u003E\n\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_nationality":"British","field_date":"1848; original 1512\u201314.","field_dimensions":"Unknown","field_bibliography":"\u003Cp\u003EDunlap, William. \u003Cem\u003EHistory of the Rise and Progress of the Arts of Design in the United States\u003C\/em\u003E. 2 vols. New York: G. P. Scott and Co., 1834; reprint ed. New York: Dover Publications, 1969.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003ELeslie, Charles Robert, and Tom Taylor. \u003Cem\u003EAutobiographical Recollections\u003C\/em\u003E. London: J. Murray, 1860.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003E\u201cSeated Woman Reading with Child.\u201d Chatsworth House, Devonshire Collection. Accessed January 12, 2018. \u003Ca href=\u0022https:\/\/www.chatsworth.org\/art-archives\/devonshire-collection\/old-master-drawings\/seated-woman-reading-with-child\/\u0022 target=\u0022new\u0022\u003Ehttps:\/\/www.chatsworth.org\/art-archives\/devonshire-collection\/old-master-drawings\/seated-woman-reading-with-child\/\u003C\/a\u003E.\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_desc_author":"CJ","field_llg_number":"20, no. 129","field_alt_title":""},{"title":"Martha and Mary","nid":"697","field_image":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_3d\/public\/paintings\/2018-08\/I.5.3_Leslie.jpg?itok=mQ9rbtK5","field_image_hd":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_hd\/public\/paintings\/2018-08\/I.5.3_Leslie.jpg?itok=NJN1IUlr","field_image_credit":"Artwork in the public domain; photograph courtesy Frick Art Reference Library. ","field_position_code":"i_5_3","field_artist":"Charles R. [Robert] Leslie","field_original_artist":"","field_artist_date":"1794\u20131859","field_current_owner":"Unknown","field_llg_info":"\u003Cp\u003E\u201cPainted to order, August, 1849.\u201d\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_medium":"Unknown","field_location":"west wall, south side","field_id":"139","field_description":"\u003Cp\u003ECharles Robert Leslie, a London-born artist whose parents were American, spent his early years in Philadelphia, where he apprenticed as a bookseller before turning to art. His paintings impressed several US patrons, who financed his return to England in 1811 and provided him with introductions to influential people in London, including the US painter Washington Allston, poet Samuel Coleridge, and author Washington Irving. His friendship with writers influenced his interest in literary themes, and by the 1820s he was well known as a painter of this genre. Although Leslie is regarded today as a British artist, as he spent the most part of his life in England, at the time he was lauded as a US artist. His friend William Dunlap included him in his 1834 biographical compendium of US artists (Dunlap 1969, 2:239\u201340).\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EThis work is based on a verse in (KJV) St. Luke, chap. x. ver. 38\u201342:\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cblockquote\u003E\n\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cem\u003E\u2026a certain woman, named Martha, received him into her house. And she had a sister called Mary, which also sat at Jesus\u2019s feet, and heard his word. But Martha was cumbered about much serving, and came to him, and said, Lord, dost thou not care that my sister hath left me to serve alone? Bid her, therefore, that she help me. And Jesus answered and said unto her, Martha, Martha, thou art careful and troubled about many things: but one thing is needful: and Mary hath chosen that good part which shall not be taken away from her.\u00a0\u003C\/em\u003E\u003C\/p\u003E\n\u003C\/blockquote\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EThe setting of this biblical scene is a simply furnished interior space with a checkered tile floor. The composition is framed by two cloth-covered tables and illuminated by two large rectangular windows that look onto a tree-dotted landscape; the light entering through a third window, outside of the frame at right, highlights the figures. Christ, seated in the center in a bright red robe, gazes up to his left to speak to Martha, who holds a wicker basket. At his right sits Mary, who eagerly listens to their conversation. Behind her, leaning on a windowsill, stands a male witness carrying a black mantle. Two vessels\u2014one brass, the other earthenware\u2014sit at his feet.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003ELenox bought a number of Leslie\u2019s paintings, beginning with \u003Ca class=\u0022in_gallery\u0022 href=\u0022#\u0022 target=\u002276\u0022\u003E\u003Cem\u003EPortrait of a Lady\u003C\/em\u003E from 1824 (\u003Cem\u003ELLG\u003C\/em\u003E 12, no. 68)\u003C\/a\u003E, which was probably purchased during Lenox\u2019s first European trip (1824\u201325). Lenox also sought his assistance in purchases from other artists including, most famously, J. M. W. Turner\u2019s \u003Ca class=\u0022in_gallery\u0022 href=\u0022#\u0022 target=\u002237\u0022\u003E\u003Cem\u003EStaffa, Fingal\u2019s Cave\u003C\/em\u003E (\u003Cem\u003ELLG\u003C\/em\u003E 8, no. 34)\u003C\/a\u003E, which was the first Turner painting to enter a collection in the United States. Leslie is also the artist most frequently represented in Lenox\u2019s collection\u2014a total of eight paintings and a number of engravings (see Appendix 3).\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EThis painting was an authentic copy of a work Leslie had painted for his friend and collector James Dunlop, a British tobacco importer, in the same year, 1833, that Leslie\u2019s daughter, Mary, was born. It was first copied in 1847 for Edwin Bullock, a collector from Birmingham; Lenox\u2019s copy may have been the second; a third copy was left unfinished at Leslie\u2019s death (Leslie 1860, xlviii). A version of \u003Cem\u003EMartha and Mary\u003C\/em\u003E (possibly this one, although records indicate that Lenox\u2019s painting was finished in 1849) was shown in the Royal Academy in 1847 alongside \u003Ca class=\u0022in_gallery\u0022 href=\u0022#\u0022 target=\u0022131\u0022\u003E\u003Cem\u003EThe Pharisee and the Publican\u003C\/em\u003E (\u003Cem\u003ELLG\u003C\/em\u003E 19, no. 125)\u003C\/a\u003E, another painting in Lenox\u2019s gallery (Leslie 1860, 335); versions were also shown in Boston at the Boston Art Association in 1844 (from the collection of T. H. Perkins, Esq.) and at the Athenaeum Gallery in 1863 (from the Collection of T. J. Coolidge).\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_nationality":"British","field_date":"August 1849","field_dimensions":"Unknown","field_bibliography":"\u003Cp\u003EDunlap, William. \u003Cem\u003EHistory of the Rise and Progress of the Arts of Design in the United States\u003C\/em\u003E. 2 vols. New York: G. P. Scott and Co., 1834; reprint ed. New York: Dover Publications, 1969.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003ELeslie, Charles Robert.\u003Cem\u003E Autobiographical Recollections\u003C\/em\u003E. Edited by Tom Taylor. London: J. Murray, 1860.\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_desc_author":"CJ","field_llg_number":"20,\u00a0no.\u00a0130","field_alt_title":""},{"title":"The Age of Innocence. Copy after Reynolds","nid":"698","field_image":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_3d\/public\/paintings\/2018-08\/I.6.1_Reynolds%20from%20Tate.jpg?itok=2SGvmsCN","field_image_hd":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_hd\/public\/paintings\/2018-08\/I.6.1_Reynolds%20from%20Tate.jpg?itok=Dv4uEUDs","field_image_credit":"Original painting in public domain; Digital Image \u00a9 Tate, London.","field_position_code":"i_6_1","field_artist":"Le Brun","field_original_artist":"Sir Joshua Reynolds (1723\u201392)","field_artist_date":"dates unknown","field_current_owner":"Unknown","field_llg_info":"\u003Cp\u003ENone\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_medium":"Unknown","field_location":"west wall, south side","field_id":"140","field_description":"\u003Cp\u003EThis painting is a copy of a work by Sir Joshua Reynolds, presented to the British National Gallery in 1847 and later transferred to the Tate, by a painter known only by his surname, Le Brun. This is one of Reynolds\u2019s best-known works, and according to National Gallery records it was copied no less than 323 times in oil by the end of the nineteenth century (Postle 2000).\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EAlthough Reynolds was celebrated as a portraitist, this picture does not depict a known person. Rather, it was commissioned as a character study, or \u201cfancy picture\u201d as the genre was then known. The title of the original, dated between 1785 and 1788, was based on an engraving that the artist made in 1794. Reynolds intended it as a companion piece to another work showing a girl with a bird; the two were exhibited together at the Royal Academy in April 1785 (Postle 2000).\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EIn the nineteenth century, Reynolds was renowned in the United States, particularly among artists, for the quality and accuracy of his portraiture and for a series of lectures he gave to the graduates of the Royal Academy (of which he was president) in 1769\u201370, entitled \u003Cem\u003EDiscourses on Art\u003C\/em\u003E. His promotion of classical ideals was even referenced by Samuel F. B. Morse in the founding documents for the National Academy of Design in 1826. British-US artist Charles Robert Leslie, a member of both academies and a friend of Lenox, published a biography entitled \u003Cem\u003EThe Life and Times of Sir Joshua Reynolds\u003C\/em\u003E in 1865. A number of Leslie\u2019s own works hung alongside this Reynolds in the Lenox Library, which opened just five years following the publication of Leslie\u2019s book.\u00a0\u003Cbr \/\u003E\n\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_nationality":"nationality unknown","field_date":"Original, 1785 and 1788","field_dimensions":"Unknown","field_bibliography":"\u003Cp\u003ELeslie, Charles Robert, and Tom Taylor. \u003Cem\u003ELife and Times of Sir Joshua Reynolds: With Notices of Some of His Cotemporaries [sic]. Commenced by Charles Robert Leslie, R. A. Continued and Concluded by Tom Taylor, M.A. In Two Volumes\u003C\/em\u003E. With Portraits and Illustrations. 2 vols. London: J. Murray, 1865.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EPostle, Martin. \u201cThe Age of Innocence.\u201d Tate. Published November 2000. \u003Ca href=\u0022http:\/\/www.tate.org.uk\/art\/artworks\/reynolds-the-age-of-innocence-n00307\u0022 target=\u0022new\u0022\u003Ehttp:\/\/www.tate.org.uk\/art\/artworks\/reynolds-the-age-of-innocence-n00307\u003C\/a\u003E.\u003Cbr \/\u003E\n\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_desc_author":"CJ","field_llg_number":"20, no. 131","field_alt_title":""},{"title":"La Souris Echapp\u00e9e (The Escaped Mouse)","nid":"699","field_image":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_3d\/public\/paintings\/2018-10\/image_not_found_24.jpg?itok=2XawrWlt","field_image_hd":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_hd\/public\/paintings\/2018-10\/image_not_found_24.jpg?itok=G1giyVEA","field_image_credit":"\u201cA cottage interior with an old peasant couple armed with broom and tongs on guard before the open door of a cupboard waiting for a mouse which is disappearing into the wall at right; behind them two startled children\u201d (Parke-Bernet Galleries 1943, 88).","field_position_code":"i_6_2","field_artist":"Ferdinand De Braekeleer the Elder","field_original_artist":"","field_artist_date":"1792\u20131883","field_current_owner":"Unknown","field_llg_info":"\u003Cp\u003ENone\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_medium":"Unknown","field_location":"west wall, south side","field_id":"141","field_description":"\u003Cp\u003EFerdinand De Braekeleer the Elder, orphaned at a young age, was admitted to the art school for orphans of \u003Ca href=\u0022https:\/\/en.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/Mattheus_Ignatius_van_Bree\u0022 target=\u0022new\u0022\u003EMathieu Ignace van Br\u00e9e\u003C\/a\u003E in Antwerp. In his mid-teens, he became a student at the Royal Academy of Antwerp. By his early twenties, his success was such that his work \u003Cem\u003EAeneas Saving Anchises from the Fire of Troy \u003C\/em\u003E(present location unknown) was accepted at the Paris Salon of 1813. After travels throughout Europe and an extended stay in Rome, De Braekeleer returned to Antwerp, where he taught a number of Belgian painters including his two sons, Ferdinand the Younger (1828\u201357) and Henri De Braekeleer (1840\u201388).\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EAlthough Ferdinand the Elder aspired to be a history painter, he is best known for his humorous genre scenes of contemporary Belgian life. This painting is one of five that Lenox brought in the early 1850s and is typical of the comic, everyday scenes that characterized the painter\u2019s work.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EDe Braekeleer was one of four contemporary Belgian artists\u2014J. B. Madou, Eug\u00e8ne Verboeckhoven, and Constant Wauters\u2014whose work Lenox collected. All of their paintings were bought between 1850 and 1856 and most of them were bought on Lenox\u2019s behalf by De Braekeleer in Antwerp. De Braekeleer the Elder\u2019s son, Ferdinand De Braekeleer the Younger, maintained a gallery of Belgian artists in New York in the early 1850s. Although evidence of his gallery is scarce, interest in contemporary Belgian art is confirmed by an exhibition of Belgian and Rhenish painting held in 1853 at the National Academy of Design.\u003Cbr \/\u003E\n\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_nationality":"Belgian","field_date":"1857","field_dimensions":"17.25 x 21.75 in. (43.8 x 55.3 cm.)","field_bibliography":"\u003Cp\u003EParke-Bernet Galleries, New York. \u003Cem\u003EEnglish and Continental Furniture, Paintings, Georgian Silver, Laces, Porcelains, Rugs\u003C\/em\u003E. New York: Parke-Bernet Galleries, 1943. Auction catalogue.\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_desc_author":"SW","field_llg_number":"21, no. 145","field_alt_title":""},{"title":"The Court Fool. Portrait of the Painter ","nid":"700","field_image":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_3d\/public\/paintings\/2018-10\/image_not_found_25.jpg?itok=GDbKUe5q","field_image_hd":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_hd\/public\/paintings\/2018-10\/image_not_found_25.jpg?itok=4PY0-9ae","field_image_credit":"\u201cA bearded figure in scarlet jester\u2019s costume standing in a park before a fluted pedestal and mask head; a mandolin, bouquet and letter on the ground at the right\u201d (Parke-Bernet Galleries 1943, 91).","field_position_code":"i_6_3","field_artist":"Edouard Zamacois [Eduardo Zamacois y Zabala]","field_original_artist":"","field_artist_date":"1841\u201371","field_current_owner":"Unknown","field_llg_info":"\u003Cp\u003E\u201cPurchased in 1876, from S. P. Avery.\u201d\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_medium":"Unknown","field_location":"west wall, south side","field_id":"142","field_description":"\u003Cp\u003EEduardo Zamacois y Zambala was a Spanish artist known for academic history and figure paintings. He studied at the Academia de Bellas Artes in Madrid before going to Paris, where he was a student of French classicist painter Ernest Meissonier. He became quite successful, producing works for the Palacio Real de Madrid, winning medals at the National Exhibition of Fine Arts in Madrid (1862, 1864) and exhibiting regularly at the Salon in Paris. The year this work was made, 1868, the artist made the first of two trips to Rome, where he created a history painting, \u003Cem\u003EThe Refectory of the Trinitarians\u003C\/em\u003E, which was shown at that year\u2019s Salon.\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EWith the support of his friend Adolphe Goupil of Goupil \u0026amp; Cie., Zamacois became quite popular among US collectors for his fanciful scenes of courtly amusements set in the Renaissance and baroque periods. Jesters were a common theme in Zamacois\u2019s work and historically were a raucous costumed entertainer of medieval and Renaissance courts. They were also regarded as fools or mimics, and it may be these associations that the artist brought to this rendering of his self portrait.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EIn the year this work was purchased by Lenox, Zamacois\u2019s \u003Cem\u003ECourt Jester\u003C\/em\u003E, owned by publishing heir Fletcher Harper Jr., was exhibited at the Young Women\u2019s Christian Association; other works by Zamacois could be found throughout New York at this time, in such institutions as the Metropolitan Museum of Art and the National Academy of Design. Soon after this work was purchased by James Lenox, his nephew, Robert Lenox Kennedy, bought another work by Zamacois, \u003Cem\u003EThe Education of a Prince \u003C\/em\u003E(1870; private collection).\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EHowever, Zamacois y Zambala\u2019s success was short lived. Forced to return to Spain because of the Franco-Prussian War (1870\u201371), he died suddenly of a \u201cgangrenous angina\u201d in 1871 at the age of twenty-nine.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EThis painting was purchased from Samuel Putnam Avery (1822\u20131904), an art dealer and print collector. His print collection was given to New York Public Library in 1900 and housed in the Lenox Library. It was the foundational collection of the library\u2019s print collection.\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_nationality":"Spanish","field_date":"1868","field_dimensions":"13.75 x 10.5 in. (35 x 26.7 cm.)","field_bibliography":"\u003Cp\u003EParke-Bernet Galleries, New York. \u003Cem\u003EEnglish and Continental Furniture, Paintings, Georgian Silver, Laces, Porcelains, Rugs.\u003C\/em\u003E New York: Parke-Bernet Galleries, 1943. Auction catalogue.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EZugaza, Miguel. \u201cEduardo Zamacois y Zabala.\u201d Museo Carmen Thyssen, M\u00e1laga. Accessed April 12, 2018. \u003Ca href=\u0022https:\/\/www.carmenthyssenmalaga.org\/en\/artista\/78\u0022\u003Ehttps:\/\/www.carmenthyssenmalaga.org\/en\/artista\/78\u003C\/a\u003E.\u003Cbr \/\u003E\n\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_desc_author":"CJ","field_llg_number":"20, no. 133","field_alt_title":"Court Jester, Portrait of the Artist"},{"title":"Abraham and Hagar","nid":"701","field_image":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_3d\/public\/paintings\/2018-08\/I.7.1_Guercino-Abramo-ripudia-Agar-e-Ismaele_0.jpg?itok=Y-TVj6P_","field_image_hd":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_hd\/public\/paintings\/2018-08\/I.7.1_Guercino-Abramo-ripudia-Agar-e-Ismaele_0.jpg?itok=nY04uvUS","field_image_credit":"Original artwork in the public domain; photography courtesy Pinacoteca di Brera, Milan, Italy.","field_position_code":"i_7_1","field_artist":"Unknown","field_original_artist":"Guercino [Giovanni Francesco Barbieri] (Italian, 1591\u20131666)","field_artist_date":"dates unknown","field_current_owner":"Unknown","field_llg_info":"\u003Cp\u003E\u201cCopy from the picture by Guercino, at Milan.\u201d\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_medium":"Unknown","field_location":"west wall, south side","field_id":"143","field_description":"\u003Cp\u003EThis is a copy of a work by Giovanni Francesco Barbieri (Guercino), \u003Cem\u003EAbraham Casting Out Hagar and Ishmael\u003C\/em\u003E (1657), now in the collection of the Pinacoteca di Brera in Milan. The painting depicts a biblical scene from the Book of Genesis: the aged Abraham casting out his second wife, the Egyptian slave Hagar, and their son Ishmael at the behest of his first wife, Sarah. Lenox was a devout Presbyterian and this image complemented other religious paintings nearby, most notably by the English-US painter Charles Robert Leslie, who was an agent for Lenox.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EGuercino (the \u201csquinter\u201d in Italian) was one of the most prominent members of the Bolognese school and an accomplished baroque draftsman. A largely self-taught painter from Cento, near Ferrara, Guercino had numerous ecclesiastic commissions, including \u003Cem\u003EAurora\u003C\/em\u003E (1621), a fresco for the Villa Ludovisi (Cardinal Alessandro Ludovisi, later Pope Gregory XV, was an early patron) in Rome, which became popular in the United States. His paintings combine Caravaggio\u2019s tenebrism effect with softness and charm not normally found in followers of his work.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EThe sentimentality and lively style of Guercino\u2019s works had enraptured British collectors in the eighteenth century and began to inspire art connoisseurs and collectors, such as Lenox, in the United States in the nineteenth century. Both originals and copies of Guercino\u2019s works could be seen galleries and museums in cities across the northeastern United States, including New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, and Albany, throughout the mid-nineteenth century.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EIt is unknown when or how this work came into James Lenox\u2019s possession.\u00a0\u003Cbr \/\u003E\n\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_nationality":"nationality unknown","field_date":"Original, 1657","field_dimensions":"Unknown","field_bibliography":"","field_desc_author":"CJ","field_llg_number":"20, no. 134","field_alt_title":""},{"title":"The First Italian Milestone","nid":"702","field_image":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_3d\/public\/paintings\/2018-10\/Chapman%20cropped%20%281%29.jpg?itok=C2polgCo","field_image_hd":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_hd\/public\/paintings\/2018-10\/Chapman%20cropped%20%281%29.jpg?itok=oTvrHH38","field_image_credit":"Photograph courtesy Martha Richardson Gallery, Boston.","field_position_code":"i_7_2","field_artist":"John G. [Gatsby] Chapman","field_original_artist":"","field_artist_date":"1808\u201389","field_current_owner":"Private collection","field_llg_info":"\u003Cp\u003E\u201cPainted to order, Rome, October, 1853.\u201d\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_medium":"Oil on canvas","field_location":"west wall, south side","field_id":"144","field_description":"\u003Cp\u003EJohn Gatsby Chapman was a native of Alexandria, Virginia. He studied locally with the painters George Cooke and Charles Bird King, and then in Philadelphia at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts. From 1828 to 1831 he lived and studied in Florence and Rome. On returning to the United States, he divided his time between New York and Washington, DC. He established a reputation as a history painter, portraitist, and book illustrator, and authored an important and popular drawing manual. He produced 1,400 wood engravings for Harper\u2019s\u003Cem\u003E Illuminated Bible\u003C\/em\u003E (1843\u201346), and his publication \u003Cem\u003EThe American Drawing-Book\u003C\/em\u003E went through numerous printings between 1847 and 1858. The success of such historical paintings as \u003Cem\u003ELanding at Jamestown and the Crowning of Powhatan\u003C\/em\u003E helped Chapman procure a commission from the United States Congress (February 1837) to paint \u003Cem\u003EBaptism of Pocahontas\u003C\/em\u003E for the rotunda of the United States Capitol.\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EFrom 1849 to 1884, Chapman resided in Europe. He settled in Rome, where he eventually became the unofficial dean of the US expatriate community. His studio was frequented by American and British tourists who purchased small paintings or prints showing scenes of peasants in colorful costumes, often set in the Campagna. James Lenox visited Chapman\u2019s studio in Rome in 1853 and commissioned \u003Cem\u003EThe First Italian Milestone\u003C\/em\u003E. The title of the work was cited in a number of contemporary references to Chapman, but the painting has disappeared since its sale in 1943 as part of the Coleman Auction of works from the New York Public Library. References to the transaction can be found in Chapman\u2019s diary of 1853 (John McGuigan Collection, Harpswell) on February 8; March 30; April 6, 9, and 27; May 31; and November 8.\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EA smaller version of \u003Cem\u003EThe First Italian Millstone \u003C\/em\u003E(Strider 2016, 89) is known and clearly reveals that the composition features a young boy and a girl in a landscape setting before a distant view of mountains. The boy stands on a stone holding a grape vine, and the girl rests on the ground a few feet from a second vine. It is typical of the souvenir pictures Chapman painted in Italy with profitable results, and which became cherished keepsakes for travelers from the United States. Chapman\u2019s fortunes took a downward slide in the 1860s, when the tourist trade came to a virtual standstill in Italy and he no longer found a ready market for his genre subjects, figure studies, and landscapes of Italy.\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_nationality":"US","field_date":"1852","field_dimensions":"26 x 20 in. (66 x 51 cm.)","field_bibliography":"\u003Cp\u003EMcGuigan Collection. Published 2018. Accessed September 18, 2018. \u003Ca href=\u0022https:\/\/www.mcguigancollection.com\/\u0022\u003Ehttps:\/\/www.mcguigancollection.com\/\u003C\/a\u003E.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EStrider, Tom. \u201cBuilding a New American Culture, The Promise and Ambition of John Cadsby Chapman.\u201d Master\u2019s thesis, Tulane University, 2016.\u003Cbr \/\u003E\u003Ca href=\u0022https:\/\/digitallibrary.tulane.edu\/islandora\/object\/tulane%3A53994\/datastream\/PDF\/view\u0022\u003Ehttps:\/\/digitallibrary.tulane.edu\/islandora\/object\/tulane%3A53994\/datastream\/PDF\/view\u003C\/a\u003E.\u003Cbr \/\u003E\n\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_desc_author":"BW","field_llg_number":"20, no. 132","field_alt_title":""},{"title":"Le Politique (Politics)","nid":"703","field_image":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_3d\/public\/paintings\/2018-08\/I.7.3_ARTNET%20placeholder_%20ferdinand-de-braekeleer-the-elder-la-politique.jpg?itok=6yzz9DA1","field_image_hd":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_hd\/public\/paintings\/2018-08\/I.7.3_ARTNET%20placeholder_%20ferdinand-de-braekeleer-the-elder-la-politique.jpg?itok=j1Pd6X6I","field_image_credit":"Artwork in the public domain; photograph courtesy Artnet","field_position_code":"i_7_3","field_artist":"Ferdinand De Braekeleer the Elder","field_original_artist":"","field_artist_date":"1792\u20131883","field_current_owner":"Unknown","field_llg_info":"\u003Cp\u003E\u201cPainted to order, June, 1856.\u201d\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_medium":"Unknown","field_location":"west wall, south side","field_id":"145","field_description":"\u003Cp\u003EFerdinand De Braekeleer the Elder, orphaned at a young age, was admitted to the art school for orphans of Mathieu Ignace van Br\u00e9e in Antwerp. In his mid-teens, he became a student at the Royal Academy of Antwerp. By his early twenties, his success was such that his work\u003Cem\u003E Aeneas Saving Anchises from the Fire of Troy\u003C\/em\u003E (present location unknown) was accepted at the Paris Salon of 1813. After travels throughout Europe and an extended stay in Rome, De Braekeleer returned to Antwerp, where he taught a number of Belgian painters including his two sons, Ferdinand the Younger (1828\u201357) and Henri De Braekeleer (1840\u201388).\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EFerdinand the Elder aspired to be a history painter but is best known for his humorous genre scenes of contemporary Belgian life. In this example, as determined by the description in the auction catalogue and the blurred photograph, two surprised children look on as an elderly couple in a kitchen interior give chase to a mouse. The fact that the mouse has already found an exit adds to the work\u2019s humor. \u003Cem\u003ELa Souris Echapp\u00e9e\u003C\/em\u003E is one of five de Braekeleer the Elder paintings that Lenox brought in the early 1850s and is typical of the comic, everyday scenes that characterized the painter\u2019s work.\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EDe Braekeleer was one of four contemporary Belgian artists\u2014J. B. Madou, Eug\u00e8ne Verboeckhoven, and Constant Wauters\u2014whose work Lenox collected. As with a number of other Belgian paintings, this work by Madou was bought for Lenox by De Braekeleer the Elder, whose son, Ferdinand De Braekeleer the Younger, maintained a gallery of Belgian artists in New York in the early 1850s. Although evidence of his gallery is scarce, interest in contemporary Belgian art is further confirmed by an exhibition of Belgian and Rhenish painting held in 1853 at the National Academy of Design.\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_nationality":"Belgian","field_date":"1857","field_dimensions":"17.25 x 22 in. (43.8 x 55.9 cm.)","field_bibliography":"\u003Cp\u003EFerdinand De Braekeleer Correspondence. James Lenox Papers. Box 2, Manuscripts and Archives Division. New York Public Library, New York.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EParke-Bernet Galleries, New York. \u003Cem\u003EEnglish and Continental Furniture, Paintings, Georgian Silver, Laces, Porcelains, Rugs\u003C\/em\u003E. New York: Parke-Bernet Galleries, 1943. Auction catalogue. \u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_desc_author":"SW","field_llg_number":"21, no. 136","field_alt_title":""},{"title":"A Spanish Caf\u00e9","nid":"704","field_image":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_3d\/public\/paintings\/2018-10\/image_not_found_27.jpg?itok=5rHQOiCg","field_image_hd":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_hd\/public\/paintings\/2018-10\/image_not_found_27.jpg?itok=QAQdI121","field_image_credit":"\u201cMerry figures in a caf\u00e9 grouped about blue tables, a sleeping man in rose cloak at the left, and a girl in a flowered mantilla and Spanish shawl serving glasses at the right; in the background another woman at the bar\u201d (Parke-Bernet Galleries 1943, 91).","field_position_code":"i_7_4","field_artist":"Jos\u00e9 Jimenez [Jim\u00e9nez] y Aranda","field_original_artist":"","field_artist_date":"1837\u20131903","field_current_owner":"Unknown","field_llg_info":"\u003Cp\u003E\u201cPurchased in 1876, from S. P. Avery.\u201d\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_medium":"Unknown","field_location":"west wall, south side","field_id":"146","field_description":"\u003Cp\u003EThis work was made by Jos\u00e9 Jimenez y Aranda, a Spanish painter from Seville. Trained at the Royal Academy of Fine Arts in Seville, he later travelled to Madrid, Rome, and then to Paris, along the way learning the techniques of Spanish masters such as Goya and Vel\u00e1zquez, and contemporaries, such as Mariano Fortuny. The latter was a friend of Eduardo Zamacois y Zambala, whose self-portrait as a court jester (1868; LLG 20, no. 133)\u2014also purchased from Avery\u2014hangs nearby. The date of this work means that it was no doubt completed in Rome, where Jimenez y Aranda lived between 1871 and 1875.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EJimenez y Aranda was known for his \u003Cem\u003Epr\u00e9cieux\u003C\/em\u003E style, and he gained much success for his genre scenes both in Spain and in Paris. This painting of a bustling caf\u00e9 with a variety of figures is in keeping with his other works, which feature spectators at bullfights, religious parades, and social gatherings in courtyards.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EThis painting was purchased from Samuel Putnam Avery (1822\u20131904), an art dealer and print collector and one of the few dealers consulted by Lenox. His print collection was given to New York Public Library in 1900 and housed in the Lenox Library. It was the foundational collection of the library\u2019s print collection. Avery was also known for his role in founding the Metropolitan Museum of Art; his art book collection was used to build the museum\u2019s library.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EAt the time this work was purchased, the artist was relatively unknown in the United States, but he gained wide popularity with US collectors in the late nineteenth century. This was true as well for works by the \u003Ca class=\u0022in_gallery\u0022 href=\u0022#\u0022 id=\u0022nationality\u0022 target=\u0022Contemporary Spanish artists\u0022\u003Etwo other Spanish artists Lenox from Avery: Leon y Escosura\u2019s \u003Cem\u003EThe Parrot Dealer, at the Ch\u00e2teau of Blois, in the Time of Louis XIII \u003C\/em\u003E(\u003Cem\u003ELLG\u003C\/em\u003E 19, no. 118) and Edouard Zamacois\u2019s \u003Cem\u003EThe Court Fool. Portrait of the Painter \u003C\/em\u003E(\u003Cem\u003ELLG \u003C\/em\u003E20, no. 133)\u003C\/a\u003E.\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_nationality":"Spanish","field_date":"1874","field_dimensions":"18 x 24 in. (45.7 x 61 cm.)","field_bibliography":"\u003Cp\u003EL\u00f3pez-Manzanares, Juan \u00c1ngel. \u201cJos\u00e9 Jimenez y Aranda.\u201d Museo Carmen Thyssen M\u00e1laga. Accessed April 12, 2018. \u003Ca href=\u0022https:\/\/www.carmenthyssenmalaga.org\/en\/artista\/40\u0022 target=\u0022new\u0022\u003Ehttps:\/\/www.carmenthyssenmalaga.org\/en\/artista\/40\u003C\/a\u003E.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EParke-Bernet Galleries, New York. \u003Cem\u003EEnglish and Continental Furniture, Paintings, Georgian Silver, Laces, Porcelains, Rugs.\u003C\/em\u003E New York: Parke-Bernet Galleries, 1943. Auction catalogue.\u003Cbr \/\u003E\n\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_desc_author":"CJ","field_llg_number":"21, no. 137","field_alt_title":""},{"title":"Chinese Painting (Pair)","nid":"708","field_image":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_3d\/public\/paintings\/2018-10\/image_not_found_17.jpg?itok=9C4Oe3W4","field_image_hd":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_hd\/public\/paintings\/2018-10\/image_not_found_17.jpg?itok=MgFwr6-6","field_image_credit":"","field_position_code":"h_1_2","field_artist":"Unknown","field_original_artist":"","field_artist_date":"dates unknown","field_current_owner":"Unknown","field_llg_info":"\u003Cp\u003ENone\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_medium":"Unknown","field_location":"east wall, north side","field_id":"113","field_description":"\u003Cp\u003ENothing is known about this painting \u003Ca class=\u0022in_gallery\u0022 href=\u0022#\u0022 id=\u0022genre\u0022 target=\u0022Chinese\u0022\u003Eor its mate (h.1.3)\u003C\/a\u003E. It may have been belonged to James\u2019s father, Robert Lenox, who obtained from a Chinese trading partner.\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_nationality":"nationality unknown","field_date":"Unknown","field_dimensions":"Unknown","field_bibliography":"","field_desc_author":"SW","field_llg_number":"10, no. 53\u00a0and 54 (listed together)","field_alt_title":""},{"title":"Landscape and Group of Ladies","nid":"709","field_image":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/index.php\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_3d\/public\/paintings\/2018-10\/c-3-3.jpg?itok=RsigYUQc","field_image_hd":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/index.php\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_hd\/public\/paintings\/2018-10\/c-3-3.jpg?itok=-UFTPkSV","field_image_credit":"Artwork in the public domain; photograph courtesy New York Public Library. ","field_position_code":"c_3_3","field_artist":"Sir David\u00a0Wilkie","field_original_artist":"","field_artist_date":"1785\u20131841","field_current_owner":"Unknown","field_llg_info":"\u003Cp\u003E\u201cBought at Christie\u0026#039;s, London, 10 March, 1848, from the collection of Sir William Knighton.\u00a0Sketch.\u201d\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_medium":"Unknown","field_location":"north wall, east side","field_id":"46","field_description":"\u003Cp\u003ESir David Wilkie was a Scottish painter who received widespread acclaim for his genre pictures during the Regency period (1811\u201320) in Britain. Trained at the Trustees Academy in Edinburgh, young Wilkie was known to haunt local fairs and marketplaces, where he sketched the numerous figures and scenes that made their way into his early works. He moved to London in 1805, from which point forward his celebratory scenes of peasant life, derived from his close study of seventeenth-century Dutch genre painting, garnered him much success.\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EThis small work was hung together in the same frame alongside four other sketches by Wilkie\u2014three of which also depict landscapes with either figures or animals. The outdoor subject of these works is rare in Wilkie\u2019s oeuvre; he only exhibited one such painting during his lifetime, \u003Cem\u003ESheepwashing\u003C\/em\u003E (before 1817; National Galleries of Scotland, Edinburgh), at the British Institution in 1817. Known examples of his rural genre date between 1814 and 1822, during which time Wilkie was in regular contact with Perry Nursey, an amateur landscape painter and acquaintance of John Constable. Wilkie painted a number of sketches on Nursey\u2019s estate near Woodbridge in Suffolk, an example of which, \u003Cem\u003EA Woody Landscape\u003C\/em\u003E (1822), is currently owned by the Tate (Tate 2004).\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EThis painting was purchased from the collection of Sir William Knighton (1776\u20131836), private secretary to King George IV from 1822 to 1830 and an enthusiastic supporter of Wilkie\u2019s work. Wilkie no doubt was in contact with Knighton around the same time that he was making landscape sketches, as he painted the monarch\u2019s portrait to commemorate his visit to Scotland in 1822.\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EWilkie was especially well known during the Regency period, during which time he was elected a full member of the Royal Academy (1811) and began to receive his first royal commissions. Prince Regent George IV commissioned him to paint \u003Cem\u003EBlind-Man\u2019s Buff\u003C\/em\u003E (1813; Royal College of Art, London), an original sketch for which Lenox hung on the south wall of this gallery. In 1823, Wilkie succeeded Raeburn as limner to the king of Scotland, and in 1830 he became principal painter in ordinary to King William IV, a position he held until his death.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003ELenox was not in England at the time of this purchase, which suggests it was bought for him by Charles Robert Leslie, who served as an advisor to Lenox on several occasions. Leslie and Wilkie were great friends and admirers of each other\u2019s work in London following Leslie\u2019s nomination as an associate at the Royal Academy in 1821. Given Lenox\u2019s enthusiasm for rural genre scenes, the purchase of these small Wilkie paintings would have been in keeping with other paintings in his collection. Lenox\u2019s interest in all things Scottish may have been another contributing factor. In addition to this group of drawings, \u003Ca class=\u0022in_gallery\u0022 data-view=\u0022grid\u0022 href=\u0022#\u0022 id=\u0022genre\u0022 target=\u0022Wilkie\u0022\u003ELenox owned two other paintings by Wilkie\u003C\/a\u003E, including \u003Cem\u003EThe Crown of Scotland\u2014On a Cushion\u003C\/em\u003E (\u003Cem\u003ELLG\u003C\/em\u003E 17, no. 106) and a sketch of his painting \u003Cem\u003EBlind Man\u2019s Buff\u003C\/em\u003E (\u003Cem\u003ELLG\u003C\/em\u003E 18, no. 110).\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EThis painting was deaccessioned by the New York Public Library in 1956, when it was purchased by Roy Thomson, who also owned the other works in this frame. The five works were shown together in the exhibition \u003Cem\u003EPaintings and Drawings by Sir David Wilkie\u003C\/em\u003E (1785\u20131841) at the National Gallery of Scotland, Edinburgh, and at Burlington House, London, in 1958 (Woodward 1958, 16).\u003Cbr \/\u003E\n\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_nationality":"Scottish","field_date":"Unknown","field_dimensions":"8 x 10 in. (20 x 25 cm.)","field_bibliography":"\u003Cp\u003EChiego, W., ed. \u003Cem\u003ESir David Wilkie of Scotland (1785\u20131841)\u003C\/em\u003E. New Haven: Yale Center for British Art, 1987. Exhibition catalogue.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003E\u201cSir David Wilkie, A Woody Landscape, 1822.\u201d Tate. Published September 2004. \u003Ca href=\u0022http:\/\/www.tate.org.uk\/art\/artworks\/wilkie-a-woody-landscape-n00330\u0022\u003Ehttp:\/\/www.tate.org.uk\/art\/artworks\/wilkie-a-woody-landscape-n00330\u003C\/a\u003E.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EWoodward, John. \u003Cem\u003EPaintings and Drawings by Sir David Wilkie (1785\u20131841)\u003C\/em\u003E. Edinburgh: National Gallery of Scotland, 1958. Exhibition catalogue.\u00a0\u003Cbr \/\u003E\n\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_desc_author":"CJ","field_llg_number":"9, no. 43","field_alt_title":""},{"title":"Landscape with Water and Ducks","nid":"710","field_image":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/index.php\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_3d\/public\/paintings\/2018-10\/c-3-3_0.jpg?itok=670dchNN","field_image_hd":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/index.php\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_hd\/public\/paintings\/2018-10\/c-3-3_0.jpg?itok=-XCveD_r","field_image_credit":"Artwork in the public domain; photograph courtesy New York Public Library. ","field_position_code":"c_3_3","field_artist":"Sir David\u00a0Wilkie","field_original_artist":"","field_artist_date":"1785\u20131841","field_current_owner":"Unknown","field_llg_info":"\u003Cp\u003E\u201cBought at Christie\u0026#039;s, London, 10 March, 1848, from the collection of Sir William Knighton. Sketch.\u201d\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_medium":"Unknown","field_location":"north wall, east side","field_id":"47","field_description":"\u003Cp\u003ESir David Wilkie was a Scottish painter who received widespread acclaim for his genre pictures during the Regency period (1811\u201320) in Britain. Trained at the Trustees Academy in Edinburgh, young Wilkie was known to haunt local fairs and marketplaces, where he sketched the numerous figures and scenes that made their way into his early works. He moved to London in 1805, from which point forward his celebratory scenes of peasant life, derived from his close study of seventeenth-century Dutch genre painting, garnered him much success.\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EThis small work was hung together in the same frame alongside four other sketches by Wilkie\u2014three of which also depict landscapes with either figures or animals. The outdoor subject of these works is rare in Wilkie\u2019s oeuvre; he only exhibited one such painting during his lifetime, \u003Cem\u003ESheepwashing\u003C\/em\u003E (before 1817; National Galleries of Scotland, Edinburgh), at the British Institution in 1817. Known examples of his rural genre date between 1814 and 1822, during which time Wilkie was in regular contact with Perry Nursey, an amateur landscape painter and acquaintance of John Constable. Wilkie painted a number of sketches on Nursey\u2019s estate near Woodbridge in Suffolk, an example of which,\u003Cem\u003E A Woody Landscape\u003C\/em\u003E (1822), is currently owned by the Tate (Tate 2004).\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EThis painting was purchased from the collection of Sir William Knighton (1776\u20131836), private secretary to King George IV from 1822 to 1830 and an enthusiastic supporter of Wilkie\u2019s work. Wilkie no doubt was in contact with Knighton around the same time that he was making landscape sketches, as he painted the monarch\u2019s portrait to commemorate his visit to Scotland in 1822.\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EWilkie was especially well known during the Regency period, during which time he was elected a full member of the Royal Academy (1811) and began to receive his first royal commissions. Prince Regent George IV commissioned him to paint \u003Cem\u003EBlind-Man\u2019s Buff \u003C\/em\u003E(1813; Royal College of Art, London), an original sketch for which Lenox hung on the south wall of this gallery. In 1823, Wilkie succeeded Raeburn as limner to the king of Scotland, and in 1830 he became principal painter in ordinary to King William IV, a position he held until his death.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003ELenox was not in England at the time of this purchase, which suggests it was bought for him by Charles Robert Leslie, who served as an advisor to Lenox on several occasions. Leslie and Wilkie were great friends and admirers of each other\u2019s work in London following Leslie\u2019s nomination as an associate at the Royal Academy in 1821. Given Lenox\u2019s enthusiasm for rural genre scenes, the purchase of these small Wilkie paintings would have been in keeping with other paintings in his collection. Lenox\u2019s interest in all things Scottish may have been another contributing factor. In addition to this group of drawings, \u003Ca class=\u0022in_gallery\u0022 href=\u0022#\u0022 id=\u0022genre\u0022 target=\u0022Wilkie\u0022\u003ELenox owned two other paintings by Wilkie\u003C\/a\u003E, including \u003Cem\u003EThe Crown of Scotland\u2014On a Cushion\u003C\/em\u003E (LLG 17, no. 106) and a sketch of his painting \u003Cem\u003EBlind Man\u2019s Buff \u003C\/em\u003E(LLG 18, no. 110).\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EThis painting was deaccessioned by the New York Public Library in 1956, when it was purchased by Roy Thomson, who also owned the other works in this frame. The five works were shown together in the exhibition Paintings and Drawings by Sir David Wilkie (1785\u20131841) at the National Gallery of Scotland, Edinburgh, and at Burlington House, London, in 1958 (Woodward 1958, 16).\u003Cbr \/\u003E\n\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_nationality":"Scottish","field_date":"Unknown","field_dimensions":"8 x 6 in. (20 x 15 cm.)","field_bibliography":"\u003Cp\u003EChiego, W., ed. \u003Cem\u003ESir David Wilkie of Scotland (1785\u20131841)\u003C\/em\u003E. New Haven: Yale Center for British Art, 1987. Exhibition catalogue.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003E\u201cSir David Wilkie, A Woody Landscape, 1822.\u201d Tate. Published September 2004. Accessed September 10, 2018. \u003Ca href=\u0022http:\/\/www.tate.org.uk\/art\/artworks\/wilkie-a-woody-landscape-n00330\u0022\u003Ehttp:\/\/www.tate.org.uk\/art\/artworks\/wilkie-a-woody-landscape-n00330\u003C\/a\u003E.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EWoodward, John. \u003Cem\u003EPaintings and Drawings by Sir David Wilkie\u00a0(1785\u20131841)\u003C\/em\u003E. Edinburgh: National Gallery of Scotland, 1958. Exhibition catalogue.\u00a0\u003Cbr \/\u003E\n\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_desc_author":"CJ","field_llg_number":"9, no. 44","field_alt_title":""},{"title":"Landscape with\u00a0Goats","nid":"711","field_image":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/index.php\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_3d\/public\/paintings\/2018-10\/c-3-3_1.jpg?itok=8NsdpToZ","field_image_hd":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/index.php\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_hd\/public\/paintings\/2018-10\/c-3-3_1.jpg?itok=_KxZ5aQb","field_image_credit":"Artwork in the public domain; photograph courtesy New York Public Library.","field_position_code":"c_3_3","field_artist":"Sir David\u00a0Wilkie","field_original_artist":"","field_artist_date":"1785\u20131841","field_current_owner":"Unknown","field_llg_info":"\u003Cp\u003E\u201cBought at Christie\u2019s, London, 10 March, 1848, from the collection of Sir William Knighton. Sketch.\u201d\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_medium":"Unknown","field_location":"north wall, east side","field_id":"48","field_description":"\u003Cp\u003ESir David Wilkie was a Scottish painter who received widespread acclaim for his genre pictures during the Regency period (1811\u201320) in Britain. Trained at the Trustees Academy in Edinburgh, young Wilkie was known to haunt local fairs and marketplaces, where he sketched the numerous figures and scenes that made their way into his early works. He moved to London in 1805, from which point forward his celebratory scenes of peasant life, derived from his close study of seventeenth-century Dutch genre painting, garnered him much success.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EThis small work was hung together in the same frame alongside four other sketches by Wilkie\u2014three of which also depict landscapes with either figures or animals. The outdoor subject of these works is rare in Wilkie\u2019s oeuvre; he only exhibited one such painting during his lifetime, \u003Cem\u003ESheepwashing\u003C\/em\u003E (before 1817; National Galleries of Scotland, Edinburgh), at the British Institution in 1817. Known examples of his rural genre date between 1814 and 1822, during which time Wilkie was in regular contact with Perry Nursey, an amateur landscape painter and acquaintance of John Constable. Wilkie painted a number of sketches on Nursey\u2019s estate near Woodbridge in Suffolk, an example of which, \u003Cem\u003EA Woody Landscape\u003C\/em\u003E (1822), is currently owned by the Tate (Tate 2004).\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EThis painting was purchased from the collection of Sir William Knighton (1776\u20131836), private secretary to King George IV from 1822 to 1830 and an enthusiastic supporter of Wilkie\u2019s work. Wilkie no doubt was in contact with Knighton around the same time that he was making landscape sketches, as he painted the monarch\u2019s portrait to commemorate his visit to Scotland in 1822.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EWilkie was especially well known during the Regency period, during which time he was elected a full member of the Royal Academy (1811) and began to receive his first royal commissions. Prince Regent George IV commissioned him to paint \u003Cem\u003EBlind-Man\u2019s Buff \u003C\/em\u003E(1813; Royal College of Art, London), an original sketch for which Lenox hung on the south wall of this gallery. In 1823, Wilkie succeeded Raeburn as limner to the king of Scotland, and in 1830 he became principal painter in ordinary to King William IV, a position he held until his death.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003ELenox was not in England at the time of this purchase, which suggests it was bought for him by Charles Robert Leslie, who served as an advisor to Lenox on several occasions. Leslie and Wilkie were great friends and admirers of each other\u2019s work in London following Leslie\u2019s nomination as an associate at the Royal Academy in 1821. Given Lenox\u2019s enthusiasm for rural genre scenes, the purchase of these small Wilkie paintings would have been in keeping with other paintings in his collection. Lenox\u2019s interest in all things Scottish may have been another contributing factor. In addition to this group of drawings, Lenox owned two other paintings by Wilkie, including \u003Ca class=\u0022in_gallery\u0022 data-view=\u0022grid\u0022 href=\u0022#\u0022 id=\u0022singleArtist\u0022 target=\u0022Wilkie\u0022\u003E\u003Cem\u003EThe Crown of Scotland\u2014On a Cushion\u003C\/em\u003E (\u003Cem\u003ELLG\u003C\/em\u003E 17, no. 106) and a sketch of his painting \u003Cem\u003EBlind Man\u2019s Buff \u003C\/em\u003E(\u003Cem\u003ELLG\u003C\/em\u003E 18, no. 110)\u003C\/a\u003E.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EThis painting was deaccessioned by the New York Public Library in 1956, when it was purchased by Roy Thomson, who also owned the other works in this frame. The five works were shown together in the exhibition \u003Cem\u003EPaintings and Drawings by Sir David Wilkie\u003C\/em\u003E (1785\u20131841) at the National Gallery of Scotland, Edinburgh, and at Burlington House, London, in 1958 (Woodward 1958, 16). The work was last sold by Christie\u2019s on October 28, 1999 along with \u003Ca class=\u0022in_gallery\u0022 href=\u0022#\u0022 target=\u002249\u0022\u003E\u003Cem\u003ELandscape with Group of Gipsies\u003C\/em\u003E\u003C\/a\u003E (\u003Cem\u003ELLG\u003C\/em\u003E 9, no. 46).\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_nationality":"Scottish","field_date":"Unknown","field_dimensions":"8 x 10 in. (20 x 25 cm.)","field_bibliography":"\u003Cp\u003EChiego, W., ed.\u00a0\u003Cem\u003ESir David Wilkie of Scotland (1785\u20131841)\u003C\/em\u003E. New Haven: Yale Center for British Art, 1987. Exhibition catalogue.\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EChristie\u2019s. \u003Cem\u003EThe Scottish Sale\u003C\/em\u003E. London: Christie\u2019s, 1999. Auction catalogue. \u003Ca href=\u0022http:\/\/www.christies.com\/lotfinder\/lot\/sir-david-wilkie-ra-a-landscape-with-1565206-details.aspx? from=salesummery\u0026amp;intobjectid=1565206\u0026amp;sid=70857b04\u201329a6\u20134108\u201382b0\u2013079feef694a4\u0022 target=\u0022new\u0022\u003Ehttp:\/\/www.christies.com\/lotfinder\/lot\/sir-david-wilkie-ra-a-landscape-with-1565206-details.aspx? from=salesummery\u0026amp;intobjectid=1565206\u0026amp;sid=70857b04\u201329a6\u20134108\u201382b0\u2013079feef694a4\u003C\/a\u003E.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cem\u003EPaintings and Drawings by Sir David Wilkie\u003C\/em\u003E, 1785\u20131841. London: Royal Academy of Arts, 1958.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003E\u201cSir David Wilkie, A Woody Landscape, 1822.\u201d Tate. Published September 2004. \u003Ca href=\u0022http:\/\/www.tate.org.uk\/art\/artworks\/wilkie-a-woody-landscape-n00330\u0022 target=\u0022new\u0022\u003Ehttp:\/\/www.tate.org.uk\/art\/artworks\/wilkie-a-woody-landscape-n00330\u003C\/a\u003E.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EWoodward, John. \u003Cem\u003EPaintings and Drawings by Sir David Wilkie\u003C\/em\u003E (1785\u20131841). Edinburgh: National Gallery of Scotland, 1958. Exhibition catalogue.\u003Cbr \/\u003E\n\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_desc_author":"CJ","field_llg_number":"9, no. 45","field_alt_title":""},{"title":"Landscape with Group of Gipsies [sic]","nid":"712","field_image":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/index.php\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_3d\/public\/paintings\/2018-10\/c-3-3_2.jpg?itok=L04EcVcx","field_image_hd":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_hd\/public\/paintings\/2018-10\/c-3-3_2.jpg?itok=f-bRCPbh","field_image_credit":"Artwork in the public domain; photograph courtesy New York Public Library. ","field_position_code":"c_3_3","field_artist":"Sir David\u00a0Wilkie","field_original_artist":"","field_artist_date":"1785\u20131841","field_current_owner":"Unknown","field_llg_info":"\u003Cp\u003E\u201cBought at Christie\u2019s, London, 10 March, 1848, from the collection of Sir William Knighton. Sketch.\u201d\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_medium":"Unknown","field_location":"north wall, east side","field_id":"49","field_description":"\u003Cp\u003ESir David Wilkie was a Scottish painter who received widespread acclaim for his genre pictures during the Regency period (1811\u201320) in Britain. Trained at the Trustees Academy in Edinburgh, young Wilkie was known to haunt local fairs and marketplaces, where he sketched the numerous figures and scenes that made their way into his early works. He moved to London in 1805, from which point forward his celebratory scenes of peasant life, derived from his close study of seventeenth-century Dutch genre painting, garnered him much success.\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EThis small work was hung together in the same frame alongside four other sketches by Wilkie\u2014three of which also depict landscapes with either figures or animals. The outdoor subject of these works is rare in Wilkie\u2019s oeuvre; he only exhibited one such painting during his lifetime, \u003Cem\u003ESheepwashing\u003C\/em\u003E (before 1817; National Galleries of Scotland, Edinburgh), at the British Institution in 1817. Known examples of his rural genre date between 1814 and 1822, during which time Wilkie was in regular contact with Perry Nursey, an amateur landscape painter and acquaintance of John Constable. Wilkie painted a number of sketches on Nursey\u2019s estate near Woodbridge in Suffolk, an example of which, \u003Cem\u003EA Woody Landscape\u003C\/em\u003E (1822), is currently owned by the Tate (Tate 2004).\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EThis painting was purchased from the collection of Sir William Knighton (1776\u20131836), private secretary to King George IV from 1822 to 1830 and an enthusiastic supporter of Wilkie\u2019s work. Wilkie no doubt was in contact with Knighton around the same time that he was making landscape sketches, as he painted the monarch\u2019s portrait to commemorate his visit to Scotland in 1822.\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EWilkie was especially well known during the Regency period, during which time he was elected a full member of the Royal Academy (1811) and began to receive his first royal commissions. Prince Regent George IV commissioned him to paint \u003Cem\u003EBlind-Man\u2019s Buff\u003C\/em\u003E (1813; Royal College of Art, London), an original sketch for which Lenox hung on the south wall of this gallery. In 1823, Wilkie succeeded Raeburn as limner to the king of Scotland, and in 1830 he became principal painter in ordinary to King William IV, a position he held until his death.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003ELenox was not in England at the time of this purchase, which suggests it was bought for him by Charles Robert Leslie, who served as an advisor to Lenox on several occasions. Leslie and Wilkie were great friends and admirers of each other\u2019s work in London following Leslie\u2019s nomination as an associate at the Royal Academy in 1821. Given Lenox\u2019s enthusiasm for rural genre scenes, the purchase of these small Wilkie paintings would have been in keeping with other paintings in his collection. Lenox\u2019s interest in all things Scottish may have been another contributing factor. In addition to this group of drawings, \u003Ca class=\u0022in_gallery\u0022 href=\u0022#\u0022 id=\u0022singleArtist\u0022 target=\u0022Wilkie\u0022\u003ELenox owned two other paintings by Wilkie\u003C\/a\u003E, including \u003Cem\u003EThe Crown of Scotland\u2014On a Cushion \u003C\/em\u003E(LLG 17, no. 106) and a sketch of his painting \u003Cem\u003EBlind Man\u2019s Buff \u003C\/em\u003E(LLG 18, no. 110).\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EThis painting was deaccessioned by the New York Public Library in 1956, when it was purchased by Roy Thomson, who also owned the other works in this frame. The five works were shown together in the exhibition Paintings and Drawings by Sir David Wilkie (1785\u20131841) at the National Gallery of Scotland, Edinburgh, and at Burlington House, London, in 1958 (Woodward 1958, 16). The work was last sold by Christie\u2019s on October 28, 1999 with the title \u003Cem\u003ETravellers and Donkeys by a Camp Fire in a Wooded Landscape along with Landscape with Goats \u003C\/em\u003E(LLG 9, no. 45). A variation of this work is in the collection of the Victoria and Albert Museum, London (V\u0026amp;A).\u003Cbr \/\u003E\n\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_nationality":"Scottish","field_date":"Unknown","field_dimensions":"8 x 10 in. (20 x 25 cm.)","field_bibliography":"\u003Cp\u003EChiego,\u00a0W., ed.\u00a0\u003Ci\u003ESir David Wilkie of Scotland (1785\u20131841)\u003C\/i\u003E. New Haven: Yale Center for British Art, 1987. Exhibition catalogue.\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EChristie\u2019s. \u003Ci\u003EThe Scottish Sale\u003C\/i\u003E. London: Christies, 1999. Auction catalogue.\u003Cspan style=\u0022color:blue\u0022\u003E\u003Ca href=\u0022http:\/\/www.christies.com\/lotfinder\/lot\/sir-david-wilkie-ra-travellers-and-donkeys-1565205-details.aspx?from=salesummery\u0026amp;intObjectID=1565205\u0026amp;sid=a45a0dcd-7ec1-4d54-b516-a932a35f5508\u0022\u003Ehttp:\/\/www.christies.com\/lotfinder\/lot\/sir-david-wilkie-ra-travellers-and-donkeys-1565205-details.aspx? from=salesummery\u0026amp;intObjectID=1565205\u0026amp;sid=a45a0dcd-7ec1\u20134d54-b516-a932a35f5508\u003C\/a\u003E.\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003E\u201cLandscape: Gipsies with Two Donkeys and a Dog.\u201d Victoria and Albert Museum. Accessed January 26, 2018.\u003Ca href=\u0022http:\/\/collections.vam.ac.uk\/item\/O133754\/landscape-gipsies-with-two-donkeys-oil-painting-wilkie-david-sir\/\u0022\u003Ehttp:\/\/collections.vam.ac.uk\/item\/O133754\/landscape-gipsies-with-two-donkeys-oil-painting-wilkie-david-sir\/\u003C\/a\u003E.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003E\u003Ci\u003EPaintings and Drawings by Sir David Wilkie\u003C\/i\u003E,\u003Ci\u003E 1785\u20131841\u003C\/i\u003E. London: Royal Academy of Arts, 1958. Exhibition catalogue.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EParkinson, Ronald.\u00a0\u003Ci\u003ECatalogue of British Oil Paintings 1820\u20131860\u003C\/i\u003E. London: Victoria \u0026amp; Albert Museum, HMSO, 1990.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003E\u201cSir David Wilkie, A Woody Landscape, 1822.\u201d Tate. Published September 2004.\u003Ca href=\u0022http:\/\/www.tate.org.uk\/art\/artworks\/wilkie-a-woody-landscape-n00330\u0022\u003Ehttp:\/\/www.tate.org.uk\/art\/artworks\/wilkie-a-woody-landscape-n00330\u003C\/a\u003E.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EWoodward, John. \u003Ci\u003EPaintings and Drawings by Sir David Wilkie (1785\u20131841).\u003C\/i\u003E Edinburgh: National Gallery of Scotland, 1958. Exhibition catalogue.\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_desc_author":"CJ","field_llg_number":"9, no. 46","field_alt_title":""},{"title":"Portrait of a Lady [Elizabeth Sproat Lenox]","nid":"713","field_image":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_3d\/public\/paintings\/2018-06\/e_2_3.jpg?itok=VtLg4aH9","field_image_hd":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_hd\/public\/paintings\/2018-06\/e_2_3.jpg?itok=xY04e_Pz","field_image_credit":"Artwork in the public domain; photograph courtesy New York Public Library.","field_position_code":"e_2_3","field_artist":"Gilbert Stuart","field_original_artist":"","field_artist_date":"1755\u20131828","field_current_owner":"New York Public Library, New York","field_llg_info":"\u003Cp\u003E\u201cPainted about 1813.\u201d\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_medium":"Oil on panel","field_location":"east wall, middle","field_id":"75","field_description":"\u003Cp\u003EGilbert Stuart was a native of Rhode Island. In 1777, he sailed for England on the last ship that escaped detection by the British in Boston harbor. In London, he studied with Benjamin West and learned from the example of his teacher, as well as from the work of Joshua Reynolds, Thomas Gainsborough, and George Romney. In 1792, returned to the United States, where he settled briefly in New York before moving to Philadelphia and then to Boston. Stuart introduced to the United States the new loosely brushed style used by many of the leading artists of late eighteenth-century London. Younger US artists sought out his advice and imitated his portraits. According to the painter and early historian of US art William Dunlap, Stuart professed that \u201cgood flesh coloring partook of all colors, not mixed, so as to be combined in one tint, but shining through each other, like the blood through the natural skin\u201d (Howat and Spasky 1970, n.p.).\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EStuart\u2019s portrait of James\u2019s older sister, \u003Cem\u003EPortrait of a Lady\u003C\/em\u003E [Elizabeth Sproat Lenox], dates from about 1813, when Elizabeth was twenty-eight. \u003Ca class=\u0022in_gallery\u0022 data-view=\u0022gallery\u0022 href=\u0022#\u0022 id=\u0022genre\u0022 target=\u0022Lenox Sisters\u0022\u003EStuart painted portraits of Elizabeth and her sister Isabella\u003C\/a\u003E on a visit to Boston, and the likenesses descended to their brother, James Lenox. Later he placed their portraits on either side of Stuart\u2019s Washington. In 1814, Elizabeth married Robert Maitland of New York. Their son, Alexander, replaced James Lenox as treasurer of the Lenox Library after James\u2019s death in 1880. Lenox owned six portraits by Stuart, a reflection of his high regard for the artist, who was the leading portraitist in the United States in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EThis portrait of Elizabeth Sproat Lenox and that of her sister were placed on the east wall of the Lenox Library Picture Gallery. \u003Ca class=\u0022in_gallery\u0022 href=\u0022#\u0022 id=\u0022genre\u0022 target=\u0022Lenox Family\u0022\u003ENearby were other family portraits\u003C\/a\u003E: two by John Trumbull of their parents, Robert and Rachel Lenox; two portraits by John Wesley Jarvis of Robert and a posthumous rendering of her sister, Alethea; and a portrait of her brother, James, by the Scottish painter Sir Francis Grant. Collectively these portraits imply the family\u2019s patriotism and admiration, if not devotion, to the founding father of the United States.\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_nationality":"US","field_date":"1813","field_dimensions":"28 x 23 in. (71 x 58.4 cm.)","field_bibliography":"\u003Cp\u003EHowat, John and Natalie Spasky. \u003Cem\u003E19th Century Paintings and Sculpture\u003C\/em\u003E. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1970. Collection catalogue.\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_desc_author":"BW","field_llg_number":"12, no. 68","field_alt_title":""},{"title":"The Prairie-Dog Village","nid":"715","field_image":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_3d\/public\/paintings\/2018-06\/a_7_2.jpg?itok=G9SHUL8a","field_image_hd":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_hd\/public\/paintings\/2018-06\/a_7_2.jpg?itok=Y-VlVdGc","field_image_credit":"Artwork in the public domain; photography courtesy of the Frick Art Reference Library. ","field_position_code":"a_7_2","field_artist":"W. J. [William Jacob] Hays","field_original_artist":"","field_artist_date":"1830\u201375","field_current_owner":"Unknown","field_llg_info":"\u003Cp\u003E\u201cPurchased from the artist, in 1863.\u201d\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_medium":"Unknown","field_location":"west wall, north side","field_id":"18","field_description":"\u003Cp\u003EWilliam Hays, born in New York, studied with John R. Smith. He specialized in the close study of nature, particularly the animals of the American prairie, which he studied firsthand on trips to the states and territories bordering the Missouri River. This territory east of the Rocky Mountains was made famous by Lewis and Clark and was subsequently explored by John C. Fremont and Kit Carson.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EHenry Tuckerman, speaking of this painting, noted that it \u201crepresents a familiar scene of prairie life\u201d and went on to comment on the prairie dogs\u2019 ubiquity and that their burrowing \u201c[gave] to the surface of the earth the appearance of cutaneous eruptions.\u201d He also noted that \u201cthe dogs in the foreground . . . are carefully painted\u201d (Tuckerman 1967, 496).\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_nationality":"US","field_date":"Unknown","field_dimensions":"Unknown","field_bibliography":"\u003Cp\u003ETuckerman, Henry T. \u003Cem\u003EBook of the Artists\u003C\/em\u003E. New York: G. P. Putnam, 1867; second ed. 1870; reprint ed. New York: James F. Carr, 1967.\u003C\/p\u003E","field_desc_author":"SW","field_llg_number":"5, no. 18","field_alt_title":""},{"title":"The Approaching Storm. Belgian Shepherd and Sheep","nid":"716","field_image":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_3d\/public\/paintings\/2018-06\/a-7-3.jpg?itok=Ksc8_meA","field_image_hd":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_hd\/public\/paintings\/2018-06\/a-7-3.jpg?itok=A_b71kfd","field_image_credit":"Artwork in the public domain; photograph courtesy New York Public Library.","field_position_code":"a_7_3","field_artist":"Eug\u00e8ne Verboeckhoven","field_original_artist":"","field_artist_date":"1798\u20131881","field_current_owner":"Unknown","field_llg_info":"\u003Cp\u003E\u201cPainted to order, February, 1851.\u201d\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_medium":"Oil on panel","field_location":"west wall, north side","field_id":"19","field_description":"\u003Cp\u003ENo image matching the description included in the Parke-Bernet auction catalogue has been found. There is also an inconsistency between the date listed in the \u003Cem\u003ELLG\u003C\/em\u003E, which states that the work was \u201cpainted to order, February, 1851,\u201d and the auction catalogue, which stipulates that the painting was \u201csigned on wall, and dated 1850.\u201d\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EVerboeckhoven specialized in paintings of domestic and farm animals and repeated the same subject with slight variations in locale and detail, making the precise identification of this and of his other painting owned by Lenox difficult. This was one of five paintings by Verboeckhoven owned by Lenox and one of four included in the wall section devoted to paintings of rural genre and animals.\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_nationality":"Belgian","field_date":"1850","field_dimensions":"35 x 31.5 in. (89 x 80 cm.)","field_bibliography":"\u003Cp\u003EBerko, Patrick and Viviane Berko. \u003Cem\u003EEug\u00e8ne Verboeckhoven\u003C\/em\u003E. Brussels: Editions Laconti, 1981.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EParke-Bernet Galleries, New York. \u003Cem\u003EEnglish and Continental Furniture, Paintings, Georgian Silver, Laces, Porcelains, Rugs\u003C\/em\u003E. New York: Parke-Bernet Galleries, 1943. Auction catalogue.\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_desc_author":"SW","field_llg_number":"11, no. 61","field_alt_title":"Shepherd and Sheep"},{"title":"A Classical View in Italy, with Buildings","nid":"717","field_image":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_3d\/public\/paintings\/2018-10\/image_not_found_3.jpg?itok=hGqaVR60","field_image_hd":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_hd\/public\/paintings\/2018-10\/image_not_found_3.jpg?itok=UGTKi8mp","field_image_credit":"","field_position_code":"a_7_4","field_artist":"Sir A. W. [Augustus Wall] Callcott","field_original_artist":"","field_artist_date":"1779\u20131844","field_current_owner":"Unknown","field_llg_info":"\u003Cp\u003E\u201cBought at Christie\u2019s, London, June 21, 1850, from the collection of Charles Meigh, Esq.\u201d\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_medium":"Unknown","field_location":"west wall, north side","field_id":"20","field_description":"\u003Cp\u003EFollowing his studies at the Royal Academy in the late eighteenth century, Callcott turned to landscape painting, often creating his views in watercolor, which were compared favorably with those of William M. P. Turner. Callcott also created rustic scenes in imitation of earlier Dutch genre painting and by Sir Thomas Gainsborough. In the early nineteenth century, Callcott achieved critical acclaim in the mid-teens with a signature series of marine paintings. It is impossible to determine, either from the painting\u2019s title or the dim reproduction of the gallery photograph, a fair description of the site.\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_nationality":"British","field_date":"Unknown","field_dimensions":"10 x 14 in. (25.4 x 35.6 cm.)","field_bibliography":"\u003Cp\u003EBrown, David Blayney. \u201cCalcott Family.\u201d Grove Art Online. Published 2011. Accessed September 6, 2018. \u003Ca href=\u0022http:\/\/\/\/www.oxfordartonline.com\/groveart\/view\/10.1093\/gao\/9781884446054.001.0001\/oao-9781884446054-e-7000013183\u0022 target=\u0022new\u0022\u003Ehttp:\/\/\/\/www.oxfordartonline.com\/groveart\/view\/10.1093\/gao\/9781884446054.001.0001\/oao-9781884446054-e-7000013183\u003C\/a\u003E.\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_desc_author":"SW","field_llg_number":"15, no. 93","field_alt_title":""},{"title":"Staffa, Fingal\u2019s Cave","nid":"720","field_image":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_3d\/public\/paintings\/2018-06\/b_5_2.jpg?itok=V2xVPDWN","field_image_hd":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_hd\/public\/paintings\/2018-06\/b_5_2.jpg?itok=67nDhzDy","field_image_credit":"Artwork in the public domain; photography courtesy Yale Center for British Art.","field_position_code":"b_5_2","field_artist":"Joseph\u00a0Mallord\u00a0William Turner","field_original_artist":"","field_artist_date":"1775\u20131851","field_current_owner":"Yale Center for British Art, New Haven, CT","field_llg_info":"\u003Cp\u003E\u201c\u2018Nor of a theme less solemn tells, That mighty surge that ebbs and swells, And still, between each awful pause, From the high vault an answer draws.\u2019\u2014\u003Cem\u003ELord of the Isles\u003C\/em\u003E, canto iv. \u2018We left the Sound of Mull, in the Maid of Morven, to visit Staffa, and reach Iona in due time; but a strong wind and head sea prevented us making Staffa until too late to go on to Iona. After scrambling over the rocks on the lee side of the island, some got into Fingal\u2019s Cave, others would not. It is not very pleasant or safe when the wave rolls right in. One hour was given to meet on the rock we landed on. When on board, the Captain declared it doubtful about Iona. Such a rainy and bad-looking night coming on, a vote was proposed to the passengers: \u201cIona at all hazards, or back to Tobermoray.\u201d Majority against proceeding. To allay the displeased, the Captain promised to steam thrice round the island in the last trip. The sun getting towards the horizon, burst through the rain-cloud, angry, and for wind; and so it proved, for we were driven for shelter into Loch Ulver, and did not get back to Tobermoray before midnight.\u2019\u2013\u2013\u003Cem\u003EJ. M. W. Turner to James Lenox\u003C\/em\u003E, August 16, 1845.\u201d\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_medium":"Oil on canvas","field_location":"north wall, west side","field_id":"37","field_description":"\u003Cp\u003EJ. M. W. Turner was acclaimed in the first half of the nineteenth century as one of the great landscape painters of the age. He was particularly admired by the English critic John Ruskin, who, in his book \u003Cem\u003EModern Painters\u003C\/em\u003E (1843), praised Turner lavishly. In his book \u003Cem\u003EHistory of the Rise and Progress of the Arts of Design\u003C\/em\u003E, the US writer William Dunlap traced the British artist\u2019s encounters with US painters to as early as 1804, when Washington Allston wrote Dunlap that while he was travelling through the Swiss Alps he was struck with \u201cthe truth of Turner\u2019s Swiss scenes\u201d (Dunlap 1969, 1:165).\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003ETurner\u2019s painting \u003Cem\u003EStaffa, Fingal\u2019s Cave\u003C\/em\u003E is among the best known of Lenox\u2019s holdings, if for no other reason than because it was the first Turner brought to the United States. Arriving in the mid-1840s, and before it was transferred to the Lenox Library in the late 1870s, it was seen by at least one US artist, Frederic Edwin Church (see LLG 5, no. 16), who found inspiration in it for his Ecuadorian landscapes.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EBefore the arrival of Lenox\u2019s Turner, Turner\u2019s paintings were known from secondhand accounts in London newspapers or by reports from travelers and artists from the US who visited London. Among the artists who saw Turner\u2019s work in London was Thomas Cole, who was ambivalent when he encountered Turner\u2019s paintings upon his visit to the British painter\u2019s gallery in 1829. Cole, in writing to William Dunlap, called Turner \u201cthe prince of evil spirits\u201d (Dunlap 1969, 2:363). Cole\u2019s precise meaning is uncertain, but it can be gleaned from his description of Turner\u2019s later paintings as \u201cthe most splendid combinations of colour and chiaro-scuro\u2014gorgeous but altogether false . . . in picture representing scenes in this world, rocks should not look like sugar-candy, nor the ground like jelly.\u201d\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EGeographically, Fingal\u2019s Cave is located on the uninhabited island of Staffa in Scotland\u2019s Outer Hebrides. A remote but popular tourist attraction, it was well known to contemporary audiences through the popularity of the Ossian legends, Felix Mendelssohn\u2019s \u003Cem\u003EHebrides Overture,\u003C\/em\u003E\u00a0and the enthusiasm of the internationally renowned storyteller Sir Walter Scott, who after visiting Staffa called it \u201cone of the most extraordinary places I even beheld\u201d (\u201cFingal\u2019s Cave\u201d). Turner, who had been hired by the publisher Robert Cadell to illustrate a book of Scott\u2019s poetry, visited Scott shortly before the author died. It has been assumed that it was Scott who encouraged Turner to visit Staffa. This connection with Scott is an important one. The artist Charles Robert Leslie, who facilitated the purchase of this painting by Lenox, was an ardent admirer of Scott and visited him in 1824 along with the British animal painter Edwin Landseer. Leslie had been asked by the Boston publisher George Ticknor to paint Scott\u2019s portrait (Taylor 1860, 1:83) and because of his esteem for Scott may have recommended this canvas to Lenox.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EWhile it is not known if Lenox shared the British artists\u2019 enthusiasm for Scott, he did share the author\u2019s devotion to Scotland, which was manifest by virtue of Scott\u2019s nationality and his recovery of Scottish history through his many novels. Five years later, Lenox bought Turner\u2019s \u003Ca class=\u0022in_gallery\u0022 href=\u0022#\u0022 target=\u002235\u0022\u003E\u003Cem\u003EA Scene on the French Coast, with an English Ship-of-War Stranded\u003C\/em\u003E\u003C\/a\u003E (alt. title:\u003Cem\u003E A Scene on French Coast [Fort Vimieux]\u003C\/em\u003E;\u003Cem\u003E LLG\u003C\/em\u003E 7, no. 32).\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003ELenox placed this painting in the center of the north wall of his gallery, below \u003Ca class=\u0022in_gallery\u0022 href=\u0022#\u0022 target=\u002236\u0022\u003ECole\u2019s Expulsion from Paradise (1828)\u003C\/a\u003E. This was Lenox\u2019s gesture to pair what he believed to be the most important US landscape artist and the best known British artist of the mid-nineteenth century.\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_nationality":"British","field_date":"1831\u201332","field_dimensions":"35.75 x 47.75 in. (90.8 x 121.3 cm.)","field_bibliography":"\u003Cp\u003EDunlap, William. \u003Cem\u003EHistory of the Rise and Progress of the Arts of Design in the United States\u003C\/em\u003E. 2 vols. New York: G. P. Scott and Co., 1834; reprint ed. New York: Dover Publications, 1969.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003E\u201cFingal\u2019s Cave.\u201d Wikipedia. Accessed September 10, 2018. \u003Ca href=\u0022http:\/\/en.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/Fingal%27s_Cave\u0022 target=\u0022new\u0022\u003Ehttp:\/\/en.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/Fingal%27s_Cave\u003C\/a\u003E.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003ELeslie, Charles Robert. \u003Cem\u003EAutobiographical Recollections\u003C\/em\u003E. Edited by Tom Taylor. 2 vols. London: John Murray, Albemarle Street, 1860.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EParke-Bernet Galleries, New York. \u003Cem\u003ENotable Paintings All from Institutional Private Owners Including Paintings from the Collection of the New York Public Library\u003C\/em\u003E. New York: Parke-Bernet Galleries, 1956. Auction catalogue.\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_desc_author":"SW","field_llg_number":"8, no. 34","field_alt_title":""},{"title":"Marine View Back of the Isle of Wight. Revenue Cutter in Chase of a Smuggler","nid":"721","field_image":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_3d\/public\/paintings\/2018-06\/c_2_3.jpg?itok=PDWdbso6","field_image_hd":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_hd\/public\/paintings\/2018-06\/c_2_3.jpg?itok=-CWleOhL","field_image_credit":"Artwork in the public domain; photograph courtesy New York Public Library.","field_position_code":"c_2_3","field_artist":"George Morland","field_original_artist":"","field_artist_date":"1763\u20131804","field_current_owner":"Unknown","field_llg_info":"\u003Cp\u003E\u201cPainted for W. [William] Lynnof Clapham [Westminster]. Bought at Christie\u2019s, London, 11 March, 1848.\u201d\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_medium":"Unknown","field_location":"north wall, east side","field_id":"43","field_description":"\u003Cp\u003EKnown as a painter of animals and rustic genre scenes, George Morland was apprenticed to his father, Henry Robert Morland, who also specialized in genre painting. The younger Morland, who led a colorful if not dissolute life, attained renown with his anecdotal pastoral works. As noted by an early twentieth-century biographer: \u201cWe had landscape painters and animal painters before his day, but it is generally acknowledged that he was the first to demonstrate the homely beauties of rural life in England\u201d (Gilbey and Cuming 1907, v).\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EThis painting, called a marine, has a touch of drama, if not intrigue, since the scene, judging from the title, chronicles an encounter between a revenue cutter and a smuggler on the English Channel. Yet the excitement takes place far in the background with the foreground figures following the action from the shores of the Isle of Wight.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003ETwo years later in 1850, Lenox bought \u003Ca class=\u0022in_gallery\u0022 href=\u0022#\u0022 target=\u00223\u0022\u003E\u003Cem\u003EPigs in a Fodder Yard\u003C\/em\u003E\u003C\/a\u003E (\u003Cem\u003ELLG\u003C\/em\u003E 3, no. 3) at auction.\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_nationality":"British","field_date":"1799\u20131800","field_dimensions":"20 x 26 in. (50.8 x 66 cm.)","field_bibliography":"\u003Cp\u003EGilbey, Sir Walter and Cuming, E. D. \u003Cem\u003EGeorge Morland: His Life and Works\u003C\/em\u003E. London, 1907.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EParke-Bernet Galleries, New York. \u003Cem\u003ENotable Paintings All from Institutional Private Owners Including Paintings from the Collection of the New York Public Library\u003C\/em\u003E. New York: Parke-Bernet Galleries, 1956. Auction catalogue.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EWilliamson, George. \u003Cem\u003EGeorge Morland: His Life and Works\u003C\/em\u003E. London: G Bell and Sons, 1904.\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_desc_author":"SW","field_llg_number":"9, no. 40","field_alt_title":"Revenue Cutter in Chase of a Smuggler, off the Isle of Wight"},{"title":"View of Venice","nid":"722","field_image":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_3d\/public\/paintings\/2018-06\/c-3-1.jpg?itok=GOV0mh-1","field_image_hd":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_hd\/public\/paintings\/2018-06\/c-3-1.jpg?itok=kFYufiFN","field_image_credit":"Artwork in the public domain; photograph courtesy New York Public Library.","field_position_code":"c_3_1","field_artist":"R. [Roberto] Roberti","field_original_artist":"","field_artist_date":"1786\u20131837","field_current_owner":"Unknown","field_llg_info":"\u003Cp\u003ENone\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_medium":"Oil on canvas","field_location":"north wall, east side","field_id":"44","field_description":"\u003Cp\u003ELittle is known about the Italian painter Roberto Roberti except that he was born and lived in Bassano, Italy. He was a painter of landscapes specializing in architectural views as this painting attests. It is also believed that he studied with the Italian sculptor Antonio Canova.\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EAlthough James Lenox was in Venice in October 1824, given the painting\u2019s early date, it could also have been bought by his uncle, James, who was living in Europe at the time.\u003Cbr \/\u003E\n\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_nationality":"Italian","field_date":"1821","field_dimensions":"25 x 37 in. (63.5 x 94 cm.)","field_bibliography":"\u003Cp style=\u0022margin:0in 0in 0.0001pt\u0022\u003E\u201cRoberto Roberti.\u201d Benezit Dictionary of Artists. Published 2011. Accessed September 5, 2018. \u003Ca href=\u0022http:\/\/\/\/www.oxfordartonline.com\/benezit\/view\/10.1093\/benz\/9780199773787.001.0001\/acref-9780199773787-e-00153725\u0022\u003Ehttp:\/\/\/\/www.oxfordartonline.com\/benezit\/view\/10.1093\/benz\/9780199773787.001.0001\/acref-9780199773787-e-00153725\u003C\/a\u003E.\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_desc_author":"SW","field_llg_number":"9, no. 41","field_alt_title":""},{"title":"View of Niagara","nid":"723","field_image":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_3d\/public\/paintings\/2018-10\/niagara.jpg?itok=yYP7ER_4","field_image_hd":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_hd\/public\/paintings\/2018-10\/niagara.jpg?itok=8VBpOLoI","field_image_credit":"Artwork in the public domain; photograph courtesy Olana State Historic Site, New York, State Office of Parks, Recreation and Historic Preservation. (As far as is known, this is not the Lenox print). ","field_position_code":"c_3_2","field_artist":"Frederic E. [Edwin] Church","field_original_artist":"","field_artist_date":"1826\u20131900","field_current_owner":"Unknown","field_llg_info":"\u003Cp\u003E\u201cChromo-lithograph, retouched by the artist.\u201d\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_medium":"\u201cChromo-lithograph, retouched by the artist.\u201d","field_location":"north wall, east side","field_id":"45","field_description":"\u003Cp\u003EFrederic Edwin Church painted Niagara Falls as viewed from the Canadian shore in 1857, just before his second trip to South America. After successful exhibitions across New York, Church took the picture on tour to various cities along the East Coast, as well as to Paris and London. In its day, the painting \u003Cem\u003ENiagara \u003C\/em\u003E(1857; National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC) was regarded by many art critics and connoisseurs as the finest picture ever created by a US artist. Church generated additional revenue through the sale of chromolithographs, some after the work by Charles Risdon, which were issued in England in 1857 by Charles Day and Son, lithographers to the queen. The copyright was purchased from the artist and registered through the District Court of Southern New York in 1857 by William Stevens Williams and Company, New York art dealers and the original owners of the painting. James Lenox was among the many owners of this highly popular print but it is not known if his version was printed by Day.\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_nationality":"US","field_date":"Unknown","field_dimensions":"Unknown","field_bibliography":"","field_desc_author":"BW","field_llg_number":"9, no. 42","field_alt_title":""},{"title":"Portrait of a Lady [Alethea Carmer Lenox, posthumous]","nid":"724","field_image":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_3d\/public\/paintings\/2018-06\/e_1_2.jpg?itok=7BxFifR_","field_image_hd":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_hd\/public\/paintings\/2018-06\/e_1_2.jpg?itok=_dfTfRyd","field_image_credit":"Artwork in the public domain; photograph courtesy New York Public Library.","field_position_code":"e_1_2","field_artist":"John Wesley Jarvis","field_original_artist":"","field_artist_date":"1781\u20131840","field_current_owner":"New York Public Library, New York","field_llg_info":"\u003Cp\u003E\u201cPainted about 1817.\u201d\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_medium":"Oil on\u00a0panel","field_location":"east wall, middle","field_id":"69","field_description":"\u003Cp\u003EJohn Wesley Jarvis was the foremost portrait painter in New York during the first quarter of the nineteenth century. He emigrated from England to the United States in about 1785 and set up a studio in New York in 1801. Jarvis established his reputation as a major portraitist with the series of seven full-length likeness of the heroes of the War of 1812 that he painted for City Hall. In 1814, he took Henry Inman on as an apprentice. For over a decade, Jarvis remained in high regard, and he painted the leading members of the city\u2019s political, mercantile, and cultural elite, including the Lenox family. During the course of Jarvis\u2019s career he painted portraits throughout the American South.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cem\u003EPortrait of a Lady\u003C\/em\u003E is a posthumous portrait by John Wesley Jarvis of James Lenox\u2019s sister, Alethea Carmer Lenox (1787\u20131806). The painting is dated 1809 and was created about the time that Jarvis painted his portrait of Robert Lenox. With John Trumbull\u2019s departure for England the year before, the artist faced little competition for commissions from the upper echelons of New York society. In the \u003Cem\u003ELLG\u003C\/em\u003E, the painting is identified only as \u003Cem\u003EPortrait of a Lady\u003C\/em\u003E and is misdated 1817. The work reflects the influence of Gilbert Stuart\u2019s elegant contemporary likenesses of young women attired in high-waisted dresses, cut low on the bodice, with a square neck and sleeves that reach less than half way to the elbow, with their hair parted and worn in loose curls and ringlets that fall upon their forehead and temple.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EThis portrait was one of \u003Ca class=\u0022in_gallery\u0022 href=\u0022#\u0022 id=\u0022genre\u0022 target=\u0022Lenox Family\u0022\u003Eseven family portraits\u003C\/a\u003E placed on the east wall of the Lenox Library Picture Gallery adjacent or near to portraits of George Washington. These were two portraits by Gilbert Stuart of Alethea\u2019s sisters, Isabella and Elizabeth, two portraits by John Trumbull of Alethea\u2019s father, Robert, and her mother, Rachel; a second portrait by Jarvis of her father; and a portrait of her brother, James, by the Scottish painter Sir Francis Grant. Collectively they imply the family\u2019s patriotism and admiration, if not devotion, to the founding father of the United States.\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_nationality":"US","field_date":"Painted about 1817 according to the LLG, but the painting is signed and dated 1809","field_dimensions":"28 x 23 in. (71.2 x 58.4 cm.)","field_bibliography":"\u003Cp style=\u0022margin:0in 0in 0.0001pt\u0022\u003EDickson, Harold E. \u003Cem\u003EJohn Wesley Jarvis American Painter, 1780\u20131840\u003C\/em\u003E. New York: New-York Historical Society, 1949.\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_desc_author":"BW","field_llg_number":"11, no. 63","field_alt_title":""},{"title":"Portrait of a Gentleman","nid":"725","field_image":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_3d\/public\/paintings\/2018-10\/image_not_found_13.jpg?itok=XCTid1CK","field_image_hd":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_hd\/public\/paintings\/2018-10\/image_not_found_13.jpg?itok=5ZJeIUB5","field_image_credit":"","field_position_code":"f_2_2","field_artist":"Charles R. [Robert] Leslie","field_original_artist":"","field_artist_date":"1794\u20131859","field_current_owner":"Unknown","field_llg_info":"\u003Cp\u003E\u201cPainted in 1823.\u201d\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_medium":"Unknown","field_location":"south wall, east side","field_id":"91","field_description":"\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cspan\u003E\u003Cspan\u003ECharles Robert Leslie, a London-born artist whose parents were American, spent his early years in Philadelphia, where he apprenticed as a bookseller before turning to art. His paintings impressed several US patrons, who financed his return to England in 1811 and provided him with introductions to influential people in London, including the US painter Washington Allston, poet Samuel Coleridge, and author Washington Irving. His friendship with writers influenced his interest in literary themes, and by the 1820s he was well known as a painter of this genre. Although Leslie is regarded today as a British artist, as he spent the most part of his life in England, at the time he was lauded as an American artist. His friend William Dunlap included him in his 1834 biographical compendium of US artists (Dunlap 1969, 2:239\u201340).\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cspan\u003E\u003Cspan\u003ELeslie\u2019s \u003Cem\u003EPortrait of a Gentleman \u003C\/em\u003Eis a small bust-length portrait of an unknown sitter. Leslie was one of Lenox\u2019s few art advisors, as documented in the artist\u2019s \u003Cem\u003EAutobiographical Reminiscences \u003C\/em\u003Eand in the Lenox papers in the Archives and Manuscript Division at the New York Public Library. In this capacity, Leslie was the go-between for the purchase of several Landseer paintings and, most famously, for J. M. W. Turner\u2019s \u003Cem\u003EStaffa: Fingal\u2019s Cave\u003C\/em\u003E (Leslie 1860, 205\u20137). Leslie is also the artist most frequently represented in Lenox\u2019s collection\u2014a total of eight paintings and a number of engravings (see Appendix 3).\u00a0\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cspan\u003E\u003Cspan\u003ELenox may have met Leslie on his first trip to Europe, a two-year grand tour (1824\u201325) to further his education. Lenox arrived in London in June 1824 and stayed with a Mrs. Lennox of 29 Upper Hawley in Camden Town. Mrs. Lennox was probably a relative, perhaps the wife of Lenox\u2019s uncle, also named James, who had lived in the ancestral home, Dalskairth, Kirkcudbright, Scotland, since 1817. (Lenox family members, who lived in Scotland, spelled their names with two ns.) What gives credence to his meeting Leslie on his first trip is the date of this painting. Lenox\u2019s other Leslie paintings were purchased in the 1840s.\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/span\u003E\u003Cbr \/\u003E\n\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_nationality":"British","field_date":"1823","field_dimensions":"Unknown","field_bibliography":"\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cspan\u003E\u003Cspan\u003ELeslie, Charles Robert.\u00a0\u003Ci\u003EAutobiographical Recollections\u003C\/i\u003E. Edited by Tom Taylor. London: J. Murray, 1860.\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_desc_author":"CJ","field_llg_number":"21, no. 144","field_alt_title":""},{"title":"The Music Lesson","nid":"726","field_image":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_3d\/public\/paintings\/2018-08\/d.1.3_Tormer.jpg?itok=VPgENeDY","field_image_hd":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_hd\/public\/paintings\/2018-08\/d.1.3_Tormer.jpg?itok=nw9onzys","field_image_credit":"Artwork in the public domain; photograph courtesy Dresden Museum. ","field_position_code":"d_1_3","field_artist":"Benno Friedrich Tormer","field_original_artist":"","field_artist_date":"1804\u201359","field_current_owner":"Unknown","field_llg_info":"\u003Cp\u003E\u201cPainted to order, Rome, March, 1852.\u201d\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_medium":"Unknown","field_location":"east wall, south side","field_id":"58","field_description":"\u003Cp\u003ELittle is known about the German painter Benno Friedrich Tormer. He was born in Dresden, where he studied at the art academy. After winning a fellowship to study in Rome, he made the Italian capital his second home. Lenox was in Rome in the early 1850s, and he may have met the artist and ordered this painting at this time. Lenox\u2019s painting \u003Cem\u003EThe Music Lesson\u003C\/em\u003E, as best as can be made out, is a good example of Tormer\u2019s interest in reviving the style and subject matter of genre painters of Holland\u2019s golden age, particularly Vermeer. Lenox\u2019s painting may have been a copy of the artist\u2019s painting of the same name in the collection of the Staatliche Kunstsammlungen in Dresden.\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_nationality":"German","field_date":"1852","field_dimensions":"Unknown","field_bibliography":"\u003Cp\u003E\u201cTormer, Benno Friedrich.\u201d Benezit Dictionary of Artists. Published 2011. Accessed September 7, 2018. \u003Ca href=\u0022http:\/\/\/\/www.oxfordartonline.com\/benezit\/view\/10.1093\/benz\/9780199773787.001.0001\/acref-9780199773787-e-00184082\u0022\u003Ehttp:\/\/\/\/www.oxfordartonline.com\/benezit\/view\/10.1093\/benz\/9780199773787.001.0001\/acref-9780199773787-e-00184082\u003C\/a\u003E.\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_desc_author":"SW","field_llg_number":"13, no. 79","field_alt_title":""},{"title":"I Pifferari (The Musicians)","nid":"727","field_image":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_3d\/public\/paintings\/2018-08\/d.1.4_chapman%201981_x_64_l.jpg?itok=LUlr5RrP","field_image_hd":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_hd\/public\/paintings\/2018-08\/d.1.4_chapman%201981_x_64_l.jpg?itok=L9JaH0-g","field_image_credit":"Engraving in the public domain; photograph courtesy of Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts, Philadelphia.","field_position_code":"d_1_4","field_artist":"John G. [Gatsby] Chapman","field_original_artist":"","field_artist_date":"1808\u201389","field_current_owner":"Unknown","field_llg_info":"\u003Cp\u003E\u201cPainted to order, Rome, August, 1857.\u201d\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_medium":"Oil on canvas","field_location":"east wall, south side","field_id":"59","field_description":"\u003Cp\u003EJohn Gatsby Chapman was a native of Alexandria, Virginia. He studied locally with the painters George Cooke and Charles Bird King, and then in Philadelphia at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts. From 1828 to 1831, he lived and studied in Florence and Rome. On returning to the United States, he divided his time between New York and Washington, DC, and established a reputation as a history painter, portraitist, and book illustrator and authored an important and popular drawing manual. He produced 1,400 wood engravings for \u003Cem\u003EHarper\u2019s Illuminated Bible (1843\u201346)\u003C\/em\u003E, and his publication\u003Cem\u003E The American Drawing-Book\u003C\/em\u003E went through numerous reprintings between 1847 and 1858. The success of such historical paintings as \u003Cem\u003ELanding at Jamestown\u003C\/em\u003E and the \u003Cem\u003ECrowning of Powhatan\u003C\/em\u003E helped Chapman procure a commission from the United States Congress in February 1837 to paint his historical scene \u003Cem\u003EBaptism of Pocahontas\u003C\/em\u003E for the rotunda of the United States Capitol. From 1849 to 1884 Chapman resided in Europe. He settled in Rome, where he eventually became the unofficial dean of the US expatriate community. His studio was frequented by US and British tourists who purchased small paintings or prints showing scenes of peasants in colorful costumes, often on the Campagna or in the Italian countryside.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EJames Lenox visited Chapman\u2019s studio in Rome in 1859 and commissioned the painting \u003Cem\u003EI Pifferari\u003C\/em\u003E. At Christmas, the itinerant musicians known as the \u003Cem\u003Epifferari\u003C\/em\u003E, who dressed in wide hoods and pointy hats, descended to Rome from the hills of their native Calabria and supplemented their income as shepherds by playing their rustic bagpipes before shrines dedicated to the Virgin Mary. In December 1859, a correspondent for the US art periodical \u003Cem\u003EThe Crayon\u003C\/em\u003E discussed the charm and popular appeal of Chapman\u2019s work: \u201cDuring Mr. Chapman\u2019s residence abroad he has been faithfully at work; he has explored the environs of Rome for artistic material, and has made himself thoroughly acquainted with the people and scenery of that region, the result of which is a series of pictures of Italian life, character, and landscape in almost every style of art. Few of his works are visible in our exhibitions; but they are widely distributed through the country. Travelers possess them to the greatest extent. His compositions illustrate the picturesque aspects of Italian peasant life, associated with the ruins of the Campagna and with the landscape charms of the mountains near Rome, and they constitute some of the most prized souvenirs of an American travelers sojourn in Italy\u201d (\u201cDomestic Art Gossip\u201d 1859).\u003Cbr \/\u003E\n\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003E\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_nationality":"US","field_date":"1857","field_dimensions":"16 x 13 in. (40.1 x 33 cm.) ","field_bibliography":"\u003Cp\u003ECampbell, William P. \u003Cem\u003EJohn Gadsby Chapman, Painter and Illustrator\u003C\/em\u003E. Washington, DC: National Gallery of Art, 1963. Exhibition catalogue.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003E\u201cDomestic Art Gossip.\u201d \u003Cem\u003EThe Crayon\u003C\/em\u003E 6, no. 12 (1859): 379\u201380. \u003Ca href=\u0022http:\/\/www.jstor.org\/stable\/pdf\/25527988.pdf\u0022\u003Ehttp:\/\/www.jstor.org\/stable\/pdf\/25527988.pdf\u003C\/a\u003E.\u00a0\u003Cbr \/\u003E\n\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_desc_author":"BW","field_llg_number":"13, no. 80","field_alt_title":""},{"title":"Head of the Young Bull","nid":"728","field_image":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_3d\/public\/paintings\/2018-06\/a-1-1.jpg?itok=a79yYEU5","field_image_hd":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_hd\/public\/paintings\/2018-06\/a-1-1.jpg?itok=yYpL8vpi","field_image_credit":"Artwork in the public domain; photograph courtesy New York Public Library. ","field_position_code":"a_1_1","field_artist":"J. H. [Jan Hendrik] Koelman","field_original_artist":"","field_artist_date":"1820\u201387","field_current_owner":"Unknown","field_llg_info":"\u003Cp\u003E\u201cCopy from the picture by Paul Potter, at the Hague. Painted to order, December, 1853.\u201d\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_medium":"Oil on canvas","field_location":"west wall, north side","field_id":"1","field_description":"\u003Cp\u003EJan (or Johan) Hendrik Koelman was a Dutch painter and the younger brother of the better-known Johan Philip Koelman (1818\u201393). Born in The Hague, he spent most of his professional life in Rome, where Lenox probably met him in 1851. He also had a brother, Jan Daniel (1831\u201357), who specialized in animal painting and who was also based in Rome. It is not known if the copy of the bull\u2019s head was painted in Holland or from a print. Potter\u2019s rural subject matter was much admired by artists working in The Hague, and Lenox\u2019s desire to have a Potter painting, even a copy, was no doubt influenced by the resurgence of interest in Potter during the first half of the nineteenth century. Writing at this time, John Smith, who published an extensive catalogue of northern painters, noted that Potter through \u201cthe skillful introduction of cows and other cattle, which give interest and value to his pieces, has deservedly placed him at the head of his profession in such representations\u201d (Smith 1827\u201342, 5:116).\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EThis detail of a bull\u2019s head was copied from the painting by the popular Dutch painter Paul Potter, \u003Ci\u003EThe Young Bull\u003C\/i\u003E (1647; Mauritshuis, The Hague). Lenox also commissioned a small-scale copy of the entire painting by the unknown painter \u003Ca class=\u0022in_gallery\u0022 href=\u0022#\u0022 target=\u00228\u0022\u003EZ. Weisser (\u003Ci\u003ELLG\u003C\/i\u003E 4, no. 8)\u003C\/a\u003E.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003E\u003Ca class=\u0022in_gallery\u0022 data-view=\u0022gallery\u0022 id=\u0022genre\u0022 target=\u0022domestic animals\u0022\u003ELenox acquired a number of animal paintings\u003C\/a\u003E, most of which were by nineteenth-century artists and can be found nearby, including a copy of the entire Potter painting (\u003Ci\u003ELLG\u003C\/i\u003E 4, no. 8).\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_nationality":"Dutch","field_date":"1853","field_dimensions":"24 x 22 in. (61 x 56 cm.)","field_bibliography":"\u003Cp\u003E\u201cPaulus Potter, \u003Cem\u003EThe Bull\u003C\/em\u003E, 1647.\u201d Mauritshuis. Accessed September 10, 2018. \u003Ca href=\u0022https:\/\/www.mauritshuis.nl\/en\/explore\/the-collection\/artworks\/the-bull-136\/\u0022 target=\u0022new\u0022\u003Ehttps:\/\/www.mauritshuis.nl\/en\/explore\/the-collection\/artworks\/the-bull-136\/\u003C\/a\u003E.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003ESmith, John.\u003Cem\u003E A Catalogue Raisonn\u00e9 of the Works of the Most Eminent Dutch, Flemish and French Painters\u003C\/em\u003E. London: Smith \u0026amp; Son, 1827\u201342.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EVan Seumeren-Haerkens, Margriet. \u201cJohan Philip Koelman.\u201d Grove Art Online. Published 2003. Accessed September 6, 2018.\u003Cbr \/\u003E\u003Ca href=\u0022http:\/\/\/\/www.oxfordartonline.com\/groveart\/view\/10.1093\/gao\/9781884446054.001.0001\/oao-9781884446054-e-7000047115\u0022 target=\u0022new\u0022\u003Ehttp:\/\/\/\/www.oxfordartonline.com\/groveart\/view\/10.1093\/gao\/9781884446054.001.0001\/oao-9781884446054-e-7000047115\u003C\/a\u003E.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EWalsh, Amy L.\u00a0\u201cPotter Family (i).\u201d\u00a0Grove Art Online. Published 2003. Accessed September 19, 2018. \u003Ca href=\u0022http:\/\/\/\/www.oxfordartonline.com\/groveart\/view\/10.1093\/gao\/9781884446054.001.0001\/oao-9781884446054-e-7000069032\u0022 target=\u0022new\u0022\u003Ehttp:\/\/\/\/www.oxfordartonline.com\/groveart\/view\/10.1093\/gao\/9781884446054.001.0001\/oao-9781884446054-e-7000069032\u003C\/a\u003E.\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_desc_author":"SW","field_llg_number":"3, no. 1","field_alt_title":""},{"title":"A Dog in a Stable","nid":"729","field_image":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_3d\/public\/paintings\/2018-09\/A-Dog-In-A-Stable.jpg?itok=V0kkldSL","field_image_hd":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_hd\/public\/paintings\/2018-09\/A-Dog-In-A-Stable.jpg?itok=MDHAX5k4","field_image_credit":"Artwork in the public domain; photography courtesy of Artnet.","field_position_code":"a_1_2","field_artist":"Sir Edwin Landseer","field_original_artist":"","field_artist_date":"1802\u201373","field_current_owner":"Unknown","field_llg_info":"\u003Cp\u003E\u201cThis picture is accompanied by the following autograph note from Mr. Leslie. \u201812 Pine Apple Place, Thursday. Dear Sir: I showed the picture of the dog last evening to Mr. Landseer, who says it is an early production of his, and that he received a medal for it from the Society of Arts in the Adelphi. I gave him your note. Yours truly, C. R. Leslie.\u2019 Bought at Christie\u2019s, London, June 21, 1850, from the collection of Charles Meigh, Esq.\u201d\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_medium":"Oil on canvas","field_location":"west wall, north side","field_id":"2","field_description":"\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cspan\u003E\u003Cspan\u003E\u003Cspan\u003EAs the note in the \u003Cem\u003ELLG \u003C\/em\u003Eindicates, the British painter Charles Robert Leslie obtained authentication from Landseer, not for Lenox but for its earlier owner, Charles Meigh. Citation of this note was included in the Meigh auction catalogue for the sale at Christie and Manson, London, in 1850 (Christie and Manson 1850, 21). This note, while validating the painting\u2019s authenticity, is not helpful in terms of its precise dating. In his note to Leslie, Landseer states that it was \u201can early production,\u201d which in 1850 could mean that the painting may have been done between the late 1820s and 1830s, when he first began the paintings of animals for which he was best known.\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cspan\u003E\u003Cspan\u003E\u003Cspan\u003EThe \u003Cem\u003ELLG\u003C\/em\u003E also states that Landseer \u201creceived a medal for this painting from the Society of Arts in the Adelphi [now the Royal Society of the Arts].\u201d It is known that Landseer received a silver medal in 1812 from the Society of the Arts when he was ten for a painting of a dog; this may be the same painting.\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cspan\u003E\u003Cspan\u003E\u003Cspan\u003ELandseer, a favorite of Queen Victoria, was a popular painter of domestic animals\u2014horses and dogs\u2014and animals of the wild, such as stags and boars. He also sculpted the lions for Trafalgar Square in London. He was particularly admired for his renderings of the animals and scenery of Scotland, which might have endeared him to Lenox, who was of Scottish heritage. Landseer\u2019s great contribution, and the basis for his large appeal, was his ability to imbue his representations of animals with sometimes sentimental, sometimes dramatic human feelings, often casting the scene in a storytelling mode. This paralleled the efforts of his friend, Leslie, who was a genre painter and served as an informal advisor to Lenox.\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cspan\u003E\u003Cspan\u003E\u003Cspan\u003ELenox owned two other Landseer paintings\u2014both small in scale. In addition to \u003Cem\u003EDog in a Stable\u003C\/em\u003E, \u003Ca class=\u0022in_gallery\u0022 data-view=\u0022grid\u0022 href=\u0022#\u0022 id=\u0022singleArtist\u0022 target=\u0022Landseer\u0022\u003ELenox owned and \u003Cem\u003EA Landscape\u2014Sunset \u003C\/em\u003E(\u003Cem\u003ELLG\u003C\/em\u003E 4, no. 11), also bought from the 1850 Meigh sale, and \u003Cem\u003EStudy of a White Horse\u003C\/em\u003E (\u003Cem\u003ELLG\u003C\/em\u003E 12, no. 73)\u003C\/a\u003E. Lenox\u2019s interest in the artist was furthered by the great number of Landseer engravings he purchased (see Appendix 3).\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/span\u003E\u003Cbr \/\u003E\n\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_nationality":"British","field_date":"Unknown","field_dimensions":"20.3 x 24 in. (51.5 x 61 cm.)","field_bibliography":"\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cspan\u003E\u003Cspan\u003E\u003Cspan\u003E\u003Cem\u003ECatalogue of the Important and Celebrated Collection of Italian, Flemish, Dutch, and English Pictures, Formed . . . by Charles Meigh of Grove House, Shelton, Staffordshire.\u003C\/em\u003E London: Christie and Manson, 1850. Auction catalogue.\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cspan\u003E\u003Cspan\u003E\u003Cspan\u003EUpstone, Robert. \u201cLandseer Family.\u201d Grove Art Online. Published 2003. Accessed September 6, 2018.\u003Cbr \/\u003E\u003Ca href=\u0022http:\/\/\/\/www.oxfordartonline.com\/groveart\/view\/10.1093\/gao\/9781884446054.001.0001\/oao-9781884446054-e-7000049073\u0022 target=\u0022new\u0022\u003Ehttp:\/\/\/\/www.oxfordartonline.com\/groveart\/view\/10.1093\/gao\/9781884446054.001.0001\/oao-9781884446054-e-7000049073\u003C\/a\u003E.\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/span\u003E\u003Cbr \/\u003E\n\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_desc_author":"SW","field_llg_number":"3, no. 2","field_alt_title":""},{"title":"Two Dogs","nid":"730","field_image":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_3d\/public\/paintings\/2018-06\/a-7-1.jpg?itok=alXZEqkn","field_image_hd":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_hd\/public\/paintings\/2018-06\/a-7-1.jpg?itok=FrIJitxM","field_image_credit":"Artwork in the public domain; photograph courtesy New York Public Library.","field_position_code":"a_7_1","field_artist":"Eug\u00e8ne Verboeckhoven","field_original_artist":"","field_artist_date":"1798\u20131881","field_current_owner":"Unknown","field_llg_info":"\u003Cp\u003E\u201cPainted to order, February, 1851.\u201d\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_medium":"Unknown","field_location":"west wall, north side","field_id":"17","field_description":"\u003Cp\u003EThe Belgian painter Eug\u00e8ne Verboeckhoven was a popular painter of farm animals\u2014sheep, goats, cows\u2014which were bought by an international array of collectors. This included Lenox, who bought five of his works, all of which date from the 1850s, when, after a great deal of success, the artist began to repeat himself. It is fair to say that Lenox\u2019s paintings are generic and challenging to identify amid the artist\u2019s multiple renditions of rural scenes with various domestic animals.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003E\u003Ci\u003ETwo Dogs\u00a0\u003C\/i\u003Ewas titled, without illustration or commentary, in the artist\u2019s monograph as \u201cDogs life-size\u201d (Berko and Berko 1981, 274). \u003Ca class=\u0022in_gallery\u0022 href=\u0022#\u0022 id=\u0022singleArtist\u0022 target=\u0022Verboeckhoven\u0022\u003EIt, and three other paintings by Verboeckhoven, hung in the section of the gallery devoted to rural genre and animals.\u003C\/a\u003E\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_nationality":"Belgian","field_date":"1851","field_dimensions":"Unknown","field_bibliography":"\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cspan\u003E\u003Cspan\u003E\u003Cspan\u003EBerko, Peter and Viviane Berko. \u003Cem\u003EEug\u00e8ne Verboeckhoven\u003C\/em\u003E. Brussels: Editions Laconti, 1981.\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/p\u003E","field_desc_author":"SW","field_llg_number":"5, no. 17","field_alt_title":"Dogs"},{"title":"View in Devonshire, on the Webber","nid":"731","field_image":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_3d\/public\/paintings\/2018-10\/image_not_found_4.jpg?itok=97OXKehg","field_image_hd":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_hd\/public\/paintings\/2018-10\/image_not_found_4.jpg?itok=ikCDbqln","field_image_credit":"","field_position_code":"a_7_5","field_artist":"William Collins","field_original_artist":"","field_artist_date":"1788\u20131847","field_current_owner":"Unknown","field_llg_info":"\u003Cp\u003E\u201cBought at Christie\u2019s, London, 11 March, 1848.\u201d\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_medium":"Oil on panel","field_location":"west wall, north side","field_id":"21","field_description":"\u003Cp\u003EWilliam Collins, who studied with George Morland, created a niche for himself as a painter of coastal themes combined with informal elements of river life. This was in contrast to the rural genre made popular by his mentor. The site of Lenox\u2019s painting, as best as can be known, was the Webber River in Devonshire in southwest England, on the north coast of the Devon and Cornwall peninsula near the Bristol Channel. Sadly lost, Lenox\u2019s painting would, as indicated by its title, no doubt have been a representative example of this type of subject matter made popular by Collins.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003ECollins was a member of Charles Robert Leslie\u2019s circle and travelled with Leslie and the US artist Washington Allston to Paris in 1817 and later with David Wilkie to Scotland in 1822. In honor of these friendships, Collins named his second son Charles Allston and his eldest son Wilkie Collins, the well-known novelist.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003ELenox bought, or had it purchased for him, this painting at a London auction of works owned by Jonathan Peel, the younger brother of the prime minister Sir Robert Peel, who was a close friend of Collins and collector of his paintings. Wilkie noted in his father\u2019s biography that Sir Robert commissioned a \u201csea-piece\u201d in 1824, which may have been the one later owned by Peel\u2019s younger brother, Jonathan, and subsequently bought by Lenox (Collins\u00a01978, 2:240\u201341).\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_nationality":"British","field_date":"1825","field_dimensions":"10 x 14 in. (25.4 x 36 cm.)","field_bibliography":"\u003Cp\u003EChristie and Manson. \u003Ci\u003ECatalogue of the Works of the Select and Beautiful Collection of the Works\u003C\/i\u003E,\u003Ci\u003E Chiefly of Cabinet Size\u003C\/i\u003E,\u003Ci\u003E Formed\u003C\/i\u003E . . . \u003Ci\u003Eby Jonathan Peel\u003C\/i\u003E,\u003Ci\u003E Esq\u003C\/i\u003E. London: Christie and Manson, 1848. Auction catalogue.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003ECollins, Wilkie.;\u003Cem\u003EMemoirs of the Life of William Collins R.A. \u003C\/em\u003E2 vols. London: Longman, Brown, Green and Longmans, 1848; r\u003Cem\u003Eeprint ed. London: EP Publishing Limited,\u003C\/em\u003E;1978.\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_desc_author":"SW","field_llg_number":"20, no. 135","field_alt_title":"A View on the Webber, Devon"},{"title":"The Falls of Tivoli","nid":"732","field_image":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_3d\/public\/paintings\/2018-06\/b_1_1_preview.jpeg?itok=01NjcP0O","field_image_hd":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_hd\/public\/paintings\/2018-06\/b_1_1_preview.jpeg?itok=Ekg9MtVO","field_image_credit":"Photograph courtesy Newark Museum.","field_position_code":"b_1_1","field_artist":"George L. [Loring] Brown","field_original_artist":"","field_artist_date":"1814\u201389","field_current_owner":"Newark Museum, Newark, NJ","field_llg_info":"\u003Cp\u003E\u201cPainted to order, Paris, January, 1851.\u201d\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_medium":"Painted in on canvas","field_location":"north wall, west side","field_id":"22","field_description":"\u003Cp\u003EGeorge Loring Brown was often called the \u201cAmerican Claude\u201d in reference to his emulation of the landscapes of the French eighteenth-century painter Claude Lorraine. Brown started his career as a wood engraver in his native Boston. In 1832, he went to Europe, where he trained in Paris in the studio of Eug\u00e8ne Isabey, financing his time abroad by producing copies of the old masters in the Louvre. After 1840, Brown made his home in Italy, dividing his time between Rome and Florence for the next twenty years and going on to achieve great success as a painter of the Italian countryside. In 1845, the poet, journalist, and newspaper publisher William Cullen Bryant visited Brown in Italy and reported that Brown was \u201ca landscape painter of high merit\u201d who \u201cpossesses great knowledge of detail, which he knows how to keep in its place, subduing it, and rendering it subservient to the general effect\u201d (Bryant 1850, 238). Upon returning to the United States in 1859, Brown briefly settled in New York before returning to Boston, where he had continued success as a painter of New England landscapes.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EBrown financed his stay in Italy by selling his work back in the United States at various exhibitions (including the annual exhibition of the National Academy of Design in New York), as well as to travelers from the US who were making grand tours abroad. Wailliam H. Gerdts has noted that these travelers \u201cusually purchased one or more souvenirs of their visits\u2014partly to lend encouragement to their fellow nationals who were laboring in an international art world among painters and sculptors of all nations; partly as proof on their return home of their concern with culture and the artistic; and, of course, partly as a pictorial record of the natural beauties, the man-made wonders, and the ruins they had romantically contemplated, thus assuring the landscape specialists particular support\u201d (Gerdts 1974, 11).\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cem\u003EFalls of Tivoli\u003C\/em\u003E was commissioned by James Lenox during a brief visit to Paris in early December 1850. Brown was working in France at the time, and he probably delivered the completed work to his patron sometime the following month. The Newark Museum\u2019s painting is signed and inscribed at lower left \u201cG. L. Brown \/ Paris 1850.\u201d Previous to its relining, the following handwritten inscription appeared on the verso: \u201cView of the Great Cascade and the Temple of the Sybil \/ at Tivoli; near Rome, painted from nature for \/ E. Lenox, Esq. of N.Y. by G. L. Brown, Paris, \/ 1850\u201d (\u003Cem\u003EAmerican Art in the Newark Museum\u003C\/em\u003E 1981, 304). Tivoli, a hill town located eighteen miles east of Rome, has long been a favorite tourist spot. In his canvas, Brown concentrates on the man-made Cascata Grande, while also depicting the surrounding picturesque valley, mountains, antique ruins, flora, and a peasant walking with his dog.\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_nationality":"US","field_date":"1850","field_dimensions":"25.5 x 32.25 in. (64 x 82 cm.)","field_bibliography":"\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cem\u003EAmerican Art in the Newark Museum\u003C\/em\u003E. Newark, NJ: The Newark Museum, 1981.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EBryant, William Cullen.\u003Cem\u003E Letters of a Traveler\u003C\/em\u003E. New York: D. Appleton and Co., 1850.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EGerdts, William H. \u201cRevealed Masters.\u201d In \u003Cem\u003ERevealed Masters: 19th Century American Art\u003C\/em\u003E, 7\u201341. New York: The American Federation of Arts, 1974.\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_desc_author":"BW","field_llg_number":"5, no. 19","field_alt_title":"View of Great Cascade and the Temple of the Sybil \/ At Tivoli; Near Rome, 1850"},{"title":"Temple of the Sibyl, Tivoli","nid":"733","field_image":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_3d\/public\/paintings\/2018-06\/d-3-2.jpg?itok=VA1X-aE9","field_image_hd":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_hd\/public\/paintings\/2018-06\/d-3-2.jpg?itok=67Jn5qax","field_image_credit":"Artwork in the public domain; photograph courtesy New York Public Library. ","field_position_code":"d_3_2","field_artist":"Copley Wilson","field_original_artist":"","field_artist_date":"dates unknown","field_current_owner":"Unknown","field_llg_info":"\u003Cp\u003E\u0022Presented by John Fisher Sheafe, 1877.\u201d\u003C\/p\u003E","field_medium":"Unknown","field_location":"east wall, south side","field_id":"64","field_description":"\u003Cp\u003ENot much is known about the artist of this work, Copley Wilson. Based on the photographs taken of the Lenox Picture Gallery\u2019s walls in the nineteenth century, the painting appears to depict two figures travelling down a deserted dirt road with a group of livestock. A ruin, seen in the middle ground, can barely be seen. The Temple of the Sibyl, a round Roman structure from the first century BCE, was an immensely popular tourist spot located on the acropolis near Tivoli, Italy.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EIn the Lenox Library, this painting was found above another landscape by Wilson, \u003Ca class=\u0022in_gallery\u0022 href=\u0022#\u0022 target=\u002263\u0022\u003E\u003Cem\u003EView near Bonmont, Switzerland\u003C\/em\u003E \u003C\/a\u003E(n.d.; \u003Cem\u003ELLG\u003C\/em\u003E 21, no. 141), which features a similar composition. According to the LLG, these works were given to James Lenox by his brother-in-law John Fisher Sheafe, husband to his sister Mary, in 1877. Another image of Tivoli by Martin Verstappen, \u003Ca class=\u0022in_gallery\u0022 href=\u0022#\u0022 target=\u002261\u0022\u003E\u003Cem\u003EGrotto of Neptune, Tivoli\u003C\/em\u003E\u003C\/a\u003E (1820; \u003Cem\u003ELLG\u003C\/em\u003E 13, no. 82), hung just above and to the right of this work.\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_nationality":"nationality unknown","field_date":"Unknown","field_dimensions":"Unknown","field_bibliography":"","field_desc_author":"CJ","field_llg_number":"21, no. 141","field_alt_title":""},{"title":"Head of an Old Man","nid":"734","field_image":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_3d\/public\/paintings\/2018-06\/e-1-3.jpg?itok=iV_r3olP","field_image_hd":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_hd\/public\/paintings\/2018-06\/e-1-3.jpg?itok=s5TeyGSj","field_image_credit":"Artwork in the public domain; photograph courtesy New York Public Library.","field_position_code":"e_1_3","field_artist":"Unknown artist","field_original_artist":"Balthasar Denner (German, 1685\u20131749)","field_artist_date":"dates unknown","field_current_owner":"Unknown","field_llg_info":"\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cspan\u003E\u003Cspan\u003E\u201cCopy of original, at Munich, by Balthasar Denner. Bought at Munich October, 1851.\u201d\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/p\u003E","field_medium":"Unknown","field_location":"east wall, middle","field_id":"70","field_description":"\u003Cp\u003EBalthasar Denner was a highly popular German portraitist in the early eighteenth century. He was admired for the detailed finish of his portraits, which often show the dark palette of Rembrandt. He specialized in paintings of old men, and without more information, it is difficult to identify the sitter. The presence of this painting in the Lenox collection raises a number of questions: \u00a0what prompted Lenox to buy a copy of this painting, and why did he include it in the section of portraits of George Washington and the Lenox family?\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_nationality":"nationality unknown","field_date":"Unknown","field_dimensions":"Unknown","field_bibliography":"\u003Cdiv class=\u0022WordSection1\u0022\u003E\n\u003Cp style=\u0022margin:0in 0in 0.0001pt\u0022\u003EGaras, Kl\u00e1ra. \u201cBalthasar Denner.\u201d Grove Art Online. Published 2003. Accessed September 5, 2018. \u003Ca href=\u0022http:\/\/\/\/www.oxfordartonline.com\/groveart\/view\/10.1093\/gao\/9781884446054.001.0001\/oao-9781884446054-e-7000022227\u0022\u003Ehttp:\/\/\/\/www.oxfordartonline.com\/groveart\/view\/10.1093\/gao\/9781884446054.001.0001\/oao-9781884446054-e-7000022227\u003C\/a\u003E.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\u003C\/div\u003E\n","field_desc_author":"SW","field_llg_number":"11, no. 63","field_alt_title":""},{"title":"Head of Mrs. Robert Morris","nid":"735","field_image":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_3d\/public\/paintings\/2018-08\/e.1.5.jpg?itok=NiaowBVC","field_image_hd":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_hd\/public\/paintings\/2018-08\/e.1.5.jpg?itok=kUITkuH3","field_image_credit":"Photograph courtesy of Sotheby\u2019s, Inc. \u00a9 2018.","field_position_code":"e_1_5","field_artist":"Gilbert Stuart","field_original_artist":"","field_artist_date":"1755\u20131828","field_current_owner":"Private Collection","field_llg_info":"\u003Cp\u003E\u201cBought at the sale of J. P. Beaumont, New York, April 19, 1870. Bought by him in 1834.\u201d\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_medium":"Oil on canvas\u00a0(1241)","field_location":"east wall, middle","field_id":"72","field_description":"\u003Cp\u003EGilbert Stuart was a native of Rhode Island. In 1777, he sailed for England on the last ship that escaped detection by the British in Boston harbor. In London, he studied with Benjamin West and learned from the example of his teacher, as well as from the work of Joshua Reynolds, Thomas Gainsborough, and George Romney. In 1792, he sailed to the United States, where he settled briefly in New York before moving to Philadelphia and then to Boston. Stuart introduced to the United States the new loosely brushed style used by many of the leading artists of late eighteenth-century London. Younger US artists sought out his advice and imitated his portraits. According to the painter and early historian of US art William Dunlap, Stuart professed that \u201cgood flesh coloring partook of all colors, not mixed, so as to be combined in one tint, but shining through each other, like the blood through the natural skin\u201d (Howat and Spasky 1970, n.p.).\u003Cbr \/\u003E\u003Cbr \/\u003E\u003Cem\u003EPortrait of Mrs. Robert Morris\u003C\/em\u003E dates from 1795. Mary White Morris was the daughter of Colonel Thomas and Esther Huelings White of Philadelphia and the wife of Robert Morris. Stuart also painted Robert Morris, and the couple were the subjects of likenesses by Charles Willson Peale and John Trumbull. A native of Liverpool, Robert Morris moved to Philadelphia when he was thirteen and later became a partner in one of the city\u2019s leading mercantiles. He was elected to the Continental Congress in 1775 and was a signer of the Declaration of Independence. Morris established the Pennsylvania Bank and the Bank of North America and played a major role in helping to finance the American Revolution. Stuart\u2019s portrait was purchased in 1836 from the artist\u2019s family by John P. Beaumont. James Lenox acquired the work at the auction of Beaumont\u2019s collection in New York in 1870. It was the last of the six portraits that he acquired by Stuart.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003ESeemingly unfinished, this intimate bust portrait is nonetheless captivating. The beige color of the support offers a warm contrast to the black background that encircles her head. Her expression is neutral, but her frilly cap and reddened cheeks subvert any sense of severity. Stuart\u2019s portrait fully expresses qualities described by the historian Charles Henry Hart, who remarked that \u201cMrs. Morris possessed the highest qualities of mind and heart. She was tall, graceful and commanding, with a stately dignity of manner which ever made a controlling impression upon all with whom she was brought in contact\u201d (Hart 1878, 182\u201383).\u003Cbr \/\u003E\n\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_nationality":"US","field_date":"ca. 1795","field_dimensions":"26.5 x 21.5 in. (67.3 x 54.6 cm.)","field_bibliography":"\u003Cp\u003EHart, Charles Henry. \u201cMary White-Mrs. Robert Morris.\u201d\u003Cem\u003E Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography\u003C\/em\u003E 2 (1878): 182\u201383.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EHowat, John and Natalie Spasky. \u003Cem\u003E19th Century Paintings and Sculpture\u003C\/em\u003E. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1970. Collection catalogue.\u003Cbr \/\u003E\n\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_desc_author":"BW","field_llg_number":"12, no. 65","field_alt_title":""},{"title":"Portrait of George Washington","nid":"737","field_image":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_3d\/public\/paintings\/2018-09\/e.1.1_Peale_GW.jpg?itok=5bmpWH7P","field_image_hd":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_hd\/public\/paintings\/2018-09\/e.1.1_Peale_GW.jpg?itok=Na0voWqk","field_image_credit":"Artwork in public domain; photograph courtesy of Sotheby\u2019s, Inc., New York.","field_position_code":"e_1_1","field_artist":"James Peale","field_original_artist":"","field_artist_date":"1749\u20131831","field_current_owner":"Unknown","field_llg_info":"\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cspan\u003E\u003Cspan\u003E\u201cPainted in 1778. Bought in February, 1850, at the sale of David C. Claypoole, in Philadelphia.\u201d\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/p\u003E","field_medium":"Oil on canvas","field_location":"east wall, middle","field_id":"68","field_description":"\u003Cp\u003EBorn in Chestertown, Maryland, James Peale worked in the saddlery of his older brother, the painter Charles Willson Peale, in Annapolis, Maryland, and later was apprenticed as a carpenter. Upon Charles\u2019s return in 1769 from studying art in England, James served as his studio assistant. By the spring of 1771, Charles had given him instruction in painting from life. James served in the Continental Army during the American Revolution and then settled in Philadelphia, where he established a reputation as painter of miniature portraits. After his eyesight began to fail, he gave up painting miniatures and from about 1810 turned to creating larger portraits, still lifes, and occasional landscapes.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EJames Peale painted several portraits of George Washington, including the likeness in the James Lenox collection, which he acquired in February 1850 from the auction of the holdings of the artist\u2019s brother-in-law, David C. Claypoole. From the same sale, Lenox acquired one of his prized possessions\u2014the original copy of Washington\u2019s Farewell Address. The acquisitions were a reflection of his deep interest in the life, accomplishments, and character of the first president. The artist painted a group of closely related half-lengths of Washington, but this is one of only two known examples to include a horse and attendant. Lenox and his librarian placed this painting in the top row and at the beginning of the section that included other portraits of Washington and the Lenox family.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EAccording to John Hill Morgan and Mantle Fielding in their authoritative work \u003Cem\u003EThe Life Portraits of Washington and Their Replicas\u003C\/em\u003E, it is not known when \u201cJames Peale first copied the head and shoulders from [the portrait of Washington his brother Charles painted for the Continental Congress, which is now in the collection of the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts] into his half-length portraits of Washington . . . but the head and figure in all of the portraits of this type are practically the same; it is only in the background that the portraits differ. Probably James Peale recognized that there was a market for a smaller portrait than his brother\u2019s full length, of which many replicas had been painted and sold. He, therefore, as Rembrandt Peale says, copied the head from the portrait of 1787 \u2018on a larger canvas, adding the figure in military costume, and an attendant with a horse in the background\u2019\u201d (Morgan and Fielding 1931, 119).\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003E\u003Ca href=\u0022#\u0022\u003ELenox honored the Peale family by placing four of their renderings of Washington along the top of this section of the wall and above Stuart\u2019s \u201cLandsdowne\u201d version. Reading from left to right were the portraits by James, Rembrandt\u2019s copy of Gilbert Stuart\u2019s \u201cVaughan\u201d portrait, Rembrandt\u2019s \u201cPorthole\u201d version, and his copy of his father\u2019s portrait of Washington from 1772.\u003C\/a\u003E\u003C\/p\u003E","field_nationality":"US","field_date":"1778","field_dimensions":"36 x 27 in. (91.4 x 68.6 cm.)","field_bibliography":"\u003Cp\u003EMorgan, John Hill and Mantle Fielding. \u003Cem\u003EThe Life Portraits of Washington and Their Replicas\u003C\/em\u003E. Philadelphia: privately printed, 1931.\u003C\/p\u003E","field_desc_author":"BW","field_llg_number":"11, no. 56","field_alt_title":""},{"title":"Portrait of George Washington","nid":"738","field_image":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_3d\/public\/paintings\/2018-09\/e.4.1_Rem%20Peale%20GW%20%282%29.jpg?itok=jb1XZEkE","field_image_hd":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_hd\/public\/paintings\/2018-09\/e.4.1_Rem%20Peale%20GW%20%282%29.jpg?itok=EZgFMznQ","field_image_credit":"Fort Ligonier, Ligonier, Pennsylvania. Photograph Courtesy of Sotheby\u2019s, Inc. \u00a9 2018. ","field_position_code":"e_4_1","field_artist":"Rembrandt Peale","field_original_artist":"","field_artist_date":"1778\u20131860","field_current_owner":"Fort Ligonier, Ligonier, Pennsylvania","field_llg_info":"\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cspan\u003E\u003Cspan\u003E\u201cCopy from the original in Arlington House, painted by Charles Wilson [\u003Cem\u003Esic\u003C\/em\u003E] Peale in 1772. Bought at the sale of Rembrandt Peale, in Philadelphia, In November, 1862.\u201d\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/span\u003E\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_medium":"Unknown","field_location":"east wall, middle","field_id":"80","field_description":"\u003Cp\u003ERembrandt Peale was born in Bucks County, Pennsylvania. He began painting at a young age and moved to London in 1801 to study with Benjamin West at the Royal Academy. While there, he became ill and returned to the United States to take up farming, but instead he found himself greatly in demand as a portrait painter. In 1807, he went to Paris, where he became court painter to Napoleon. In 1820, he settled in Philadelphia, where he painted his large and ambitious \u003Cem\u003ECourt of Death\u003C\/em\u003E (Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, Philadelphia). In 1822, he moved to Baltimore, where he and his artist brothers established the Peale Museum and Gallery. Peale moved to New York in 1834, but he later returned to Philadelphia, where he remained for the rest of his life. Peale was a founding member of the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts and the National Academy of Design. In his later years, he wrote articles for periodicals and texts on painting technique, and lectured on various topics.\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003E\u003Cem\u003EPortrait of George Washington\u003C\/em\u003E probably dates from the 1850s and is a partial copy of his father Charles Willson Peale\u2019s full-length likeness \u003Cem\u003EWashington as Colonel of the Virginia Regiment\u003C\/em\u003E (1762; Arlington House, Arlington). Between 1795 and 1860, Peale painted over one hundred portraits of the first president of the United States, including likenesses of his own design and copies after works by his father and Gilbert Stuart. James Lenox purchased this painting from Rembrandt Peale\u2019s estate sale in Philadelphia in 1862. By this time, Lenox had acquired Washington\u2019s Farewell Address from the estate of Peale\u2019s brother-in-law,\u003Cbr \/\u003E\nthe Philadelphia printer David C. Claypoole, who owned Rembrandt Peale\u2019s \u201cPorthole\u201d portrait of Washington and a likeness of Washington by Rembrandt\u2019s uncle, James Peale.\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003ERembrandt Peale may have specifically executed the picture to accompany his lecture on the portraits of Washington that he gave in his travels to various northern and southern cities during the last five years of his life. Rembrandt felt that if people in the US could see portraits of Washington in concert with his lecture that they would understand how his \u201cknowledge \u0026amp; control of Character, and . . . influential energy were devoted to perpetuate, more than language, our liberties our Union\u201d (Miller 1992, 232).\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003ELenox honored the Peale family by placing\u003Ca class=\u0022in_gallery\u0022 href=\u0022#\u0022 id=\u0022genre\u0022 target=\u0022Washington by Peale\u0022\u003E four of their renderings of Washington along the top of this section of the wall\u003C\/a\u003E and above Stuart\u2019s \u201cLandsdowne\u201d version. Reading from left to right were portraits by James, Rembrandt\u2019s copy of Gilbert Stuart\u2019s \u201cVaughan\u201d portrait, Rembrandt\u2019s \u201cPorthole\u201d version, and this copy of his father\u2019s portrait of Washington from 1772.\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_nationality":"US","field_date":"ca.\u00a01850s","field_dimensions":"35.5 by 29 in. (90.2 x 73.7 cm.)","field_bibliography":"\u003Cp\u003EMiller, Lillian B. \u003Ci\u003EIn Pursuit of Fame\u003C\/i\u003E,\u003Ci\u003E Rembrandt Peale 1778\u20131860\u003C\/i\u003E. Washington, DC: National Portrait Gallery, 1992. Exhibition catalogue.\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_desc_author":"BW","field_llg_number":"13, no. 84","field_alt_title":""},{"title":"Portrait of a Lady [Rachel Carmer Lenox]","nid":"739","field_image":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_3d\/public\/paintings\/2018-06\/e_5_2.jpg?itok=__gY16D7","field_image_hd":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_hd\/public\/paintings\/2018-06\/e_5_2.jpg?itok=_0FIq7P4","field_image_credit":"Artwork in the public domain; photograph courtesy New York Public Library.","field_position_code":"e_5_2","field_artist":"John Trumbull","field_original_artist":"","field_artist_date":"1756\u20131843","field_current_owner":"New York Public Library, New York","field_llg_info":"\u003Cp\u003E\u201cPainted about 1810\u201312.\u0026quot;\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_medium":"Oil on canvas","field_location":"east wall, middle","field_id":"86","field_description":"\u003Cp\u003EJohn Trumbull, painter of the American Revolution, was one of the preeminent members, along with Gilbert Stuart and John Vanderlyn, of the first generation of artists trained in Europe who returned to the United States to establish a national art tradition. He was born into an old Connecticut family and his father, Jonathan, served as the state\u2019s Revolutionary governor. John, soon after the attack by British soldiers on Lexington and Concord, joined the First Regiment of Connecticut as an adjutant. His regiment reached Boston in early May 1775 and was stationed in Roxbury, where the future artist witnessed firsthand the battle of Bunker Hill. This battle became the subject of his first Revolutionary painting, \u003Cem\u003EThe Death of General Warren at the Battle of Bunker\u2019s Hill June 17, 1775\u003C\/em\u003E (1786; Wadsworth Atheneum, Hartford). Trumbull\u2019s oldest brother, who was commissary general of the army, recommended John\u2019s talents as mapmaker to General George Washington, who soon promoted him as his second aide-du-camp, but Trumbull left the army abruptly in a fit of pique in 1776 when his promotion to deputy adjunct general was misdated.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EOver the next few years, Trumbull wandered about, living first with his family in Hartford and then in Boston to study art, a fruitless venture during these wartime years. Determined to undertake a career as a painter, he found his way to England and studied with Benjamin West in the spring of 1784. Here, he began to develop ideas and compositions for his Revolutionary subjects, four of which were installed in the United States Capitol in the 1820s.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EFor twenty years, Trumbull lived variously in London, Paris, and New York, returning to the United States in 1804 and settling in New York City, where, in only a brief period of time, he became the city\u2019s premier portrait artist. As befitting his training and renown, he was appointed a director of the newly formed New York (later American) Academy of Fine Arts (1802) and was later its president (1817\u201335).\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EA year after his arrival, he undertook this half-length of Mrs. Robert Lenox (Rachel Cramer). Trumbull sent this portrait and its pendant, \u003Cem\u003EMr. Robert Lenox\u003C\/em\u003E (\u003Cem\u003ELLG\u003C\/em\u003E 13, no. 75) to London in 1806 for exhibit. He wrote to West asking his opinion, and West responded by saying that with a few adjustments Robert\u2019s portrait \u201cwould then stand the competition with some of the finest Portraits of the times\u201d (Cooper 1982, 162).\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EThe portrait remained in the Lenox family until it was transferred to the Lenox Library in 1877 and later in 1911 to the New York Public Library.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EThis portrait was one of \u003Ca class=\u0022in_gallery\u0022 data-view=\u0022gallery\u0022 href=\u0022#\u0022 id=\u0022genre\u0022 target=\u0022Lenox Family\u0022\u003Eseven family portraits placed on the east wall of the Lenox Library Picture Gallery adjacent or near to portraits of George Washington\u003C\/a\u003E. These were two portraits by Gilbert Stuart of Rachel Lenox\u2019s daughters, Isabella and Elizabeth; a second portrait by John Trumbull of her husband, Robert; two portraits by John Wesley Jarvis of Robert and a posthumous rendering of his daughter, Alethea; and a portrait of her son, James, by the Scottish painter Sir Francis Grant. Collectively, they imply the family\u2019s patriotism and admiration, if not devotion, to the founding father of the United States.\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_nationality":"US","field_date":"1810\u201312","field_dimensions":"36 x 28 in. (91.4 x 71.1 cm.)","field_bibliography":"\u003Cp\u003ECooper, H. A. \u003Ci\u003EJohn Trumbull: The Hand and Spirit of a Painter\u003C\/i\u003E. New Haven: Yale University Art Gallery, 1982. Exhibition catalogue.\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_desc_author":"SW","field_llg_number":"13, no. 75","field_alt_title":""},{"title":"Portrait of a Gentleman [James Lenox]","nid":"740","field_image":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_3d\/public\/paintings\/2018-06\/i_1_1.jpg?itok=afU460OJ","field_image_hd":"\/clients\/lenox\/images\/playcanvas\/sites\/default\/files\/styles\/painting_hd\/public\/paintings\/2018-06\/i_1_1.jpg?itok=S9kPscxP","field_image_credit":"Artwork in the public domain; photography courtesy New York Public Library.","field_position_code":"i_1_1","field_artist":"G. P. A. [George Peter Alexander] Healy","field_original_artist":"","field_artist_date":"1813\u201394","field_current_owner":"New York Public Library, New York","field_llg_info":"\u003Cp\u003ENone\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_medium":"Oil on canvas","field_location":"west wall, south side","field_id":"122","field_description":"\u003Cp\u003EGeorge Peter Alexander Healy was one of the most successful portrait painters of the nineteenth century in the United States. Born in Boston, in 1834 he went to Paris, where he studied under Baron Gros and Thomas Couture. From 1840 to 1848, King Louis Philippe of France commissioned Healy to create a series of portraits of European and US statesmen for the historical collection at the Ch\u00e2teau de Versailles. The series, which was dedicated to the ideals of modern republicanism in France and the United States, featured a combination of original works and copies after earlier masters. The completed group consisted of more than forty historical figures, including George Washington, John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, Alexander Hamilton, Benjamin Franklin, Daniel Webster, William Pitt, Elizabeth I, George III, and Charlotte Sophia of England.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EIn 1848, Louis Philippe was forced from power, and as a result Healy\u2019s commission from the French government was canceled. In the aftermath of this event, Healy\u2019s European portrait commissions diminished. He began to spend more time in the United States, especially in Washington, DC, where he worked on his large multi-figure history painting \u003Cem\u003EWebster Replying to Payne\u003C\/em\u003E (Faneuil Hall). Following the completion of the picture in Paris in July 1851. Healy spent the late summer and fall in the United States, accompanying the painting on its public tour to Boston and New York, where it was on view in October at the National Academy of Design.\u00a0\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EIn 1855, Healy settled in Chicago, where he reigned as the leading portraitist in the Midwest. In 1867, he returned to Europe, residing in Rome from 1868 until 1872 and then in Paris for twenty years. Over the course of Healy\u2019s long and successful career, he made at least seventeen trips between Europe and the United States. By the end of his life, he had produced more than 800 portraits of the leading statesmen, politicians, and citizens, including women who were prominent in US society.\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EHealy painted his three-quarter-length portrait of James Lenox in 1851, undoubtedly during his trip to New York that fall. The details and circumstances of the commission are not known, but it would have been natural for Lenox to seek to be painted by one of the US\u2019s leading portrait painters, whose sitters included many eminent personages of the time, including Henry Clay, John Calhoun, Nathaniel Hawthorne, Pope Pius IX, King Louis-Phillipe of France, Franz Liszt, Queen Elizabeth of Romania, and all the presidents of the United States from John Quincy Adams to Ulysses S. Grant. In composition and style, the portrait recalls Healy\u2019s three-quarter-length likenesses of Martin Van Buren, James Buchanan, and Franklin Pierce. As in those works, a large red swag of drapery dominates the background of one side of the composition, and one of the sitter\u2019s hands rests on a stack of papers piled atop a table.\u003C\/p\u003E\n","field_nationality":"US","field_date":"1851","field_dimensions":"Unknown","field_bibliography":"","field_desc_author":"BW","field_llg_number":"18, no. 116","field_alt_title":""}]